Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 24

Search results for: Zoltán Kupihár

24 Synthesis of 5'-Azidonucleosides as Building Blocks for the Preparation of Biologically Active Bioconjugates

Authors: Brigitta Bodnár, Lajos Kovács, Zoltán Kupihár

Abstract:

The cancer cells require higher amount of nucleoside building blocks for their proliferation, therefore they have significantly higher uptake of nucleosides by the different nucleoside transporters. Therefore, the conjugation with nucleosides may significantly increase the efficiency and selectivity of potential active pharmaceutical ingredients. On the other hand, the advantage of using a nucleoside could be either the higher activity on targeted enzymes overrepresented in cancer cells or an enhanced cellular uptake of the bioconjugates in these cells compared to the healthy ones. This fact can be used to make the nucleosides, as targeting moieties covalently bound to anti-cancer drug molecules which can selectively accumulate in cancer cells. However, in order to form the nucleoside-drug conjugates, such nucleoside building blocks are needed, which can selectively be coupled to the drug molecules containing even a high number of diverse functional groups. One of the most selective conjugation techniques is the copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne click reaction that requires the presence of an alkyl group on one of the conjugated molecules and an azide group on the other. In case of nucleosides, the development of azide group is simpler for which the replacement of the 5'-hydroxy group is the most suitable. This transformation generally involves many side reactions and result in very low yields. In addition, during our experiments, the transformation of the 2'-deoxyguanosine to the corresponding 5'-deoxy-5’-azido-2’-deoxyguanosine could not be performed with any of the methods described in the literature. Therefore, we have tried to overcome these difficulties with not only using the traditional process based on the 2 step exchange of tosyl to azide, but also using the Mitsunobu reaction which requires only one step. However, this path proved to be unsuccessful in spite of the optimizing the reaction conditions. Finally, a method has been developed whereby the azide groups were incorporated into the 5’-position resulting in significantly better yields compared to all other previous methods, and we were able to produce all the four nucleoside derivatives.

Keywords: 5'-azidonucleosides, bioconjugate, click reaction, proliferation

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23 The Role of Management Information Systems in the Strategic Management of Institutions of Higher Education

Authors: Szilvia Vincze, Zoltán Bács

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It has become increasingly important for institutions of higher education as well to use available resources as effectively as possible for the implementation of the institution’s strategic plans and, at the same time, to ensure a stable future. This is the responsibility of the management and administration of the institution. Having access to complete and comprehensive information is indispensable for making dynamic and well-founded decisions that consider the realization of objectives to be primary and that manage possibly emerging risks, etc. The present paper introduces the role of Management Information Systems (MIS) at the University of Debrecen, one of the largest institutions of higher education in Hungary, and also discusses the utilization of this and associated information systems in management functions.

Keywords: management information system (MIS), higher education, Hungary, strategy formulation

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22 Multi-Level Meta-Modeling for Enabling Dynamic Subtyping for Industrial Automation

Authors: Zoltan Theisz, Gergely Mezei

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Modern industrial automation relies on service oriented concepts of Internet of Things (IoT) device modeling in order to provide a flexible and extendable environment for service meta-repository. However, state-of-the-art meta-modeling techniques prefer design-time modeling, which results in a heavy usage of class sometimes unnecessary static subtyping. Although this approach benefits from clear-cut object-oriented design principles, it also seals the model repository for further dynamic extensions. In this paper, a dynamic multi-level modeling approach is introduced that enables dynamic subtyping through a more relaxed partial instantiation mechanism. The approach is demonstrated on a simple sensor network example.

Keywords: meta-modeling, dynamic subtyping, DMLA, industrial automation, arrowhead

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21 Energy Saving, Heritage Conserving Renovation Methods in Case of Historical Building Stock

Authors: Viktória Sugár, Zoltán Laczó, András Horkai, Gyula Kiss, Attila Talamon

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The majority of the building stock of Budapest inner districts was built around the turn of the 19th and 20th century. Although the structural stability of the buildings is not questioned, as the load bearing structures are in sufficient state, the secondary structures are aged, resulting unsatisfactory energetic state. The renovation of these historical buildings requires special methodology and technology: their ornamented facades and custom-made fenestration cannot be insulated or exchanged with conventional solutions without damaging the heritage values. The present paper aims to introduce and systematize the possible technological solutions for heritage respecting energy retrofit in case of a historical residential building stock. Through case study, the possible energy saving potential is also calculated using multiple renovation scenarios.

Keywords: energy efficiency, heritage, historical building, renovation

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20 Spectral Responses of the Laser Generated Coal Aerosol

Authors: Tibor Ajtai, Noémi Utry, Máté Pintér, Tomi Smausz, Zoltán Kónya, Béla Hopp, Gábor Szabó, Zoltán Bozóki

Abstract:

