Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10342

Search results for: participatory design

10342 Designing for Wearable Interactions: Exploring Care Design for Design Anthropology and Participatory Design

Authors: Wei-Chen Chang, Yu-Cheng Pei


This research examines wearable interaction design to mediate the design anthropology and participatory design found in technology and fashion. We will discuss the principles of design anthropology and participatory design using a wearable and fashion product process to transmit the ‘people-situation-reason-object’ method and analyze five sense applied examples that provide new thinking for designers engaged in future industry. Design anthropology and Participatory Design attempt to engage physiological and psychological design through technology-function, meaning-form and fashion aesthetics to achieve cognition between user and environment. The wearable interaction provides technological characteristics and semantic ideas transmitted to craft-cultural, collective, cheerful and creative performance. It is more confident and innovative attempt, that is able to achieve a joyful, fundamental interface. This study takes two directions for cultural thinking as the basis to establish a set of life-craft designs with interactive experience objects by users that assist designers in examining the sensual feelings to initiate a new lifestyle value.

Keywords: design anthropology, wearable design, design communication, participatory design

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10341 An Analysis Study of a Participatory Design Workshop from the Perspectives of Communication Strategies and Tools

Authors: Meng-Yu Wun, Jiunde Lee


Participatory design transfers the role of design team becoming the facilitator who manages to work collaboratively with the 'partners of innovation': users. This facilitator role not just concerns the users’ behaviors or insights under the common practice of user-centered design, it emphasizes the importance of communication experience conducted by various strategies and tools in a workshop session which could profoundly impact the quality of the co-creation process. To investigate the communication experience in the participatory design, this study proposed a qualitative research to analyze communication strategies and tools. A participatory design workshop and following in-depth interviews were carried out to explore how participants (facilitators, users) might apply different strategies and tools to enhance the communication process. The major study findings are as follows: (a) roles had influence on communication experience; facilitators’ principles and methods influenced the usage of facilitation strategies in various situations, while users put more emphasis on communication activities and goals aimed to complete the design tasks, (b) communication tools should be both fixed and changeable: participants had fixed cognition on different forms of communication tools; with the fundamental cognition, they could choose and make use of tools according to their needs, (c) the management of workshop communication should be flexible: controlling the schedule, stimulating innovations, and creating the space for conversation are crucial to facilitate in a participatory workshop.

Keywords: communication experience, facilitation, participatory design, workshop

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10340 Participatory and Experience Design in Advertising: An Exploratory Study of Advertising Styles of Cultures

Authors: Irem Ela Yildizeli


Advertising today has become an indispensable phenomenon both for businesses and consumers. Due to the conditions of rapid changes in the market and growth of competitiveness, the success of many of firms that produce similar merchandise depends largely on how professionally and effective they use marketing communication elements which also must have some sense of shared values between the message provider and the receiver within cultural and global trend. This paper demonstrates how consumer behaviour and communication through cultural values evaluate advertising styles. Using samples of award-winning ads from both author's and other professional's creative works, the study reveals a significant correlation between the cultural elements and advertisement reception for language and cultural norms respectively. The findings of this study draw attention to the change of communication in the beginning of the 21st century which has shaped a new style of Participatory and Experience Design in advertising.

Keywords: advertising, advertising style, culture, experience design, participatory design

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10339 Community Based Participatory Research in Opioid Use: Design of an Informatics Solution

Authors: Sue S. Feldman, Bradley Tipper, Benjamin Schooley


Nearly every community in the US has been impacted by opioid related addictions/deaths; it is a national problem that is threatening our social and economic welfare. Most believe that tackling this problem from a prevention perspective advances can be made toward breaking the chain of addiction. One mechanism, community based participatory research, involves the community in the prevention approach. This project combines that approach with a design science approach to develop an integrated solution. Findings suggested accountable care communities, transpersonal psychology, and social exchange theory as product kernel theories. Evaluation was conducted on a prototype.

