Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5503

Search results for: growth curve

5503 The Growth Curve of Gompertz Model in Body Weight of Slovak Mixed-Sex Goose Breeds

Authors: Cyril Hrncar, Jozef Bujko, Widya P. B. Putra


The growth curve of poultry is important to evaluate the farming management system. This study was aimed to estimate the growth curve of body weight in goose. The growth curve in this study was estimated with non-linear Gompertz model through CurveExpert 1.4. software. Three Slovak mixed-sex goose breeds of Landes (L), Pomeranian (P) and Steinbacher (S) were used in this study. Total of 28 geese (10 L, 8 P and 10 S) were used to estimate the growth curve. Research showed that the asymptotic weight (A) in those geese were reached of 5332.51 g (L), 6186.14 g (P) and 5048.27 g (S). Thus, the maturing rate (k) in each breed were similar (0.05 g/day). The weight of inflection was reached of 1960.48 g (L), 2274.32 g (P) and 1855.98 g (S). The time of inflection (ti) was reached of 25.6 days (L), 26.2 days (P) and 27.80 days (S). The maximum growth rate (MGR) was reached of 98.02 g/day (L), 113.72 g/day (P) and 92.80 g/day (S). Hence, the coefficient of determination (R2) in Gompertz model was 0.99 for each breed. It can be concluded that Pomeranian geese had highest of growth trait than the other breeds.

Keywords: body weight, growth curve, inflection, Slovak geese, Gompertz model

Procedia PDF Downloads 31
5502 Comparison of the Distillation Curve Obtained Experimentally with the Curve Extrapolated by a Commercial Simulator

Authors: Lívia B. Meirelles, Erika C. A. N. Chrisman, Flávia B. de Andrade, Lilian C. M. de Oliveira


True Boiling Point distillation (TBP) is one of the most common experimental techniques for the determination of petroleum properties. This curve provides information about the performance of petroleum in terms of its cuts. The experiment is performed in a few days. Techniques are used to determine the properties faster with a software that calculates the distillation curve when a little information about crude oil is known. In order to evaluate the accuracy of distillation curve prediction, eight points of the TBP curve and specific gravity curve (348 K and 523 K) were inserted into the HYSYS Oil Manager, and the extended curve was evaluated up to 748 K. The methods were able to predict the curve with the accuracy of 0.6%-9.2% error (Software X ASTM), 0.2%-5.1% error (Software X Spaltrohr).

Keywords: distillation curve, petroleum distillation, simulation, true boiling point curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
5501 Economic Growth and Transport Carbon Dioxide Emissions in New Zealand: A Co-Integration Analysis of the Environmental Kuznets Curve

Authors: Mingyue Sheng, Basil Sharp


Greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from national transport account for the largest share of emissions from energy use in New Zealand. Whether the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) relationship exists between environmental degradation indicators from the transport sector and economic growth in New Zealand remains unclear. This paper aims at exploring the causality relationship between CO₂ emissions from the transport sector, fossil fuel consumption, and the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) per capita in New Zealand, using annual data for the period 1977 to 2013. First, conventional unit root tests (Augmented Dickey–Fuller and Phillips–Perron tests), and a unit root test with the breakpoint (Zivot-Andrews test) are employed to examine the stationarity of the variables. Second, the autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL) bounds test for co-integration, followed by Granger causality investigated causality among the variables. Empirical results of the study reveal that, in the short run, there is a unidirectional causality between economic growth and transport CO₂ emissions with direction from economic growth to transport CO₂ emissions, as well as a bidirectional causality from transport CO₂ emissions to road energy consumption.