Characterization of spectral responses of light absorbing carbonaceous particulate matter (LAC) is of great importance in both modelling its climate effect and interpreting remote sensing measurement data. The residential or domestic combustion of coal is one of the dominant LAC constituent. According to some related assessments the residential coal burning account for roughly half of anthropogenic BC emitted from fossil fuel burning. Despite of its significance in climate the comprehensive investigation of optical properties of residential coal aerosol is really limited in the literature. There are many reason of that starting from the difficulties associated with the controlled burning conditions of the fuel, through the lack of detailed supplementary proximate and ultimate chemical analysis enforced, the interpretation of the measured optical data, ending with many analytical and methodological difficulties regarding the in-situ measurement of coal aerosol spectral responses. Since the gas matrix of ambient can significantly mask the physicochemical characteristics of the generated coal aerosol the accurate and controlled generation of residential coal particulates is one of the most actual issues in this research area. Most of the laboratory imitation of residential coal combustion is simply based on coal burning in stove with ambient air support allowing one to measure only the apparent spectral feature of the particulates. However, the recently introduced methodology based on a laser ablation of solid coal target opens up novel possibilities to model the real combustion procedure under well controlled laboratory conditions and makes the investigation of the inherent optical properties also possible. Most of the methodology for spectral characterization of LAC is based on transmission measurement made of filter accumulated aerosol or deduced indirectly from parallel measurements of scattering and extinction coefficient using free floating sampling. In the former one the accuracy while in the latter one the sensitivity are liming the applicability of this approaches. Although the scientific community are at the common platform that aerosol-phase PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (PAS) is the only method for precise and accurate determination of light absorption by LAC, the PAS based instrumentation for spectral characterization of absorption has only been recently introduced. In this study, the investigation of the inherent, spectral features of laser generated and chemically characterized residential coal aerosols are demonstrated. The experimental set-up and its characteristic for residential coal aerosol generation are introduced here. The optical absorption and the scattering coefficients as well as their wavelength dependency are determined by our state-of-the-art multi wavelength PAS instrument (4λ-PAS) and multi wavelength cosinus sensor (Aurora 3000). The quantified wavelength dependency (AAE and SAE) are deduced from the measured data. Finally, some correlation between the proximate and ultimate chemical as well as the measured or deduced optical parameters are also revealed.

Keywords: absorption, scattering, residential coal, aerosol generation by laser ablation

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19 Wetting Properties of Silver Based Alloys

Authors: Zoltán Weltsch, József Hlinka, Eszter Kókai

Abstract:

The temperature dependence of wettability (wetting angle, Θ (T)) for Ag-based melts on graphite and Al2O3 substrates is compared. Typical alloying effects are found, as the Ag host metal is gradually replaced by various metallic elements. The essence of alloying lies in the change of the electron/atom (e/a) ratio. This ratio is also manifested in the shift of wetting angles on the same substrate. Nevertheless, the effects are partially smeared by other (metallurgical) factors, like the interaction between the oxygen-alloying elements and by the graphite substrate-oxygen interaction. In contrast, such effects are not pronounced in the case of Al2O3 substrates. As a consequence, Θ(T) exhibits an opposite trend in the case of two substrates. Crossovers of the Θ(T) curves were often found. The positions of crossovers depend on the chemical character and concentration of solute atoms. Segregation and epitaxial texture formation after solidification were also observed in certain alloy drops, especially in high concentration range. This phenomenon is not yet explained in every detail.

Keywords: contact angle, graphite, silver, soldering, solid solubility, substrate, temperature dependence, wetting

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18 A New Complex Method for Integrated Warehouse Design in Aspect of Dynamic and Static Capacity

Authors: Tamas Hartvanyi, Zoltan Andras Nagy, Miklos Szabo

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The dynamic and static capacity are two opposing aspect of warehouse design. Static capacity optimization aims to maximize the space-usage for goods storing, while dynamic capacity needs more free place to handling them. They are opposing by the building structure and the area utilization. According to Pareto principle: the 80% of the goods are the 20% of the variety. From the origin of this statement, it worth to store the big amount of same products by fulfill the space with minimal corridors, meanwhile the rest 20% of goods have the 80% variety of the whole range, so there is more important to be fast-reachable instead of the space utilizing, what makes the space fulfillment numbers worse. The warehouse design decisions made in present practice by intuitive and empiric impressions, the planning method is formed to one selected technology, making this way the structure of the warehouse homogeny. Of course the result can’t be optimal for the inhomogeneous demands. A new innovative model based on our research will be introduced in this paper to describe the technic capacities, what makes possible to define optimal cluster of technology. It is able to optimize the space fulfillment and the dynamic operation together with this cluster application.

Keywords: warehouse, warehouse capacity, warehouse design method, warehouse optimization

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17 A Comparative Analysis of Safety Orientation and Safety Performance in Organizations: A Project Management Perspective

Authors: Dina Alfreahat, Zoltan Sebestyen

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Safety is considered as one of the project’s success factors. Poor safety management may result in accidents that impact human, economic, and legal issues. Therefore, it is necessary to consider safety and health as a project success factor along with other project success factors, such as time, cost, and quality. Organizations have a knowledge deficit of the implementation of long-term safety practices, and due to cost control, safety problems tend to receive the least priority. They usually assume that safety management involves expenditures unrelated to production goals, thereby considering it unnecessary for profitability and competitiveness. The purpose of this study is to introduce, analysis and identify the correlation between the orientation of the public safety procedures of an organization and the public safety standards applied in the project. Therefore, the authors develop the process and collect the possible mathematical-statistical tools supporting the previously mentioned goal. The result shows that the adoption of management to safety is a major factor in implementing the safety standard in the project and thereby improving safety performance. It may take time and effort to adopt the mindset of safety orientation service development, but at the same time, the higher organizational investment in safety and health programs will contribute to the loyalty of staff to safety compliance.