Keywords: substance use and abuse recovery, community resource centers, accountable care communities, community based participatory research

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10338 Applying Participatory Design for the Reuse of Deserted Community Spaces

Authors: Wei-Chieh Yeh, Yung-Tang Shen


The concept of community building started in 1994 in Taiwan. After years of development, it fostered the notion of active local resident participation in community issues as co-operators, instead of minions. Participatory design gives participants more control in the decision-making process, helps to reduce the friction caused by arguments and assists in bringing different parties to consensus. This results in an increase in the efficiency of projects run in the community. Therefore, the participation of local residents is key to the success of community building. This study applied participatory design to develop plans for the reuse of deserted spaces in the community from the first stage of brainstorming for design ideas, making creative models to be employed later, through to the final stage of construction. After conducting a series of participatory designed activities, it aimed to integrate the different opinions of residents, develop a sense of belonging and reach a consensus. Besides this, it also aimed at building the residents’ awareness of their responsibilities for the environment and related issues of sustainable development. By reviewing relevant literature and understanding the history of related studies, the study formulated a theory. It took the “2012-2014 Changhua County Community Planner Counseling Program” as a case study to investigate the implementation process of participatory design. Research data are collected by document analysis, participants’ observation and in-depth interviews. After examining the three elements of “Design Participation”, “Construction Participation”, and” Follow–up Maintenance Participation” in the case, the study emerged with a promising conclusion: Maintenance works were carried out better compared to common public works. Besides this, maintenance costs were lower. Moreover, the works that residents were involved in were more creative. Most importantly, the community characteristics could be easy be recognized.

Keywords: participatory design, deserted space, community building, reuse

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10337 The Application of Participatory Social Media in Collaborative Planning: A Systematic Review

Authors: Yujie Chen , Zhen Li


In the context of planning transformation, how to promote public participation in the formulation and implementation of collaborative planning has been the focused issue of discussion. However, existing studies have often been case-specific or focused on a specific design field, leaving the role of participatory social media (PSM) in urban collaborative planning generally questioned. A systematic database search was conducted in December 2019. Articles and projects were eligible if they reported a quantitative empirical study applying participatory social media in the collaborative planning process (a prospective, retrospective, experimental, longitudinal research, or collective actions in planning practices). Twenty studies and seven projects were included in the review. Findings showed that social media are generally applied in public spatial behavior, transportation behavior, and community planning fields, with new technologies and new datasets. PSM has provided a new platform for participatory design, decision analysis, and collaborative negotiation most widely used in participatory design. Findings extracted several existing forms of PSM. PSM mainly act as three roles: the language of decision-making for communication, study mode for spatial evaluation, and decision agenda for interactive decision support. Three optimization content of PSM were recognized, including improving participatory scale, improvement of the grass-root organization, and promotion of politics. However, basically, participants only could provide information and comment through PSM in the future collaborative planning process, therefore the issues of low data response rate, poor spatial data quality, and participation sustainability issues worth more attention and solutions.

Keywords: participatory social media, collaborative planning, planning workshop, application mode

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10336 Users’ Preferences for Map Navigation Gestures

Authors: Y. Y. Pang, N. A. Ismail


The map is a powerful and convenient tool in helping us to navigate to different places, but the use of indirect devices often makes its usage cumbersome. This study intends to propose a new map navigation dialogue that uses hand gesture. A set of dialogue was developed from users’ perspective to provide users complete freedom for panning, zooming, rotate, and find direction operations. A participatory design experiment was involved here where one hand gesture and two hand gesture dialogues had been analysed in the forms of hand gestures to develop a set of usable dialogues. The major finding was that users prefer one-hand gesture compared to two-hand gesture in map navigation.

Keywords: hand gesture, map navigation, participatory design, intuitive interaction

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10335 Assessment of the Use of Participatory Research Methods among Researchers in Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria

Authors: Samson Olusegun Apantaku, Adetayo K. Aromolaran, Giyatt Hammed


The study assessed the use of participatory research methods among Federal University of Agriculture Abeokuta, Nigeria (FUNAAB) researchers. Simple random sampling technique was used to select one hundred and twenty respondents from the study area. Data were collected using a questionnaire. Data collected were subjected to descriptive and inferential statistical analyses. Results showed that 75.8% of the respondents were males while only 21.3% were female. The mean age of the respondents was 38.8 years and most (77.5%) of them were married. 15% of the respondents were in professorial cadre, 21.7% and 20% of the respondents were senior lecturers/fellow and lecturer/research fellow I&II respectively. The results further revealed that 93.3% of the respondents were aware of participatory research methods and 82.5% of the respondents have utilized it before. The average period of usage was 2.7 years and participation by consultation (86.7%) and interactive participation (76.7%) were mostly used. Most (94.2%) indicated that fund was the major hindrance to the use of participatory research methods. The result of correlation analysis showed that there was significant relationship between the years of research experience, designation post (status) of the respondents and usage of participatory research methods (r = 0.034, 0.031, p < 0.05). The study concluded that most of the researchers were aware of and used participatory research methods, which could influence the quality of their research or make it acceptable to the end users. It was recommended that more funds should be made available and accessible for participatory research. All researchers should be trained and encouraged to make use of participatory research methods in their research activities so as to achieve effective research and capacity building that could enhance adoption of technologies and increase agricultural production in the country. Farmers’ capacity to participate in agricultural research should also be enhanced.

