Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

Search results for: nanobiosensor

7 A DNA-Based Nano-biosensor for the Rapid Detection of the Dengue Virus in Mosquito

Authors: Lilia M. Fernando, Matthew K. Vasher, Evangelyn C. Alocilja


This paper describes the development of a DNA-based nanobiosensor to detect the dengue virus in mosquito using electrically active magnetic (EAM) nanoparticles as the concentrator and electrochemical transducer. The biosensor detection encompasses two sets of oligonucleotide probes that are specific to the dengue virus: the detector probe labeled with the EAM nanoparticles and the biotinylated capture probe. The DNA targets are double hybridized to the detector and the capture probes and concentrated from nonspecific DNA fragments by applying a magnetic field. Subsequently, the DNA sandwiched targets (EAM-detector probe–DNA target–capture probe-biotin) are captured on streptavidin modified screen printed carbon electrodes through the biotinylated capture probes. Detection is achieved electrochemically by measuring the oxidation–reduction signal of the EAM nanoparticles. Results indicate that the biosensor is able to detect the redox signal of the EAM nanoparticles at dengue DNA concentrations as low as 10 ng/ul.

Keywords: dengue, magnetic nanoparticles, mosquito, nanobiosensor

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6 A Nanosensor System Based on Disuccinimydyl – CYP2E1 for Amperometric Detection of the Anti-Tuberculosis Drug, Pyrazinamide

Authors: Rachel F. Ajayi, Unathi Sidwaba, Usisipho Feleni, Samantha F. Douman, Ezo Nxusani, Lindsay Wilson, Candice Rassie, Oluwakemi Tovide, Priscilla G.L. Baker, Sibulelo L. Vilakazi, Robert Tshikhudo, Emmanuel I. Iwuoha


Pyrazinamide (PZA) is among the first-line pro-drugs in the tuberculosis (TB) combination chemotherapy used to treat Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Numerous reports have suggested that hepatotoxicity due to pyrazinamide in patients is due to inappropriate dosing. It is therefore necessary to develop sensitive and reliable techniques for determining the PZA metabolic profile of diagnosed patients promptly and at point-of-care. This study reports the determination of PZA based on nanobiosensor systems developed from disuccinimidyl octanedioate modified Cytochrome P450-2E1 (CYP2E1) electrodeposited on gold substrates derivatised with (poly(8-anilino-1-napthalene sulphonic acid) PANSA/PVP-AgNPs nanocomposites. The rapid and sensitive amperometric PZA detection gave a dynamic linear range of 2 µM to 16 µM revealing a limit of detection of 0.044 µM and a sensitivity of 1.38 µA/µM. The Michaelis-Menten parameters; KM, KMapp and IMAX were also calculated and found to be 6.0 µM, 1.41 µM and 1.51 µA respectively indicating a nanobiosensor suitable for use in serum.

Keywords: tuberculosis, cytochrome P450-2E1, disuccinimidyl octanedioate, pyrazinamide

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5 Glyco-Conjugated Gold Nanorods Based Biosensor for Optical Detection and Photothermal Ablation of Food Borne Bacteria

Authors: Shimayali Kaushal, Nitesh Priyadarshi, Nitin Kumar Singhal


Food borne bacterial species have been identified as major pathogens in most of the severe pathogen-related diseases among humans which result in great loss to human health and food industry. Conventional methods like plating and enzyme-linked immune sorbent assay (ELISA) are time-consuming, laborious and require specialized instruments. Nanotechnology has emerged as a great field in case of rapid detection of pathogens in recent years. The AuNRs material has good electro-optical properties due to its larger light absorption band and scattering in surface plasmon resonance wavelength regions. By exploiting the sugar-based adhesion properties of microorganism, we can use the glycoconjugates capped gold nanorods as a potential nanobiosensor to detect the foodborne pathogen. In the present study, polyethylene glycol (PEG) coated gold nanorods (AuNRs) were prepared and functionalized with different types of carbohydrates and further characterized by UV-Visible spectrophotometry, dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The reactivity of above said nano-biosensor was probed by lectin binding assay and also by different strains of foodborne bacteria by using spectrophotometric and microscopic techniques. Due to the specific interaction of probe with foodborne bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa), our nanoprobe has shown significant and selective ablation of targeted bacteria. Our findings suggest that our nanoprobe can be an ideal candidate for selective optical detection of food pathogens and can reduce loss to the food industry.