Keywords: project management perspective, safety orientation, safety performance, safety standards

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16 Selective and Highly Sensitive Measurement of ¹⁵NH₃ Using Photoacoustic Spectroscopy for Environmental Applications

Authors: Emily Awuor, Helga Huszar, Zoltan Bozoki

Abstract:

Isotope analysis has found numerous applications in the environmental science discipline, most common being the tracing of environmental contaminants on both regional and global scales. Many environmental contaminants contain ammonia (NH₃) since it is the most abundant gas in the atmosphere and its largest sources are from agricultural and industrial activities. NH₃ isotopes (¹⁴NH₃ and ¹⁵NH₃) are therefore important and can be used in the traceability studies of these atmospheric pollutants. The goal of the project is the construction of a photoacoustic spectroscopy system that is capable of measuring ¹⁵NH₃ isotope selectively in terms of its concentration. A further objective is for the system to be robust, easy-to-use, and automated. This is provided by using two telecommunication type near-infrared distributed feedback (DFB) diode lasers and a laser coupler as the light source in the photoacoustic measurement system. The central wavelength of the lasers in use was 1532 nm, with the tuning range of ± 1 nm. In this range, strong absorption lines can be found for both ¹⁴NH₃ and ¹⁵NH₃. For the selective measurement of ¹⁵NH₃, wavelengths were chosen where the cross effect of ¹⁴NH₃ and water vapor is negligible. We completed the calibration of the photoacoustic system, and as a result, the lowest detectable concentration was 3.32 ppm (3Ϭ) in the case of ¹⁵NH₃ and 0.44 ppm (3Ϭ) in the case of ¹⁴NH₃. The results are most useful in the environmental pollution measurement and analysis.

Keywords: ammonia isotope, near-infrared DFB diode laser, photoacoustic spectroscopy, environmental monitoring

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15 Efficient Ni(II)-Containing Layered Triple Hydroxide-Based Catalysts: Synthesis, Characterisation and Their Role in the Heck Reaction

Authors: Gabor Varga, Krisztina Karadi, Zoltan Konya, Akos Kukovecz, Pal Sipos, Istvan Palinko

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Nickel can efficiently replace palladium in the Heck, Suzuki and Negishi reactions. This study focuses on the synthesis and catalytic application of Ni(II)-containing layered double hydroxides (LDHs) and layered triple hydroxides (LTHs). Our goals were to incorporate Ni(II) ions among the layers of LDHs or LTHs, or binding it to their surface or building it into their layers in such a way that their catalytic activities are maintained or even increased. The LDHs and LTHs were prepared by the co-precipitation method using ethylene glycol as co-solvent. In several cases, post-synthetic modifications (e.g., thermal treatment) were performed. After optimizing the synthesis conditions, the composites displayed good crystallinity and were free of byproducts. The success of the syntheses and the post-synthetic modifications was confirmed by relevant characterization methods (XRD, SEM, SEM-EDX and combined IR techniques). Catalytic activities of the produced and well-characterized solids were investigated through the Heck reaction. The composites behaved as efficient, recyclable catalysts in the Heck reaction between 4-bromoanisole and styrene. Through varying the reaction parameters, we were able to obtain acceptable conversions under mild conditions. Our study highlights the possibility of the application of Ni(II)-containing composites as efficient catalysts in coupling reactions.

Keywords: layered double hydroxide, layered triple hydroxide, heterogeneous catalysis, heck reaction

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14 Psychological Aspects of Depression among the Romanian Adults

Authors: Zoltan Abram

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Background: In the last time it was hardly increased the prevalence of psychical diseases and disorders which reduce work capacity, life quality and life expectancy. Objectives: The aim of our research is to study the psychical health state of the Romanian adults living in the middle part of the country and the role of some economical, psychological and social factors, especially in relationship with depression. Methods: The study is based on a complex anonymous questionnaire, including Beck depressive scale, which was completed by a representative sample among adult population. The applied method was a combination between stratification and more-steps sampling. Results: After our results depression is the most common psychical illness with 9,1% diagnosis, but the tendency to depression, the existence of depressive symptoms is much higher than the treated illness. The percentage of suicide attempt among the studied population was 2,9%. It is analysed how gender, age, professional and social status, living and working conditions and different social factors are influencing the health state. According to Beck score, it was established a significant difference in the favour of female, elderly people, lower educational level, urban population. Conclusions: In our study it is underlined the importance of health promotion and education. It is concluded that improving living standards, modifying in a proper way the lifestyle of the population, we can positively influence the physical and mental health state of the Romanian adult population.

Keywords: Beck scale, depression, psychological aspects, suicide attempt

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13 Systematic Examination of Methods Supporting the Social Innovation Process

Authors: Mariann Veresne Somosi, Zoltan Nagy, Krisztina Varga

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Innovation is the key element of economic development and a key factor in social processes. Technical innovations can be identified as prerequisites and causes of social change and cannot be created without the renewal of society. The study of social innovation can be characterised as one of the significant research areas of our day. The study’s aim is to identify the process of social innovation, which can be defined by input, transformation, and output factors. This approach divides the social innovation process into three parts: situation analysis, implementation, follow-up. The methods associated with each stage of the process are illustrated by the chronological line of social innovation. In this study, we have sought to present methodologies that support long- and short-term decision-making that is easy to apply, have different complementary content, and are well visualised for different user groups. When applying the methods, the reference objects are different: county, district, settlement, specific organisation. The solution proposed by the study supports the development of a methodological combination adapted to different situations. Having reviewed metric and conceptualisation issues, we wanted to develop a methodological combination along with a change management logic suitable for structured support to the generation of social innovation in the case of a locality or a specific organisation. In addition to a theoretical summary, in the second part of the study, we want to give a non-exhaustive picture of the two counties located in the north-eastern part of Hungary through specific analyses and case descriptions.