Keywords: participatory research, participatory research methods, awareness, utilization

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10334 Innovation in Sustainable Development: Sustainable Place-Making Strategies in Hong Kong

Authors: Tris Kee


As the urban design discipline develops renewed interests in participatory design and collaborative place-making, it becomes critical to review the potential and limitations in current processes to ensure a sustainable method for future development.This paper explores how collaborative design can be a key to future sustainable urban development through two case studies from Asia.The process involves a multi-disciplinary collaboration and an innovative learning process by sharing ideas as well as careful consideration on social, economic and political circumstances among government and district stakeholders.This intrinsic proposition of innovative participatory planning implies interdisciplinary collaboration between professionals and local residents to integrate knowledge into new urban place-making thinking.Design innovation in contemporary society can manifest itself in the discourse sustainable urban development by bottom-up planning and community driven design. This paper examines the emerging design pedagogy which promotes interdisciplinary coalition of professionals and local stakeholders in community development as an innovative design rubric to create a sustainable urban approach.Through two case studies in Hong Kong, this paper reviews and critically evaluates the process of how the notion of sustainable development in contemporary urban planning theory is underpinned by the collaborative design practice.

Keywords: collaborative design, design innovation, sustainable development, urban development

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10333 Fostering Involvement of Local Inhabitants in Participatory Governance of Cultural Patrimony in Cameroon

Authors: Asah Nelson Asoh, Wanie Clarkson Mvo


Given the diverse nature of cultural diversity in Cameroon from the forested south to the sudano-sahelian north regions, Cameroon is aptly described as 'Africa in Miniature', which simply means all of Africa in a single country-Cameroon. Cameroon possesses all that can be attractive to the eyes in Africa. Yet, there is a microscopic involvement of the local inhabitants in participatory governance of cultural patrimony for tourism and community-based socio-economic development, which greatly jeopardizes conservation endeavors because the community fails to trust governing authorities. This study delves into the ways through which local inhabitants could be indulged in participatory governance of cultural patrimony for tourism and community-based socio-economic development. The study adopts a qualitative research design and semi-structured interviews with experts in the collection of primary data blended with secondary materials from published sources, including textbooks, scientific journal articles, dissertations, reports, and internet websites. The collected data was presented and analysed using descriptive statistical techniques, photographic illustrations, and through intuition. The study fosters the ways through which local inhabitants could be indulged in participatory governance of cultural patrimony for tourism and community-based socio-economic development. This is to ensure community support for the conservation of tourism cultural patrimony in Cameroon in particular and the world at large.

Keywords: participatory governance, cultural patrimony, tourism, socio-economic development, Cameroon

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10332 The Learning Loops in the Public Realm Project in South Verona: Air Quality and Noise Pollution Participatory Data Collection towards Co-Design, Planning and Construction of Mitigation Measures in Urban Areas