Keywords: economic growth, transport carbon dioxide emissions, environmental Kuznets curve, causality

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
5500 Growth Curves Genetic Analysis of Native South Caspian Sea Poultry Using Bayesian Statistics

Authors: Jamal Fayazi, Farhad Anoosheh, Mohammad R. Ghorbani, Ali R. Paydar


In this study, to determine the best non-linear regression model describing the growth curve of native poultry, 9657 chicks of generations 18, 19, and 20 raised in Mazandaran breeding center were used. Fowls and roosters of this center distributed in south of Caspian Sea region. To estimate the genetic variability of none linear regression parameter of growth traits, a Gibbs sampling of Bayesian analysis was used. The average body weight traits in the first day (BW1), eighth week (BW8) and twelfth week (BW12) were respectively estimated as 36.05, 763.03, and 1194.98 grams. Based on the coefficient of determination, mean squares of error and Akaike information criteria, Gompertz model was selected as the best growth descriptive function. In Gompertz model, the estimated values for the parameters of maturity weight (A), integration constant (B) and maturity rate (K) were estimated to be 1734.4, 3.986, and 0.282, respectively. The direct heritability of BW1, BW8 and BW12 were respectively reported to be as 0.378, 0.3709, 0.316, 0.389, 0.43, 0.09 and 0.07. With regard to estimated parameters, the results of this study indicated that there is a possibility to improve some property of growth curve using appropriate selection programs.

Keywords: direct heritability, Gompertz, growth traits, maturity weight, native poultry

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
5499 Capital Accumulation, Technology Diffusion and Economic Growth: An Empirical Application to Tunisian Case

Authors: Ahmed Bellakhdhar


This paper aims to test the impact of various variables-namely, investment in physical capital, investment in human capital, openness to trade and foreign direct investments, and distance from the technology frontier-on economic growth in the Tunisian context during the period 1976-2010. Empirical results identify that the impact of human capital is significantly positive. This finding confirms the hypothesis that human capital is a main driver of economic performance through its role of improving the internal productive capacity and the absorption of foreign technology especially via foreign direct investments. The effect of FDI is significantly positive in all alternative regressions and the coefficient associated to physical capital variable is positive, but not significant overall. Concerning the import of technologically advanced equipments, our estimates show the absence of a significant direct impact on economic growth in Tunisia. Our empirical results also support the assumption of a non linear relationship between tax and growth and demonstrate the existence of an inverted-U curve between the two variables, in the spirit of the “Laffer curve”.

Keywords: Endogenous growth, Human capital, Technology transfer, Absorptive capacity

Procedia PDF Downloads 27
5498 Approximating Maximum Speed on Road from Curvature Information of Bezier Curve

Authors: M. Yushalify Misro, Ahmad Ramli, Jamaludin M. Ali


Bezier curves have useful properties for path generation problem, for instance, it can generate the reference trajectory for vehicles to satisfy the path constraints. Both algorithms join cubic Bezier curve segment smoothly to generate the path. Some of the useful properties of Bezier are curvature. In mathematics, the curvature is the amount by which a geometric object deviates from being flat, or straight in the case of a line. Another extrinsic example of curvature is a circle, where the curvature is equal to the reciprocal of its radius at any point on the circle. The smaller the radius, the higher the curvature thus the vehicle needs to bend sharply. In this study, we use Bezier curve to fit highway-like curve. We use the different approach to finding the best approximation for the curve so that it will resemble highway-like curve. We compute curvature value by analytical differentiation of the Bezier Curve. We will then compute the maximum speed for driving using the curvature information obtained. Our research works on some assumptions; first the Bezier curve estimates the real shape of the curve which can be verified visually. Even, though, the fitting process of Bezier curve does not interpolate exactly on the curve of interest, we believe that the estimation of speed is acceptable. We verified our result with the manual calculation of the curvature from the map.

Keywords: speed estimation, path constraints, reference trajectory, Bezier curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
5497 Working Memory Growth from Kindergarten to First Grade: Considering Impulsivity, Parental Discipline Methods and Socioeconomic Status

Authors: Ayse Cobanoglu


Working memory can be defined as a workspace that holds and regulates active information in mind. This study investigates individual changes in children's working memory from kindergarten to first grade. The main purpose of the study is whether parental discipline methods and child impulsive/overactive behaviors affect children's working memory initial status and growth rate, controlling for gender, minority status, and socioeconomic status (SES). A linear growth curve model with the first four waves of the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Kindergarten Cohort of 2011 (ECLS-K:2011) is performed to analyze the individual growth of children's working memory longitudinally (N=3915). Results revealed that there is a significant variation among students' initial status in the kindergarten fall semester as well as the growth rate during the first two years of schooling. While minority status, SES, and children's overactive/impulsive behaviors influenced children's initial status, only SES and minority status were significantly associated with the growth rate of working memory. For parental discipline methods, such as giving a warning and ignoring the child's negative behavior, are also negatively associated with initial working memory scores. Following that, students' working memory growth rate is examined, and students with lower SES as well as minorities showed a faster growth pattern during the first two years of schooling. However, the findings of parental disciplinary methods on working memory growth rates were mixed. It can be concluded that schooling helps low-SES minority students to develop their working memory.