Keywords: factors of social innovation, methodological combination, social innovation process, supporting decision-making

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12 Studying the Effect of Carbon Nanotubes on the Mechanical Properties of Epoxy-Nanocomposite for the Oil Field Applications

Authors: Mohammed Al-Bahrani, Alistair Cree, Zoltan J. Gombos

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Carbon nanotubes are currently considered to be one of the strongest and stiffest engineering materials available, possessing a calculated tensile strength of σTS ≈ 200GPa and Young’s moduli up to E = 1.4 TPa. In the context of manufactured engineering composites, epoxy resin is the most commonly used matrix material for many aerospace and oil field, and other, industrial applications. This paper reports the initial findings of a study which considered the effects that small additions of nickel coated multi-wall carbon nanotubes (Ni-MWCNTs) would have on the mechanical properties of an epoxy resin matrix material. To successfully incorporate these particles into the matrix materials, with good dispersive properties, standard mixing techniques using an ultrasonic bath were used during the manufacture of appropriate specimens for testing. The tensile and flexural strength properties of these specimens, as well as the microstructure, were then evaluated and studied. Scanning Electronics Microscope (SEM) was used to visualise the degree of dispersion of the Ni-MWCNT’s in matrix. The results obtained indicated that the mechanical properties of epoxy resin can be improved significantly by the addition of the Ni-MWCNT’s. Further, the addition of Ni-MWCNT’s increased the tensile strength by approximately 19% and the tensile modulus by 28%. The flexural strength increased by 20.7% and flexural modulus by 22.6% compared to unmodified epoxy resin. It is suggested that these improvements, seen with the Ni-MWCNT’s particles, were due to an increase in the degree of interfacial bonding between Ni-MWCNT and epoxy, so leading to the improved mechanical properties of the nanocomposite observed. Theoretical modelling, using ANSYS finite element analysis, also showed good correlation with the experimental results obtained.

Keywords: carbon nanotubes, nanocomposite, epoxy resin, ansys

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11 Vertebrate Model to Examine the Biological Effectiveness of Different Radiation Qualities

Authors: Rita Emília Szabó, Róbert Polanek, Tünde Tőkés, Zoltán Szabó, Szabolcs Czifrus, Katalin Hideghéty

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Purpose: Several feature of zebrafish are making them amenable for investigation on therapeutic approaches such as ionizing radiation. The establishment of zebrafish model for comprehensive radiobiological research stands in the focus of our investigation, comparing the radiation effect curves of neutron and photon irradiation. Our final aim is to develop an appropriate vertebrate model in order to investigate the relative biological effectiveness of laser driven ionizing radiation. Methods and Materials: After careful dosimetry series of viable zebrafish embryos were exposed to a single fraction whole-body neutron-irradiation (1,25; 1,875; 2; 2,5 Gy) at the research reactor of the Technical University of Budapest and to conventional 6 MeV photon beam at 24 hour post-fertilization (hpf). The survival and morphologic abnormalities (pericardial edema, spine curvature) of each embryo were assessed for each experiment at 24-hour intervals from the point of fertilization up to 168 hpf (defining the dose lethal for 50% (LD50)). Results: In the zebrafish embryo model LD50 at 20 Gy dose level was defined and the same lethality were found at 2 Gy dose from the reactor neutron beam resulting RBE of 10. Dose-dependent organ perturbations were detected on macroscopic (shortening of the body length, spine curvature, microcephaly, micro-ophthalmia, micrognathia, pericardial edema, and inhibition of yolk sac resorption) and microscopic (marked cellular changes in skin, cardiac, gastrointestinal system) with the same magnitude of dose difference. Conclusion: In our observations, we found that zebrafish embryo model can be used for investigating the effects of different type of ionizing radiation and this system proved to be highly efficient vertebrate model for preclinical examinations.

Keywords: ionizing radiation, LD50, relative biological effectiveness, zebrafish embryo

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10 Advanced Particle Characterisation of Suspended Sediment in the Danube River Using Automated Imaging and Laser Diffraction

Authors: Flóra Pomázi, Sándor Baranya, Zoltán Szalai

Abstract:

A harmonized monitoring of the suspended sediment transport along such a large river as the world’s most international river, the Danube River, is a rather challenging task. The traditional monitoring method in Hungary is obsolete but using indirect measurement devices and techniques like optical backscatter sensors (OBS), laser diffraction or acoustic backscatter sensors (ABS) could provide a fast and efficient alternative option of direct methods. However, these methods are strongly sensitive to the particle characteristics (i.e. particle shape, particle size and mineral composition). The current method does not provide sufficient information about particle size distribution, mineral analysis is rarely done, and the shape of the suspended sediment particles have not been examined yet. The aims of the study are (1) to determine the particle characterisation of suspended sediment in the Danube River using advanced particle characterisation methods as laser diffraction and automated imaging, and (2) to perform a sensitivity analysis of the indirect methods in order to determine the impact of suspended particle characteristics. The particle size distribution is determined by laser diffraction. The particle shape and mineral composition analysis is done by the Morphologi G3ID image analyser. The investigated indirect measurement devices are the LISST-Portable|XR, the LISST-ABS (Sequoia Inc.) and the Rio Grande 1200 kHz ADCP (Teledyne Marine). The major findings of this study are (1) the statistical shape of the suspended sediment particle - this is the first research in this context, (2) the actualised particle size distribution – that can be compared to historical information, so that the morphological changes can be tracked, (3) the actual mineral composition of the suspended sediment in the Danube River, and (4) the reliability of the tested indirect methods has been increased – based on the results of the sensitivity analysis and the previous findings.