Authors: Massimiliano Condotta, Giovanni Borga, Chiara Scanagatta


Urban systems are places where the various actors involved interact and enter in conflict, in particular with reference to topics such as traffic congestion and security. But topics of discussion, and often clash because of their strong complexity, are air and noise pollution. For air pollution, the complexity stems from the fact that atmospheric pollution is due to many factors, but above all, the observation and measurement of the amount of pollution of a transparent, mobile and ethereal element like air is very difficult. Often the perceived condition of the inhabitants does not coincide with the real conditions, because it is conditioned - sometimes in positive ways other in negative ways - from many other factors such as the presence, or absence, of natural elements such as trees or rivers. These problems are seen with noise pollution as well, which is also less considered as an issue even if it’s problematic just as much as air quality. Starting from these opposite positions, it is difficult to identify and implement valid, and at the same time shared, mitigation solutions for the problem of urban pollution (air and noise pollution). The LOOPER (Learning Loops in the Public Realm) project –described in this paper – wants to build and test a methodology and a platform for participatory co-design, planning, and construction process inside a learning loop process. Novelties in this approach are various; the most relevant are three. The first is that citizens participation starts since from the research of problems and air quality analysis through a participatory data collection, and that continues in all process steps (design and construction). The second is that the methodology is characterized by a learning loop process. It means that after the first cycle of (1) problems identification, (2) planning and definition of design solution and (3) construction and implementation of mitigation measures, the effectiveness of implemented solutions is measured and verified through a new participatory data collection campaign. In this way, it is possible to understand if the policies and design solution had a positive impact on the territory. As a result of the learning process produced by the first loop, it will be possible to improve the design of the mitigation measures and start the second loop with new and more effective measures. The third relevant aspect is that the citizens' participation is carried out via Urban Living Labs that involve all stakeholder of the city (citizens, public administrators, associations of all urban stakeholders,…) and that the Urban Living Labs last for all the cycling of the design, planning and construction process. The paper will describe in detail the LOOPER methodology and the technical solution adopted for the participatory data collection and design and construction phases.

Keywords: air quality, co-design, learning loops, noise pollution, urban living labs

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10331 Assessment of the Professional Competencies of Agriculture Officers in North West Frontier Province (NWFP), Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Zafarullah Khan, Khalid Nawab, Shahid Ali, Mubashir Habib, Shakirullah Khan, Sajjad Ahmad, Javid Ullah, Ikramul Haq


Professionally competent Agriculture Officers (AOs) can play an important role in the development of agriculture in the country. This study was conducted in North West Frontier Province (NWFP) (Pakistan) to assess professional competencies of Agriculture Officers (AOs) in January 2007. Data were collected from all (112) AOs through a mailed questionnaire. The study examines existing level of professional competencies of AOs and the required level of possessed competencies needed by them for their job performance in the areas of participatory extension methodologies. Both the possessed and required levels of competencies were scaled from 1-5 on Liker scale, 1 being very low and 5 being very high. . The study revealed a numerical difference between possessed and required levels regarding the professional competencies of the participatory extension methodology. It was also observed that higher levels of job experience increase the professional competencies in participatory extension methodology. It is recommended that periodic training and refresher courses are arranged for AOs so that their learning may become more practicable to diffuse agricultural innovations among members of participatory learning groups and convey modern technologies to the end users.

Keywords: professional competency, agriculture officers, assessment and participatory extension methodology, participatory extension

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10330 Rights-Based Approach to Artificial Intelligence Design: Addressing Harm through Participatory ex ante Impact Assessment

Authors: Vanja Skoric


The paper examines whether the impacts of artificial intelligence (AI) can be meaningfully addressed through the rights-based approach to AI design, investigating in particular how the inclusive, participatory process of assessing the AI impact would make this viable. There is a significant gap between envisioning rights-based AI systems and their practical application. Plausibly, internalizing human rights approach within AI design process might be achieved through identifying and assessing implications of AI features human rights, especially considering the case of vulnerable individuals and communities. However, there is no clarity or consensus on how such an instrument should be operationalised to usefully identify the impact, mitigate harms and meaningfully ensure relevant stakeholders’ participation. In practice, ensuring the meaningful inclusion of those individuals, groups, or entire communities who are affected by the use of the AI system is a prerequisite for a process seeking to assess human rights impacts and risks. Engagement in the entire process of the impact assessment should enable those affected and interested to access information and better understand the technology, product, or service and resulting impacts, but also to learn about their rights and the respective obligations and responsibilities of developers and deployers to protect and/or respect these rights. This paper will provide an overview of the study and practice of the participatory design process for AI, including inclusive impact assessment, its main elements, propose a framework, and discuss the lessons learned from the existing theory. In addition, it will explore pathways for enhancing and promoting individual and group rights through such engagement by discussing when, how, and whom to include, at which stage of the process, and what are the pre-requisites for meaningful and engaging. The overall aim is to ensure using the technology that works for the benefit of society, individuals, and particular (historically marginalised) groups.

