Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Search results for: thymine

5 Contemplating Charge Transport by Modeling of DNA Nucleobases Based Nano Structures

Authors: Rajan Vohra, Ravinder Singh Sawhney, Kunwar Partap Singh


Electrical charge transport through two basic strands thymine and adenine of DNA have been investigated and analyzed using the jellium model approach. The FFT-2D computations have been performed for semi-empirical Extended Huckel Theory using atomistic tool kit to contemplate the charge transport metrics like current and conductance. The envisaged data is further evaluated in terms of transmission spectrum, HOMO-LUMO Gap and number of electrons. We have scrutinized the behavior of the devices in the range of -2V to 2V for a step size of 0.2V. We observe that both thymine and adenine can act as molecular devices when sandwiched between two gold probes. A prominent observation is a drop in HLGs of adenine and thymine when working as a device as compared to their intrinsic values and this is comparative more visible in case of adenine. The current in the thymine based device exhibit linear increase with voltage in spite of having low conductance. Further, the broader transmission peaks represent the strong coupling of electrodes to the scattering molecule (thymine). Moreover, the observed current in case of thymine is almost 3-4 times than that of observed for adenine. The NDR effect has been perceived in case of adenine based device for higher bias voltages and can be utilized in various future electronics applications.

Keywords: adenine, DNA, extended Huckel, thymine, transmission spectra

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4 Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots (CdTe QDs)-Thymine Conjugate Based Fluorescence Biosensor for Sensitive Determination of Nucleobases/Nucleosides

Authors: Lucja Rodzik, Joanna Lewandowska-Lancucka, Michal Szuwarzynski, Krzysztof Szczubialka, Maria Nowakowska


The analysis of nucleobases is of great importance for bioscience since their abnormal concentration in body fluids suggests the deficiency and mutation of the immune system, and it is considered to be an important parameter for diagnosis of various diseases. The presented conjugate meets the need for development of the effective, selective and highly sensitive sensor for nucleobase/nucleoside detection. The novel, highly fluorescent cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe QDs) functionalized with thymine and stabilized with thioglycolic acid (TGA) conjugates has been developed and thoroughly characterized. Successful formation of the material was confirmed by elemental analysis, and UV–Vis fluorescence and FTIR spectroscopies. The crystalline structure of the obtained product was characterized with X-ray diffraction (XRD) method. The composition of CdTe QDs and their thymine conjugate was also examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The size of the CdTe-thymine was 3-6 nm as demonstrated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) imaging. The plasmon resonance fluorescence band at 540 nm on excitation at 351 nm was observed for these nanoparticles. The intensity of this band increased with the increase in the amount of conjugated thymine with no shift in its position. Based on the fluorescence measurements, it was found that the CdTe-thymine conjugate interacted efficiently and selectively not only with adenine, a nucleobase complementary to thymine, but also with nucleosides and adenine-containing modified nucleosides, i.e., 5′-deoxy-5′-(methylthio)adenosine (MTA) and 2’-O-methyladenosine, the urinary tumor markers which allow monitoring of the disease progression. The applicability of the CdTe-thymine sensor for the real sample analysis was also investigated in simulated urine conditions. High sensitivity and selectivity of CdTe-thymine fluorescence towards adenine, adenosine and modified adenosine suggest that obtained conjugate can be potentially useful for development of the biosensor for complementary nucleobase/nucleoside detection.

Keywords: CdTe quantum dots, conjugate, sensor, thymine

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3 PMEL Marker Identification of Dark and Light Feather Colours in Local Canary

Authors: Mudawamah Mudawamah, Muhammad Z. Fadli, Gatot Ciptadi, Aulanni’am


Canary breeders have spread throughout Indonesian regions for the low-middle society and become an income source for them. The interesting phenomenon of the canary market is the feather colours become one of determining factor for the price. The advantages of this research were contributed to the molecular database as a base of selection and mating for the Indonesia canary breeder. The research method was experiment with the genome obtained from canary blood isolation. The genome did the PCR amplification with PMEL marker followed by sequencing. Canaries were used 24 heads of light and dark colour feathers. Research data analyses used BioEdit and Network software. The results showed that all samples were amplification with PMEL gene with 500 bp fragment length. In base sequence of 40 was found Cytosine(C) in the light colour canaries, while the dark colour canaries was obtained Thymine (T) in same base sequence. Sequence results had 286-415 bp fragment and 10 haplotypes. The conclusions were the PMEL gene (gene of white pigment) was likely to be used PMEL gene to detect molecular genetic variation of dark and light colour feather.