Keywords: advanced particle characterisation, automated imaging, indirect methods, laser diffraction, mineral composition, suspended sediment

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9 Improving Climate Awareness and the Knowledge Related to Climate Change's Health Impacts on Medical Schools

Authors: Abram Zoltan

Abstract:

Over the past hundred years, human activities, particularly the burning of fossil fuels, have released enough carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases to dissipate additional heat into the lower atmosphere and affect the global climate. Climate change affects many social and environmental determinants of health: clean air, safe drinking water, and adequate food. Our aim is to draw attention to the effects of climate change on the health and health care system. Improving climate awareness and the knowledge related to climate change's health impacts are essential among medical students and practicing medical doctors. Therefore, in their everyday practice, they also need some assistance and up-to-date knowledge of how climate change can endanger human health and deal with these novel health problems. Our activity, based on the cooperation of more universities, aims to develop new curriculum outlines and learning materials on climate change's health impacts for medical schools. Special attention is intended to pay to the possible preventative measures against these impacts. For all of this, the project plans to create new curriculum outlines and learning materials for medical students, elaborate methodological guidelines and create training materials for medical doctors' postgraduate learning programs. The target groups of the project are medical students, educational staff of medical schools and universities, practicing medical doctors with special attention to the general practitioners and family doctors. We had searched various surveys, domestic and international studies about the effects of climate change and statistical estimation of the possible consequences. The health effects of climate change can be measured only approximately by considering only a fraction of the potential health effects and assuming continued economic growth and health progress. We can estimate that climate change is expected to cause about 250,000 more deaths. We conclude that climate change is one of the most serious problems of the 21st century, affecting all populations. In the short- to medium-term, the health effects of climate change will be determined mainly by human vulnerability. In the longer term, the effects depend increasingly on the extent to which transformational action is taken now to reduce emissions. We can contribute to reducing environmental pollution by raising awareness and by educating the population.

Keywords: climate change, health impacts, medical students, education

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8 Development of Antioxidant Rich Bakery Products by Applying Lysine and Maillard Reaction Products

Authors: Attila Kiss, Erzsébet Némedi, Zoltán Naár

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Due to the rapidly growing number of conscious customers in the recent years, more and more people look for products with positive physiological effects which may contribute to the preservation of their health. In response to these demands Food Science Research Institute of Budapest develops and introduces into the market new functional foods of guaranteed positive effect that contain bioactive agents. New, efficient technologies are also elaborated in order to preserve the maximum biological effect of the produced foods. The main objective of our work was the development of new functional biscuits fortified with physiologically beneficial ingredients. Bakery products constitute the base of the food nutrients’ pyramid, thus they might be regarded as foodstuffs of the largest consumed quantity. In addition to the well-known and certified physiological benefits of lysine, as an essential amino acid, a series of antioxidant type compounds is formed as a consequence of the occurring Maillard-reaction. Progress of the evoked Maillard-reaction was studied by applying diverse sugars (glucose, fructose, saccharose, isosugar) and lysine at several temperatures (120-170°C). Interval of thermal treatment was also varied (10-30 min). The composition and production technologies were tailored in order to reach the maximum of the possible biological benefits, so as to the highest antioxidant capacity in the biscuits. Out of the examined sugar components, theextent of the Maillard-reaction-driven transformation of glucose was the most pronounced at both applied temperatures. For the precise assessment of the antioxidant activity of the products FRAP and DPPH methods were adapted and optimised. To acquire an authentic and extensive mechanism of the occurring transformations, Maillard-reaction products were identified, and relevant reaction pathways were revealed. GC-MS and HPLC-MS techniques were applied for the analysis of the 60 generated MRPs and characterisation of actual transformation processes. 3 plausible major transformation routes might have been suggested based on the analytical result and the deductive sequence of possible occurring conversions between lysine and the sugars.

Keywords: Maillard-reaction, lysine, antioxidant activity, GC-MS and HPLC-MS techniques

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7 Preparation and Characterization of CO-Tolerant Electrocatalyst for PEM Fuel Cell

Authors: Ádám Vass, István Bakos, Irina Borbáth, Zoltán Pászti, István Sajó, András Tompos

Abstract:

Important requirements for the anode side electrocatalysts of polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cells are CO-tolerance, stability and corrosion resistance. Carbon is still the most common material for electrocatalyst supports due to its low cost, high electrical conductivity and high surface area, which can ensure good dispersion of the Pt. However, carbon becomes degraded at higher potentials and it causes problem during application. Therefore it is important to explore alternative materials with improved stability. Molybdenum-oxide can improve the CO-tolerance of the Pt/C catalysts, but it is prone to leach in acidic electrolyte. The Mo was stabilized by isovalent substitution of molybdenum into the rutile phase titanium-dioxide lattice, achieved by a modified multistep sol-gel synthesis method optimized for preparation of Ti0.7Mo.3O2-C composite. High degree of Mo incorporation into the rutile lattice was developed. The conductivity and corrosion resistance across the anticipated potential/pH window was ensured by mixed oxide – activated carbon composite. Platinum loading was carried out using NaBH4 and ethylene glycol; platinum content was 40 wt%. The electrocatalyst was characterized by both material investigating methods (i.e. XRD, TEM, EDS, XPS techniques) and electrochemical methods (cyclic-voltammetry, COads stripping voltammetry, hydrogen oxidation reaction on rotating disc electrode). The electrochemical activity of the sample was compared to commercial 40 wt% Pt/C (Quintech) and PtRu/C (Quintech, Pt= 20 wt%, Ru= 10 wt%) references. Enhanced CO tolerance of the electrocatalyst prepared using the Ti0.7Mo.3O2-C composite material was evidenced by the appearance of a CO-oxidation related 'pre-peak' and by the pronounced shift of the maximum of the main CO oxidation peak towards less positive potential compared to Pt/C. Fuel cell polarization measurements were also carried out using Bio-Logic and Paxitech FCT-150S test device. All details on the design, preparation, characterization and testing by both electrochemical measurements and fuel cell test device of electrocatalyst supported on Ti0.7Mo.3O2-C composite material will be presented and discussed.