Keywords: glyco-conjugates, gold nanorods, nanobiosensor, nanoprobe

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4 Nanobiosensor System for Aptamer Based Pathogen Detection in Environmental Waters

Authors: Nimet Yildirim Tirgil, Ahmed Busnaina, April Z. Gu


Environmental waters are monitored worldwide to protect people from infectious diseases primarily caused by enteric pathogens. All long, Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a good indicator for potential enteric pathogens in waters. Thus, a rapid and simple detection method for E. coli is very important to predict the pathogen contamination. In this study, to the best of our knowledge, as the first time we developed a rapid, direct and reusable SWCNTs (single walled carbon nanotubes) based biosensor system for sensitive and selective E. coli detection in water samples. We use a novel and newly developed flexible biosensor device which was fabricated by high-rate nanoscale offset printing process using directed assembly and transfer of SWCNTs. By simple directed assembly and non-covalent functionalization, aptamer (biorecognition element that specifically distinguish the E. coli O157:H7 strain from other pathogens) based SWCNTs biosensor system was designed and was further evaluated for environmental applications with simple and cost-effective steps. The two gold electrode terminals and SWCNTs-bridge between them allow continuous resistance response monitoring for the E. coli detection. The detection procedure is based on competitive mode detection. A known concentration of aptamer and E. coli cells were mixed and after a certain time filtered. The rest of free aptamers injected to the system. With hybridization of the free aptamers and their SWCNTs surface immobilized probe DNA (complementary-DNA for E. coli aptamer), we can monitor the resistance difference which is proportional to the amount of the E. coli. Thus, we can detect the E. coli without injecting it directly onto the sensing surface, and we could protect the electrode surface from the aggregation of target bacteria or other pollutants that may come from real wastewater samples. After optimization experiments, the linear detection range was determined from 2 cfu/ml to 10⁵ cfu/ml with higher than 0.98 R² value. The system was regenerated successfully with 5 % SDS solution over 100 times without any significant deterioration of the sensor performance. The developed system had high specificity towards E. coli (less than 20 % signal with other pathogens), and it could be applied to real water samples with 86 to 101 % recovery and 3 to 18 % cv values (n=3).

Keywords: aptamer, E. coli, environmental detection, nanobiosensor, SWCTs

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3 The Staphylococcus aureus Exotoxin Recognition Using Nanobiosensor Designed by an Antibody-Attached Nanosilica Method

Authors: Hamed Ahari, Behrouz Akbari Adreghani, Vadood Razavilar, Amirali Anvar, Sima Moradi, Hourieh Shalchi


Considering the ever increasing population and industrialization of the developmental trend of humankind's life, we are no longer able to detect the toxins produced in food products using the traditional techniques. This is due to the fact that the isolation time for food products is not cost-effective and even in most of the cases, the precision in the practical techniques like the bacterial cultivation and other techniques suffer from operator errors or the errors of the mixtures used. Hence with the advent of nanotechnology, the design of selective and smart sensors is one of the greatest industrial revelations of the quality control of food products that in few minutes time, and with a very high precision can identify the volume and toxicity of the bacteria. Methods and Materials: In this technique, based on the bacterial antibody connection to nanoparticle, a sensor was used. In this part of the research, as the basis for absorption for the recognition of bacterial toxin, medium sized silica nanoparticles of 10 nanometer in form of solid powder were utilized with Notrino brand. Then the suspension produced from agent-linked nanosilica which was connected to bacterial antibody was positioned near the samples of distilled water, which were contaminated with Staphylococcus aureus bacterial toxin with the density of 10-3, so that in case any toxin exists in the sample, a connection between toxin antigen and antibody would be formed. Finally, the light absorption related to the connection of antigen to the particle attached antibody was measured using spectrophotometry. The gene of 23S rRNA that is conserved in all Staphylococcus spp., also used as control. The accuracy of the test was monitored by using serial dilution (l0-6) of overnight cell culture of Staphylococcus spp., bacteria (OD600: 0.02 = 107 cell). It showed that the sensitivity of PCR is 10 bacteria per ml of cells within few hours. Result: The results indicate that the sensor detects up to 10-4 density. Additionally, the sensitivity of the sensors was examined after 60 days, the sensor by the 56 days had confirmatory results and started to decrease after those time periods. Conclusions: Comparing practical nano biosensory to conventional methods like that culture and biotechnology methods(such as polymerase chain reaction) is accuracy, sensitiveness and being unique. In the other way, they reduce the time from the hours to the 30 minutes.