Keywords: growth curve modeling, impulsive/overactive behaviors, parenting, working memory

Procedia PDF Downloads 29
5496 Democracy as a Curve: A Study on How Democratization Impacts Economic Growth

Authors: Henrique Alpalhão


This paper attempts to model the widely studied relationship between a country's economic growth and its level of democracy, with an emphasis on possible non-linearities. We adopt the concept of 'political capital' as a measure of democracy, which is extremely uncommon in the literature and brings considerable advantages both in terms of dynamic considerations and plausibility. While the literature is not consensual on this matter, we obtain, via panel Arellano-Bond regression analysis on a database of more than 60 countries over 50 years, significant and robust results that indicate that the impact of democratization on economic growth varies according to the stage of democratic development each country is in.

Keywords: democracy, economic growth, political capital, political economy

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
5495 Effects of Allium Sativum Essential Oil on MIC, MBC and Growth Curve of Vibrio Parahaemolyticus ATCC 43996 and Its Thermostable Direct Hemolysin Production

Authors: Afshin Akhondzadeh Basti, Zohreh Mashak, Ali Khanjari, Mohammad Adel Rezaei, Fatemeh Mohammadkhan


Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a halophilic bacterium and often causes gastroenteritis because of consumption of raw or inadequately cooked seafood. Studies showed a strong association of thermostable direct hemolysin (TDH) produced by members of this species with its pathogenicity. The effects of garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil at concentrations of 0, 0.005, 0.015, 0.03 and 0.045% on the minimum inhibitiotory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), growth curve and production of TDH toxin of vibrio parahaemolyticus were studied in BHI model. MIC and MBC of Allium sativum essential oil was estimated 0.03%. The results of this study revealed that the TDH production was significantly affected by Allium sativum EO and titers of TDH production in 0 and 0.005 % were 1/256 whereas this titer in 0.015 % concentration of EO. Concentrations of 0.005 and 0/015 % of garlic essential oil reduced the bacterial growth rate significantly (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. According to the results Allium sativum essential oil showed to be effective against bacterial growth and production of TDH toxin. Its potential application in food systems may be suggested.

Keywords: allium sativum essential oil, vibrio parahaemolyticus, TDH, consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
5494 Statistical Modeling of Mandarin Tone Sandhi: Neutralization of Underlying Pitch Targets

Authors: Si Chen, Caroline Wiltshire, Bin Li


This study statistically models the surface f0 contour and the underlying pitch target of a well-studied third sandhi tone of Mandarin Chinese. Although the growth curve analysis on the surface f0 contours indicates non-neutralization of this sandhi tone (T3) and the base T2, their underlying pitch targets do show neutralization. These results in Mandarin are also consistent with the perception of native speakers, where they cannot distinguish the third T3 from the base T2, compensating contextual variation. It is possible to use the proposed statistical procedure of testing underlying pitch targets to verify tone sandhi processes in other tonal languages.

Keywords: growth curve analysis, Mandarin Chinese, tone sandhi, underlying pitch target

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
5493 Nexus between Energy, Environment and Economic Growth: Sectoral Analysis from Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Afzal, Muhammad Sajjad


Climate change has become a global environmental challenge and it has affected the world’s economy. Its impact is widespread across all major sectors of the economy i.e. agriculture, industry, and services sectors. This study attempts to measure the long run as well as the short-run dynamic between energy; environment and economic growth by using Autoregressive Distributed Lag (ARDL) bound testing approach at aggregate as well as sectoral level. We measured the causal relationship between electricity consumption, fuel consumption, CO₂ emission, and real Gross Domestic Product (GDP) for the period of 1980 to 2016 for Pakistan. Our co-integration results reveal that all the variables are co-integrated at aggregate as well as at sectoral level. Electricity consumption shows two-way casual relation at for industry, services and aggregate level. The inverted U-Curve hypothesis tested the relationship between greenhouse gas emissions and per capita GDP and results supported the Environment Kuznet Curve (EKC) hypothesis. This study cannot ignore the importance of energy for economic growth but prefers to focus on renewable and green energy to pave on the trajectory of development.