Keywords: anode electrocatalyst, composite material, CO-tolerance, TiMoOx

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6 Revealing Thermal Degradation Characteristics of Distinctive Oligo-and Polisaccharides of Prebiotic Relevance

Authors: Attila Kiss, Erzsébet Némedi, Zoltán Naár

Abstract:

As natural prebiotic (non-digestible) carbohydrates stimulate the growth of colon microflora and contribute to maintain the health of the host, analytical studies aiming at revealing the chemical behavior of these beneficial food components came to the forefront of interest. Food processing (especially baking) may lead to a significant conversion of the parent compounds, hence it is of utmost importance to characterize the transformation patterns and the plausible decomposition products formed by thermal degradation. The relevance of this work is confirmed by the wide-spread use of these carbohydrates (fructo-oligosaccharides, cyclodextrins, raffinose and resistant starch) in the food industry. More and more functional foodstuffs are being developed based on prebiotics as bioactive components. 12 different types of oligosaccharides have been investigated in order to reveal their thermal degradation characteristics. Different carbohydrate derivatives (D-fructose and D-glucose oligomers and polymers) have been exposed to elevated temperatures (150 °C 170 °C, 190 °C, 210 °C, and 220 °C) for 10 min. An advanced HPLC method was developed and used to identify the decomposition products of carbohydrates formed as a consequence of thermal treatment. Gradient elution was applied with binary solvent elution (acetonitrile, water) through amine based carbohydrate column. Evaporative light scattering (ELS) proved to be suitable for the reliable detection of the UV/VIS inactive carbohydrate degradation products. These experimental conditions and applied advanced techniques made it possible to survey all the formed intermediers. Change in oligomer distribution was established in cases of all studied prebiotics throughout the thermal treatments. The obtained results indicate increased extent of chain degradation of the carbohydrate moiety at elevated temperatures. Prevalence of oligomers with shorter chain length and even the formation of monomer sugars (D-glucose and D-fructose) might be observed at higher temperatures. Unique oligomer distributions, which have not been described previously are revealed in the case of each studied, specific carbohydrate, which might result in various prebiotic activities. Resistant starches exhibited high stability when being thermal treated. The degradation process has been modeled by a plausible reaction mechanism, in which proton catalyzed degradation and chain cleavage take place.

Keywords: prebiotics, thermal degradation, fructo-oligosaccharide, HPLC, ELS detection

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5 The Composition of Biooil during Biomass Pyrolysis at Various Temperatures

Authors: Zoltan Sebestyen, Eszter Barta-Rajnai, Emma Jakab, Zsuzsanna Czegeny

Abstract:

Extraction of the energy content of lignocellulosic biomass is one of the possible pathways to reduce the greenhouse gas emission derived from the burning of the fossil fuels. The application of the bioenergy can mitigate the energy dependency of a country from the foreign natural gas and the petroleum. The diversity of the plant materials makes difficult the utilization of the raw biomass in power plants. This problem can be overcome by the application of thermochemical techniques. Pyrolysis is the thermal decomposition of the raw materials under inert atmosphere at high temperatures, which produces pyrolysis gas, biooil and charcoal. The energy content of these products can be exploited by further utilization. The differences in the chemical and physical properties of the raw biomass materials can be reduced by the use of torrefaction. Torrefaction is a promising mild thermal pretreatment method performed at temperatures between 200 and 300 °C in an inert atmosphere. The goal of the pretreatment from a chemical point of view is the removal of water and the acidic groups of hemicelluloses or the whole hemicellulose fraction with minor degradation of cellulose and lignin in the biomass. Thus, the stability of biomass against biodegradation increases, while its energy density increases. The volume of the raw materials decreases so the expenses of the transportation and the storage are reduced as well. Biooil is the major product during pyrolysis and an important by-product during torrefaction of biomass. The composition of biooil mostly depends on the quality of the raw materials and the applied temperature. In this work, thermoanalytical techniques have been used to study the qualitative and quantitative composition of the pyrolysis and torrefaction oils of a woody (black locust) and two herbaceous samples (rape straw and wheat straw). The biooil contains C5 and C6 anhydrosugar molecules, as well as aromatic compounds originating from hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin, respectively. In this study, special emphasis was placed on the formation of the lignin monomeric products. The structure of the lignin fraction is different in the wood and in the herbaceous plants. According to the thermoanalytical studies the decomposition of lignin starts above 200 °C and ends at about 500 °C. The lignin monomers are present among the components of the torrefaction oil even at relatively low temperatures. We established that the concentration and the composition of the lignin products vary significantly with the applied temperature indicating that different decomposition mechanisms dominate at low and high temperatures. The evolutions of decomposition products as well as the thermal stability of the samples were measured by thermogravimetry/mass spectrometry (TG/MS). The differences in the structure of the lignin products of woody and herbaceous samples were characterized by the method of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). As a statistical method, principal component analysis (PCA) has been used to find correlation between the composition of lignin products of the biooil and the applied temperatures.