Keywords: exotoxin, nanobiosensor, recognition, Staphylococcus aureus

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2 Design and Fabrication of Optical Nanobiosensors for Detection of MicroRNAs Involved in Neurodegenerative Diseases

Authors: Mahdi Rahaie


MicroRNAs are a novel class of small RNAs which regulate gene expression by translational repression or degradation of messenger RNAs. To produce sensitive, simple and cost-effective assays for microRNAs, detection is in urgent demand due to important role of these biomolecules in progression of human disease such as Alzheimer’s, Multiple sclerosis, and some other neurodegenerative diseases. Herein, we report several novel, sensitive and specific microRNA nanobiosensors which were designed based on colorimetric and fluorescence detection of nanoparticles and hybridization chain reaction amplification as an enzyme-free amplification. These new strategies eliminate the need for enzymatic reactions, chemical changes, separation processes and sophisticated equipment whereas less limit of detection with most specify are acceptable. The important features of these methods are high sensitivity and specificity to differentiate between perfectly matched, mismatched and non-complementary target microRNAs and also decent response in the real sample analysis with blood plasma. These nanobiosensors can clinically be used not only for the early detection of neuro diseases but also for every sickness related to miRNAs by direct detection of the plasma microRNAs in real clinical samples, without a need for sample preparation, RNA extraction and/or amplification.

Keywords: hybridization chain reaction, microRNA, nanobiosensor, neurodegenerative diseases

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1 Fluorescing Aptamer-Gold Nanoparticle Complex for the Sensitive Detection of Bisphenol A

Authors: Eunsong Lee, Gae Baik Kim, Young Pil Kim


Bisphenol A (BPA) is one of the endocrine disruptors (EDCs), which have been suspected to be associated with reproductive dysfunction and physiological abnormality in human. Since the BPA has been widely used to make plastics and epoxy resins, the leach of BPA from the lining of plastic products has been of major concern, due to its environmental or human exposure issues. The simple detection of BPA based on the self-assembly of aptamer-mediated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) has been reported elsewhere, yet the detection sensitivity still remains challenging. Here we demonstrate an improved AuNP-based sensor of BPA by using fluorescence-combined AuNP colorimetry in order to overcome the drawback of traditional AuNP sensors. While the anti-BPA aptamer (full length or truncated ssDNA) triggered the self-assembly of unmodified AuNP (citrate-stabilized AuNP) in the presence of BPA at high salt concentrations, no fluorescence signal was observed by the subsequent addition of SYBR Green, due to a small amount of free anti-BPA aptamer. In contrast, the absence of BPA did not cause the self-assembly of AuNPs (no color change by salt-bridged surface stabilization) and high fluorescence signal by SYBP Green, which was due to a large amount of free anti-BPA aptamer. As a result, the quantitative analysis of BPA was achieved using the combination of absorption of AuNP with fluorescence intensity of SYBR green as a function of BPA concentration, which represented more improved detection sensitivity (as low as 1 ppb) than did in the AuNP colorimetric analysis. This method also enabled to detect high BPA in water-soluble extracts from thermal papers with high specificity against BPS and BPF. We suggest that this approach will be alternative for traditional AuNP colorimetric assays in the field of aptamer-based molecular diagnosis.

Keywords: bisphenol A, colorimetric, fluoroscence, gold-aptamer nanobiosensor

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