Keywords: climate change, economic growth, energy, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 50
5492 Debt Relief for Emerging Economies: An Empirical Investigation

Authors: Hummad Ch. Umar


Most of the developing economies, including Pakistan, are confronted with high level of external debt which is adversely affecting their economic performance. The hypothesis of debt overhang is often used to assess the negative relationship between foreign debt and the economic growth of the indebted country. As first objective of the present study, this hypothesis is tested by using Pooled OLS (POLS), Generalized Method of Moment (GMM), Random Effect (RE), and Fixed effect (FE) techniques. As second objective, the study uses the concept of debt Laffer Curve to determine the eligibility condition of the indebted countries for the relief programs. According to this approach, countries lying on the right side of the Laffer Curve are stated to be trapped in the strong debt overhang making them unable to come out of the vicious circle of low growth and high foreign debt. The empirical analysis confirms that only two countries out of twenty two completely fulfill the conditions of being eligible for the debt relief. All other countries continue to face debt burden of different magnitudes. The study further confirms that the debt relief alone is not sufficient for overcoming the debt problem. Instead, sound economic policies and conducive investment decisions are required to lay the foundations of long-term growth and development. Debt relief should be the option for only those countries that meet a minimum measurable criterion of good governance, economic freedom, and consistency of policies.

Keywords: external debt, debt burden, debt overhang, debt laffer curve, debt relief, investment decisions

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
5491 Examining the Missing Feedback Link in Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis

Authors: Apra Sinha


The inverted U-shaped Environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) demonstrates(pollution-income relationship)that initially the pollution and environmental degradation surpass the level of income per capita; however this trend reverses since at the higher income levels, economic growth initiates environmental upgrading. However, what effect does increased environmental degradation has on growth is the missing feedback link which has not been addressed in the EKC hypothesis. This paper examines the missing feedback link in EKC hypothesis in Indian context by examining the casual association between fossil fuel consumption, carbon dioxide emissions and economic growth for India. Fossil fuel consumption here has been taken as a proxy of driver of economic growth. The casual association between the aforementioned variables has been analyzed using five interventions namely 1) urban development for which urbanization has been taken proxy 2) industrial development for which industrial value added has been taken proxy 3) trade liberalization for which sum of exports and imports as a share of GDP has been taken as proxy 4)financial development for which a)domestic credit to private sector and b)net foreign assets has been taken as proxies. The choice of interventions for this study has been done keeping in view the economic liberalization perspective of India. The main aim of the paper is to investigate the missing feedback link for Environmental Kuznets Curve Hypothesis before and after incorporating the intervening variables. The period of study is from 1971 to 2011 as it covers pre and post liberalization era in India. All the data has been taken from World Bank country level indicators. The Johansen and Juselius cointegration testing methodology and Error Correction based Granger causality have been applied on all the variables. The results clearly show that out of five interventions, only in two interventions the missing feedback link is being addressed. This paper can put forward significant policy implications for environment protection and sustainable development.

Keywords: environmental Kuznets curve hypothesis, fossil fuel consumption, industrialization, trade liberalization, urbanization

Procedia PDF Downloads 157
5490 Critical Study on the Sensitivity of Corrosion Fatigue Crack Growth Rate to Cyclic Waveform and Microstructure in Marine Steel