Keywords: pyrolysis, torrefaction, biooil, lignin

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4 Implementation of an Online-Platform at the University of Freiburg to Help Medical Students Cope with Stress

Authors: Zoltán Höhling, Sarah-Lu Oberschelp, Niklas Gilsdorf, Michael Wirsching, Andrea Kuhnert

Abstract:

A majority of medical students at the University of Freiburg reported stress-related psychosomatic symptoms which are often associated with their studies. International research supports these findings, as medical students worldwide seem to be at special risk for mental health problems. In some countries and institutions, psychologically based interventions that assist medical students in coping with their stressors have been implemented. It turned out that anonymity is an important aspect here. Many students fear a potential damage of reputation when being associated with mental health problems, which may be due to a high level of competitiveness in classes. Therefore, we launched an online-platform where medical students could anonymously seek help and exchange their experiences with fellow students and experts. Medical students of all semesters have access to it through the university’s learning management system (called “ILIAS”). The informative part of the platform consists of exemplary videos showing medical students (actors) who act out scenes that demonstrate the antecedents of stress-related psychosomatic disorders. These videos are linked to different expert comments, describing the exhibited symptoms in an understandable and normalizing way. The (inter-)active part of the platform consists of self-help tools (such as meditation exercises or general tips for stress-coping) and an anonymous interactive forum where students can describe their stress-related problems and seek guidance from experts and/or share their experiences with fellow students. Besides creating an immediate proposal to help affected students, we expect that competitiveness between students might be diminished and bondage improved through mutual support between them. In the initial phase after the platform’s launch, it was accessed by a considerable number of medical students. On a closer look it appeared that platform sections like general information on psychosomatic-symptoms and self-treatment tools were accessed far more often than the online-forum during the first months after the platform launch. Although initial acceptance of the platform was relatively high, students showed a rather passive way of using our platform. While user statistics showed a clear demand for information on stress-related psychosomatic symptoms and its possible remedies, active engagement in the interactive online-forum was rare. We are currently advertising the platform intensively and trying to point out the assured anonymity of the platform and its interactive forum. Our plans, to assure students their anonymity through the use of an e-learning facility and promote active engagement in the online forum, did not (yet) turn out as expected. The reasons behind this may be manifold and based on either e-learning related issues or issues related to students’ individual needs. Students might, for example, question the assured anonymity due to a lack of trust in the technological functioning university’s learning management system. However, one may also conclude that reluctance to discuss stress-related psychosomatic symptoms with peer medical students may not be solely based on anonymity concerns, but could be rooted in more complex issues such as general mistrust between students.

Keywords: e-tutoring, stress-coping, student support, online forum

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
3 Motivation and Multiglossia: Exploring the Diversity of Interests, Attitudes, and Engagement of Arabic Learners

Authors: Anna-Maria Ramezanzadeh

Abstract:

Demand for Arabic language is growing worldwide, driven by increased interest in the multifarious purposes the language serves, both for the population of heritage learners and those studying Arabic as a foreign language. The diglossic, or indeed multiglossic nature of the language as used in Arabic speaking communities however, is seldom represented in the content of classroom courses. This disjoint between the nature of provision and students’ expectations can severely impact their engagement with course material, and their motivation to either commence or continue learning the language. The nature of motivation and its relationship to multiglossia is sparsely explored in current literature on Arabic. The theoretical framework here proposed aims to address this gap by presenting a model and instruments for the measurement of Arabic learners’ motivation in relation to the multiple strands of the language. It adopts and develops the Second Language Motivation Self-System model (L2MSS), originally proposed by Zoltan Dörnyei, which measures motivation as the desire to reduce the discrepancy between leaners’ current and future self-concepts in terms of the second language (L2). The tripartite structure incorporates measures of the Current L2 Self, Future L2 Self (consisting of an Ideal L2 Self, and an Ought-To Self), and the L2 Learning Experience. The strength of the self-concepts is measured across three different domains of Arabic: Classical, Modern Standard and Colloquial. The focus on learners’ self-concepts allows for an exploration of the effect of multiple factors on motivation towards Arabic, including religion. The relationship between Islam and Arabic is often given as a prominent reason behind some students’ desire to learn the language. Exactly how and why this factor features in learners’ L2 self-concepts has not yet been explored. Specifically designed surveys and interview protocols are proposed to facilitate the exploration of these constructs. The L2 Learning Experience component of the model is operationalized as learners’ task-based engagement. Engagement is conceptualised as multi-dimensional and malleable. In this model, situation-specific measures of cognitive, behavioural, and affective components of engagement are collected via specially designed repeated post-task self-report surveys on Personal Digital Assistant over multiple Arabic lessons. Tasks are categorised according to language learning skill. Given the domain-specific uses of the different varieties of Arabic, the relationship between learners’ engagement with different types of tasks and their overall motivational profiles will be examined to determine the extent of the interaction between the two constructs. A framework for this data analysis is proposed and hypotheses discussed. The unique combination of situation-specific measures of engagement and a person-oriented approach to measuring motivation allows for a macro- and micro-analysis of the interaction between learners and the Arabic learning process. By combining cross-sectional and longitudinal elements with a mixed-methods design, the model proposed offers the potential for capturing a comprehensive and detailed picture of the motivation and engagement of Arabic learners. The application of this framework offers a number of numerous potential pedagogical and research implications which will also be discussed.