Keywords: canary, haplotype, PMEL, sequence

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2 Structural Insights into the Bypass of the Major Deaminated Purines by Translesion Synthesis DNA Polymerase

Authors: Hunmin Jung, Michael Hawkins, Seongmin Lee


The exocyclic amines of nucleobases can undergo deamination by various DNA damaging agents such as reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and water. The deamination of guanine and adenine generates the promutagenic xanthine and hypoxanthine, respectively. The exocyclic amines of bases in DNA are hydrogen bond donors, while the carbonyl moiety generated by the base deamination acts as hydrogen bond acceptors, which can alter base pairing properties of the purines. Xanthine is known to base pair with both cytosine and thymine, while hypoxanthine predominantly pairs with cytosine to promote A to G mutations. Despite the known promutagenicity of the major deaminated purines, structures of DNA polymerase bypassing these lesions have not been reported. To gain insights into the deaminated-induced mutagenesis, we solved crystal structures of human DNA polymerase η (polη) catalyzing across xanthine and hypoxanthine. In the catalytic site of polη, the deaminated guanine (i.e., xanthine) forms three Watson-Crick-like hydrogen bonds with an incoming dCTP, indicating the O2-enol tautomer of xanthine involves in the base pairing. The formation of the enol tautomer appears to be promoted by the minor groove contact by Gln38 of polη. When hypoxanthine is at the templating position, the deaminated adenine uses its O6-keto tautomer to form two Watson-Crick hydrogen bonds with an incoming dCTP, providing the structural basis for the high promutagenicity of hypoxanthine.

Keywords: DNA damage, DNA polymerase, deamination, mutagenesis, tautomerization, translesion synthesis

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1 The Scientific Phenomenon Revealed in the Holy Quran - an Update

Authors: Arjumand Warsy


The Holy Quran was revealed to Prophet Mohammad (May Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon Him) over fourteen hundred years ago, at a time when majority of the people in Arabia were illiterate and very few could read or write. Any knowledge about medicine, anatomy, biology, astronomy, physics, geology, geophysics or other sciences were almost non-existent. Many superstitious and groundless believes were prevalent and these believes were passed down through past generations. At that time, the Holy Quran was revealed and it presented several phenomenon that have been only currently unveiled, as scientists have worked endlessly to provide explanation for these physical and biological phenomenon applying scientific technologies. Many important discoveries were made during the 20th century and it is interesting to note that many of these discoveries were already present in the Holy Quran fourteen hundred years ago. The Scientific phenomenon, mentioned in the Holy Quran, cover many different fields in biological and physical sciences and have been the source of guidance for a number of scientists. A perfect description of the creation of the universe, the orbits in space, the development process, development of hearing process prior to sight, importance of the skin in sensing pain, uniqueness of fingerprints, role of males in selection of the sex of the baby, are just a few of the many facts present in the Quran that have astonished many scientists. The Quran in Chapter 20, verse 50 states: قَالَ رَبُّنَا الَّذِيۤ اَعْطٰى كُلَّ شَيْءٍ خَلْقَهٗ ثُمَّ هَدٰى ۰۰ (He said "Our Lord is He, Who has given a distinctive form to everything and then guided it aright”). Explaining this brief statement in the light of the modern day Molecular Genetics unveils the entire genetic basis of life and how guidance is stored in the genetic material (DNA) present in the nucleus. This thread like structure, made of only six molecules (sugar, phosphate, adenine, thymine, cytosine and guanine), is so brilliantly structured by the Creator that it holds all the information about each and every living thing, whether it is viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, animals or humans or any other living being. This paper will present an update on some of the physical and biological phenomena’ presented in the Holy Quran, unveiled using advanced technologies during the last century and will discuss how the need to incorporate this information in the curricula.

Keywords: The Holy Quran, scientific facts, curriculum, Muslims

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