Authors: V. C. Igwemezie, A. N. Mehmanparast


The primary focus of this work is to understand how variations in the microstructure and cyclic waveform affect the corrosion fatigue crack growth (CFCG) in steel, especially in the Paris region of the da/dN vs. ΔK curve. This work is important because it provides fundamental information on the modelling, design, selection, and use of steels for various engineering applications in the marine environment. The corrosion fatigue tests data on normalized and thermomechanical control process (TMCP) ferritic-pearlitic steels by the authors were compared with several studies on different microstructures in the literature. The microstructures of these steels are radically different and general comparative fatigue crack growth resistance performance study on the effect of microstructure in these materials are very scarce and where available are limited to few studies. The results, for purposes of engineering application, in this study show less dependency of fatigue crack growth rate (FCGR) on yield strength, tensile strength, ductility, frequency and stress ratio in the range 0.1 – 0.7. The nature of the steel microstructure appears to be a major factor in determining the rate at which fatigue cracks propagate in the entire da/dN vs. ΔK sigmoidal curve. The study also shows that the sine wave shape is the most damaging fatigue waveform for ferritic-pearlitic steels. This tends to suggest that the test under sine waveform would be a conservative approach, regardless of the waveform for design of engineering structures.

Keywords: BS7910, corrosion-fatigue crack growth rate, cyclic waveform, microstructure, steel

Procedia PDF Downloads 44
5489 Solving 94-Bit ECDLP with 70 Computers in Parallel

Authors: Shunsuke Miyoshi, Yasuyuki Nogami, Takuya Kusaka, Nariyoshi Yamai


Elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP) is one of problems on which the security of pairing-based cryptography is based. This paper considers Pollard's rho method to evaluate the security of ECDLP on Barreto-Naehrig (BN) curve that is an efficient pairing-friendly curve. Some techniques are proposed to make the rho method efficient. Especially, the group structure on BN curve, distinguished point method, and Montgomery trick are well-known techniques. This paper applies these techniques and shows its optimization. According to the experimental results for which a large-scale parallel system with MySQL is applied, 94-bit ECDLP was solved about 28 hours by parallelizing 71 computers.

Keywords: Pollard's rho method, BN curve, Montgomery multiplication

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
5488 Generating Arabic Fonts Using Rational Cubic Ball Functions

Authors: Fakharuddin Ibrahim, Jamaludin Md. Ali, Ahmad Ramli


In this paper, we will discuss about the data interpolation by using the rational cubic Ball curve. To generate a curve with a better and satisfactory smoothness, the curve segments must be connected with a certain amount of continuity. The continuity that we will consider is of type G1 continuity. The conditions considered are known as the G1 Hermite condition. A simple application of the proposed method is to generate an Arabic font satisfying the required continuity.

Keywords: data interpolation, rational ball curve, hermite condition, continuity

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
5487 Cotton Transplantation as a Practice to Escape Infection with Some Soil-Borne Pathogens

Authors: E. M. H. Maggie, M. N. A. Nazmey, M. A. Abdel-Sattar, S. A. Saied


A successful trial of transplanting cotton is reported. Seeds grown in trays for 4-5 weeks in an easily prepared supporting medium such as peat moss or similar plant waste are tried. Careful transplanting of seedlings, with root system as intact as possible, is being made in the permanent field. The practice reduced damping-off incidence rate and allowed full winter crop revenues. Further work is needed to evaluate certain parameters such as growth curve, flowering curve, and yield at economic bases.

Keywords: cotton, transplanting cotton, damping-off diseases, environment sciences

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
5486 An Optimized RDP Algorithm for Curve Approximation

Authors: Jean-Pierre Lomaliza, Kwang-Seok Moon, Hanhoon Park


It is well-known that Ramer Douglas Peucker (RDP) algorithm greatly depends on the method of choosing starting points. Therefore, this paper focuses on finding such starting points that will optimize the results of RDP algorithm. Specifically, this paper proposes a curve approximation algorithm that finds flat points, called essential points, of an input curve, divides the curve into corner-like sub-curves using the essential points, and applies the RDP algorithm to the sub-curves. The number of essential points play a role on optimizing the approximation results by balancing the degree of shape information loss and the amount of data reduction. Through experiments with curves of various types and complexities of shape, we compared the performance of the proposed algorithm with three other methods, i.e., the RDP algorithm itself and its variants. As a result, the proposed algorithm outperformed the others in term of maintaining the original shapes of the input curve, which is important in various applications like pattern recognition.