Keywords: Arabic, diglossia, engagement, motivation, multiglossia, sociolinguistics

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2 On the Possibility of Real Time Characterisation of Ambient Toxicity Using Multi-Wavelength Photoacoustic Instrument

Authors: Tibor Ajtai, Máté Pintér, Noémi Utry, Gergely Kiss-Albert, Andrea Palágyi, László Manczinger, Csaba Vágvölgyi, Gábor Szabó, Zoltán Bozóki

Abstract:

According to the best knowledge of the authors, here we experimentally demonstrate first, a quantified correlation between the real-time measured optical feature of the ambient and the off-line measured toxicity data. Finally, using these correlations we are presenting a novel methodology for real time characterisation of ambient toxicity based on the multi wavelength aerosol phase photoacoustic measurement. Ambient carbonaceous particulate matter is one of the most intensively studied atmospheric constituent in climate science nowadays. Beyond their climatic impact, atmospheric soot also plays an important role as an air pollutant that harms human health. Moreover, according to the latest scientific assessments ambient soot is the second most important anthropogenic emission source, while in health aspect its being one of the most harmful atmospheric constituents as well. Despite of its importance, generally accepted standard methodology for the quantitative determination of ambient toxicology is not available yet. Dominantly, ambient toxicology measurement is based on the posterior analysis of filter accumulated aerosol with limited time resolution. Most of the toxicological studies are based on operational definitions using different measurement protocols therefore the comprehensive analysis of the existing data set is really limited in many cases. The situation is further complicated by the fact that even during its relatively short residence time the physicochemical features of the aerosol can be masked significantly by the actual ambient factors. Therefore, decreasing the time resolution of the existing methodology and developing real-time methodology for air quality monitoring are really actual issues in the air pollution research. During the last decades many experimental studies have verified that there is a relation between the chemical composition and the absorption feature quantified by Absorption Angström Exponent (AAE) of the carbonaceous particulate matter. Although the scientific community are in the common platform that the PhotoAcoustic Spectroscopy (PAS) is the only methodology that can measure the light absorption by aerosol with accurate and reliable way so far, the multi-wavelength PAS which are able to selectively characterise the wavelength dependency of absorption has become only available in the last decade. In this study, the first results of the intensive measurement campaign focusing the physicochemical and toxicological characterisation of ambient particulate matter are presented. Here we demonstrate the complete microphysical characterisation of winter time urban ambient including optical absorption and scattering as well as size distribution using our recently developed state of the art multi-wavelength photoacoustic instrument (4λ-PAS), integrating nephelometer (Aurora 3000) as well as single mobility particle sizer and optical particle counter (SMPS+C). Beyond this on-line characterisation of the ambient, we also demonstrate the results of the eco-, cyto- and genotoxicity measurements of ambient aerosol based on the posterior analysis of filter accumulated aerosol with 6h time resolution. We demonstrate a diurnal variation of toxicities and AAE data deduced directly from the multi-wavelength absorption measurement results.

Keywords: photoacoustic spectroscopy, absorption Angström exponent, toxicity, Ames-test

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1 Two Component Source Apportionment Based on Absorption and Size Distribution Measurement

Authors: Tibor Ajtai, Noémi Utry, Máté Pintér, Gábor Szabó, Zoltán Bozóki

Abstract:

Beyond its climate and health related issues ambient light absorbing carbonaceous particulate matter (LAC) has also become a great scientific interest in terms of its regulations recently. It has been experimentally demonstrated in recent studies, that LAC is dominantly composed of traffic and wood burning aerosol particularly under wintertime urban conditions, when the photochemical and biological activities are negligible. Several methods have been introduced to quantitatively apportion aerosol fractions emitted by wood burning and traffic but most of them require costly and time consuming off-line chemical analysis. As opposed to chemical features, the microphysical properties of airborne particles such as optical absorption and size distribution can be easily measured on-line, with high accuracy and sensitivity, especially under highly polluted urban conditions. Recently a new method has been proposed for the apportionment of wood burning and traffic aerosols based on the spectral dependence of their absorption quantified by the Aerosol Angström Exponent (AAE). In this approach the absorption coefficient is deduced from transmission measurement on a filter accumulated aerosol sample and the conversion factor between the measured optical absorption and the corresponding mass concentration (the specific absorption cross section) are determined by on-site chemical analysis. The recently developed multi-wavelength photoacoustic instruments provide novel, in-situ approach towards the reliable and quantitative characterization of carbonaceous particulate matter. Therefore, it also opens up novel possibilities on the source apportionment through the measurement of light absorption. In this study, we demonstrate an in-situ spectral characterization method of the ambient carbon fraction based on light absorption and size distribution measurements using our state-of-the-art multi-wavelength photoacoustic instrument (4λ-PAS) and Single Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) The carbonaceous particulate selective source apportionment study was performed for ambient particulate matter in the city center of Szeged, Hungary where the dominance of traffic and wood burning aerosol has been experimentally demonstrated earlier. The proposed model is based on the parallel, in-situ measurement of optical absorption and size distribution. AAEff and AAEwb were deduced from the measured data using the defined correlation between the AOC(1064nm)/AOC(266nm) and N100/N20 ratios. σff(λ) and σwb(λ) were determined with the help of the independently measured temporal mass concentrations in the PM1 mode. Furthermore, the proposed optical source apportionment is based on the assumption that the light absorbing fraction of PM is exclusively related to traffic and wood burning. This assumption is indirectly confirmed here by the fact that the measured size distribution is composed of two unimodal size distributions identified to correspond to traffic and wood burning aerosols. The method offers the possibility of replacing laborious chemical analysis with simple in-situ measurement of aerosol size distribution data. The results by the proposed novel optical absorption based source apportionment method prove its applicability whenever measurements are performed at an urban site where traffic and wood burning are the dominant carbonaceous sources of emission.

Keywords: absorption, size distribution, source apportionment, wood burning, traffic aerosol

Procedia PDF Downloads 139