Keywords: curve approximation, essential point, RDP algorithm

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
5485 A Cohesive Zone Model with Parameters Determined by Uniaxial Stress-Strain Curve

Authors: Y.J. Wang, C. Q. Ru


A key issue of cohesive zone models is how to determine the cohesive zone model parameters based on real material test data. In this paper, uniaxial nominal stress-strain curve (SS curve) is used to determine two key parameters of a cohesive zone model (CZM): The maximum traction and the area under the curve of traction-separation law (TSL). To this end, the true SS curve is obtained based on the nominal SS curve, and the relationship between the nominal SS curve and TSL is derived based on an assumption that the stress for cracking should be the same in both CZM and the real material. In particular, the true SS curve after necking is derived from the nominal SS curve by taking the average of the power law extrapolation and the linear extrapolation, and a damage factor is introduced to offset the true stress reduction caused by the voids generated at the necking zone. The maximum traction of the TSL is equal to the maximum true stress calculated based on the damage factor at the end of hardening. In addition, a simple specimen is modeled by Abaqus/Standard to calculate the critical J-integral, and the fracture energy calculated by the critical J-integral represents the stored strain energy in the necking zone calculated by the true SS curve. Finally, the CZM parameters obtained by the present method are compared to those used in a previous related work for a simulation of the drop-weight tear test.

Keywords: dynamic fracture, cohesive zone model, traction-separation law, stress-strain curve, J-integral

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
5484 Determination of Cohesive Zone Model’s Parameters Based On the Uniaxial Stress-Strain Curve

Authors: Y. J. Wang, C. Q. Ru


A key issue of cohesive zone models is how to determine the cohesive zone model (CZM) parameters based on real material test data. In this paper, uniaxial nominal stress-strain curve (SS curve) is used to determine two key parameters of a cohesive zone model: the maximum traction and the area under the curve of traction-separation law (TSL). To this end, the true SS curve is obtained based on the nominal SS curve, and the relationship between the nominal SS curve and TSL is derived based on an assumption that the stress for cracking should be the same in both CZM and the real material. In particular, the true SS curve after necking is derived from the nominal SS curve by taking the average of the power law extrapolation and the linear extrapolation, and a damage factor is introduced to offset the true stress reduction caused by the voids generated at the necking zone. The maximum traction of the TSL is equal to the maximum true stress calculated based on the damage factor at the end of hardening. In addition, a simple specimen is simulated by Abaqus/Standard to calculate the critical J-integral, and the fracture energy calculated by the critical J-integral represents the stored strain energy in the necking zone calculated by the true SS curve. Finally, the CZM parameters obtained by the present method are compared to those used in a previous related work for a simulation of the drop-weight tear test.

Keywords: dynamic fracture, cohesive zone model, traction-separation law, stress-strain curve, J-integral

Procedia PDF Downloads 406
5483 Detection of Keypoint in Press-Fit Curve Based on Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Shoujia Fang, Guoqing Ding, Xin Chen


The quality of press-fit assembly is closely related to reliability and safety of product. The paper proposed a keypoint detection method based on convolutional neural network to improve the accuracy of keypoint detection in press-fit curve. It would provide an auxiliary basis for judging quality of press-fit assembly. The press-fit curve is a curve of press-fit force and displacement. Both force data and distance data are time-series data. Therefore, one-dimensional convolutional neural network is used to process the press-fit curve. After the obtained press-fit data is filtered, the multi-layer one-dimensional convolutional neural network is used to perform the automatic learning of press-fit curve features, and then sent to the multi-layer perceptron to finally output keypoint of the curve. We used the data of press-fit assembly equipment in the actual production process to train CNN model, and we used different data from the same equipment to evaluate the performance of detection. Compared with the existing research result, the performance of detection was significantly improved. This method can provide a reliable basis for the judgment of press-fit quality.

Keywords: keypoint detection, curve feature, convolutional neural network, press-fit assembly

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
5482 Prediction of Fire Growth of the Office by Real-Scale Fire Experiment

Authors: Kweon Oh-Sang, Kim Heung-Youl


Estimating the engineering properties of fires is important to be prepared for the complex and various fire risks of large-scale structures such as super-tall buildings, large stadiums, and multi-purpose structures. In this study, a mock-up of a compartment which was 2.4(L) x 3.6 (W) x 2.4 (H) meter in dimensions was fabricated at the 10MW LSC (Large Scale Calorimeter) and combustible office supplies were placed in the compartment for a real-scale fire test. Maximum heat release rate was 4.1 MW and total energy release obtained through the application of t2 fire growth rate was 6705.9 MJ.

Keywords: fire growth, fire experiment, t2 curve, large scale calorimeter

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
5481 The Term Structure of Government Bond Yields in an Emerging Market: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan Bond Market

Authors: Wali Ullah, Muhammad Nishat


The study investigates the extent to which the so called Nelson-Siegel model (DNS) and its extended version that accounts for time varying volatility (DNS-EGARCH) can optimally fit the yield curve and predict its future path in the context of an emerging economy. For the in-sample fit, both models fit the curve remarkably well even in the emerging markets. However, the DNS-EGARCH model fits the curve slightly better than the DNS. Moreover, both specifications of yield curve that are based on the Nelson-Siegel functional form outperform the benchmark VAR forecasts at all forecast horizons. The DNS-EGARCH comes with more precise forecasts than the DNS for the 6- and 12-month ahead forecasts, while the two have almost similar performance in terms of RMSE for the very short forecast horizons.

Keywords: yield curve, forecasting, emerging markets, Kalman filter, EGARCH

Procedia PDF Downloads 326
5480 Biosynthesis of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles and Their Antibacterial Property

Authors: Prachi Singh


This paper presents a low-cost, eco-friendly and reproducible microbe mediated biosynthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles. TiO2 nanoparticles synthesized using the bacterium, Bacillus subtilis, from titanium as a precursor, were confirmed by TEM analysis. The morphological characteristics state spherical shape, with the size of individual or aggregate nanoparticles, around 30-40 nm. Microbial resistance represents a challenge for the scientific community to develop new bioactive compounds. Here, the antibacterial effect of TiO2 nanoparticles on Escherichia coli was investigated, which was confirmed by CFU (Colony-forming unit). Further, growth curve study of E. coli Hb101 in the presence and absence of TiO2 nanoparticles was done. Optical density decrease was observed with the increase in the concentration of TiO2. It could be attributed to the inactivation of cellular enzymes and DNA by binding to electron-donating groups such as carboxylates, amides, indoles, hydroxyls, thiols, etc. which cause little pores in bacterial cell walls, leading to increased permeability and cell death. This justifies that TiO2 nanoparticles have efficient antibacterial effect and have potential to be used as an antibacterial agent for different purposes.

Keywords: antibacterial effect, CFU, Escherichia coli Hb101, growth curve, TEM, TiO2 nanoparticle, Toxicity, UV-Vis

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
5479 Study of Bifurcation Curve with Aspect Ratio at Low Reynolds Number

Authors: Amit K. Singh, Subhankar Sen


The bifurcation curve of separation in steady two-dimensional viscous flow past an elliptic cylinder is studied by varying the angle of incidence (α) with different aspect ratio (ratio of minor to major axis). The solutions are based on numerical investigation, using finite element analysis, of the Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flow. Results are presented for Reynolds number up to 50 and angle of incidence varies from 0° to 90°. Range of aspect ratio (Ar) is from 0.1 to 1 (in steps of 0.1) and flow is considered as unbounded flow. Bifurcation curve represents the locus of Reynolds numbers (Res) at which flow detaches or separates from the surface of the body at a given α and Ar. In earlier studies, effect of Ar on laminar separation curve or bifurcation curve is limited for Ar = 0.1, 0.2, 0.5 and 0.8. Some results are also available at α = 90° and 45°. The present study attempts to provide a systematic data and clear understanding on the effect of Ar at bifurcation curve and its point of maxima. In addition, issues regarding location of separation angle and maximum ratio of coefficient of lift to drag are studied. We found that nature of curve, separation angle and maximum ratio of lift to drag changes considerably with respect to change in Ar.

Keywords: aspect ratio, bifurcation curve, elliptic cylinder, GMRES, stabilized finite-element

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
5478 Choosing between the Regression Correlation, the Rank Correlation, and the Correlation Curve

Authors: Roger L. Goodwin


This paper presents a rank correlation curve. The traditional correlation coefficient is valid for both continuous variables and for integer variables using rank statistics. Since the correlation coefficient has already been established in rank statistics by Spearman, such a calculation can be extended to the correlation curve. This paper presents two survey questions. The survey collected non-continuous variables. We will show weak to moderate correlation. Obviously, one question has a negative effect on the other. A review of the qualitative literature can answer which question and why. The rank correlation curve shows which collection of responses has a positive slope and which collection of responses has a negative slope. Such information is unavailable from the flat, "first-glance" correlation statistics.

Keywords: Bayesian estimation, regression model, rank statistics, correlation, correlation curve

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
5477 The Stage and Cause of Regional Industrial Specialization Evolution in China

Authors: Cheng Wen, Zhang Jianhua


This paper aims to probe into the general rules of industry specialization or diversification in a region during its process of economic growth and the specific reasons for the difference of industry specialization development in the eastern, central and western regions of China. It is found in this paper that the changes of regional industry specialization in China, like most of countries in the world, also present the U-shaped curve. Regional industrial structure is diversified in the first place. And when the per capita income exceeds a certain level, distribution of economic resources in this region will be concentrated again. From the perspective of rising total factor productivity and falling of transaction cost in the process of economic development, this paper comes up with a theoretical model to explain the U-shaped curve. Through the empirical test of China's provincial panel data, this paper explains the factors that cause the inequality of the industry specialization development in the eastern, central and western regions of China.

Keywords: u-shaped curve, regional industrial specialization, technological progress, transaction costs

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
5476 Representation of the Solution of One Dynamical System on the Plane

Authors: Kushakov Kholmurodjon, Muhammadjonov Akbarshox


This present paper is devoted to a system of second-order nonlinear differential equations with a special right-hand side, exactly, the linear part and a third-order polynomial of a special form. It is shown that for some relations between the parameters, there is a second-order curve in which trajectories leaving the points of this curve remain in the same place. Thus, the curve is invariant with respect to the given system. Moreover, this system is invariant under a non-degenerate linear transformation of variables. The form of this curve, depending on the relations between the parameters and the eigenvalues of the matrix, is proved. All solutions of this system of differential equations are shown analytically.

Keywords: dynamic system, ellipse, hyperbola, Hess system, polar coordinate system

Procedia PDF Downloads 38
5475 Extended Strain Energy Density Criterion for Fracture Investigation of Orthotropic Materials

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Hannaneh Manafi Farid


In order to predict the fracture behavior of cracked orthotropic materials under mixed-mode loading, well-known minimum strain energy density (SED) criterion is extended. The crack is subjected along the fibers at plane strain conditions. Despite the complicities to solve the nonlinear equations which are requirements of SED criterion, SED criterion for anisotropic materials is derived. In the present research, fracture limit curve of SED criterion is depicted by a numerical solution, hence the direction of crack growth is figured out by derived criterion, MSED. The validated MSED demonstrates the improvement in prediction of fracture behavior of the materials. Also, damaged factor that plays a crucial role in the fracture behavior of quasi-brittle materials is derived from this criterion and proved its dependency on mechanical properties and direction of crack growth.

Keywords: mixed-mode fracture, minimum strain energy density criterion, orthotropic materials, fracture limit curve, mode II critical stress intensity factor

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
5474 A Bathtub Curve from Nonparametric Model

Authors: Eduardo C. Guardia, Jose W. M. Lima, Afonso H. M. Santos


This paper presents a nonparametric method to obtain the hazard rate “Bathtub curve” for power system components. The model is a mixture of the three known phases of a component life, the decreasing failure rate (DFR), the constant failure rate (CFR) and the increasing failure rate (IFR) represented by three parametric Weibull models. The parameters are obtained from a simultaneous fitting process of the model to the Kernel nonparametric hazard rate curve. From the Weibull parameters and failure rate curves the useful lifetime and the characteristic lifetime were defined. To demonstrate the model the historic time-to-failure of distribution transformers were used as an example. The resulted “Bathtub curve” shows the failure rate for the equipment lifetime which can be applied in economic and replacement decision models.

Keywords: bathtub curve, failure analysis, lifetime estimation, parameter estimation, Weibull distribution

Procedia PDF Downloads 278