Keywords: rights-based design, AI impact assessment, inclusion, harm mitigation

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10329 Analysing the Applicability of a Participatory Approach to Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment: Case Study of a Housing Estate Regeneration in London

Authors: Sahar Navabakhsh, Rokia Raslan, Yair Schwartz


Decision-making on regeneration of housing estates, whether to refurbish or re-build, has been mostly triggered by economic factors. To enable sustainable growth, it is vital that environmental and social impacts of different scenarios are also taken into account. The methodology used to include all the three sustainable development pillars is called Life Cycle Sustainability Assessment (LCSA), which comprises of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for the assessment of environmental impacts of buildings. Current practice of LCA is regularly conducted post design stage and by sustainability experts. Not only is undertaking an LCA at this stage less effective, but issues such as the limited scope for the definition and assessment of environmental impacts, the implication of changes in the system boundary and the alteration of each of the variable metrics, employment of different Life Cycle Impact Assessment Methods and use of various inventory data for Life Cycle Inventory Analysis can result in considerably contrasting results. Given the niche nature and scarce specialist domain of LCA of buildings, the majority of the stakeholders do not contribute to the generation or interpretation of the impact assessment, and the results can be generated and interpreted subjectively due to the mentioned uncertainties. For an effective and democratic assessment of environmental impacts, different stakeholders, and in particular the community and design team should collaborate in the process of data collection, assessment and analysis. This paper examines and evaluates a participatory approach to LCSA through the analysis of a case study of a housing estate in South West London. The study has been conducted throughout tier-based collaborative methods to collect and share data through surveys and co-design workshops with the community members and the design team as the main stakeholders. The assessment of lifecycle impacts is conducted throughout the process and has influenced the decision-making on the design of the Community Plan. The evaluation concludes better assessment transparency and outcome, alongside other socio-economic benefits of identifying and engaging the most contributive stakeholders in the process of conducting LCSA.

Keywords: life cycle assessment, participatory LCA, life cycle sustainability assessment, participatory processes, decision-making, housing estate regeneration

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10328 A Survey of 2nd Year Students' Frequent Writing Error and the Effects of Participatory Error Correction Process

Authors: Chaiwat Tantarangsee


The purposes of this study are 1) to study the effects of participatory error correction process and 2) to find out the students’ satisfaction of such error correction process. This study is a Quasi Experimental Research with single group, in which data is collected 5 times preceding and following 4 experimental studies of participatory error correction process including providing coded indirect corrective feedback in the students’ texts with error treatment activities. Samples include 28 2nd year English Major students, Faculty of Humanities and Social Sciences, Suan Sunandha Rajabhat University. Tool for experimental study includes the lesson plan of the course; Reading and Writing English for Academic Purposes II, and tools for data collection include 5 writing tests of short texts and a questionnaire. Based on formative evaluation of the students’ writing ability prior to and after each of the 4 experiments, the research findings disclose the students’ higher scores with statistical difference at 0.05. Moreover, in terms of the effect size of such process, it is found that for mean of the students’ scores prior to and after the 4 experiments; d equals 1.0046, 1.1374, 1.297, and 1.0065 respectively. It can be concluded that participatory error correction process enables all of the students to learn equally well and there is improvement in their ability to write short texts. Finally, the students’ overall satisfaction of the participatory error correction process is in high level (Mean=4.32, S.D.=0.92).

Keywords: coded indirect corrective feedback, participatory error correction process, error treatment, humanities and social sciences

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10327 Social Technology and Youth Justice: An Exploration of Ethical and Practical Challenges

Authors: Ravinder Barn, Balbir Barn


This paper outlines ethical and practical challenges in the building of social technology for use with socially excluded and marginalised groups. The primary aim of this study was to design, deploy and evaluate social technology that may help to promote better engagement between case workers and young people to help prevent recidivism, and support young people’s transition towards social inclusion in society. A total of 107 practitioners/managers (n=64), and young people (n=43) contributed to the data collection via surveys, focus groups and 1-1 interviews. Through a process of co-design where end-users are involved as key contributors to social technological design, this paper seeks to make an important contribution to the area of participatory methodologies by arguing that whilst giving ‘voice’ to key stakeholders in the research process is crucial, there is a risk that competing voices may lead to tensions and unintended outcomes. The paper is contextualized within a Foucauldian perspective to examine significant concepts including power, authority and surveillance. Implications for youth justice policy and practice are considered. The authors conclude that marginalized youth and over-stretched practitioners are better served when such social technology is perceived and adopted as a tool of empowerment within a framework of child welfare and child rights.

Keywords: youth justice, social technology, marginalization, participatory research, power

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10326 Organizational Ideologies and Their Embeddedness in Fashion Show Productions in Shanghai and London Fashion Week: International-Based-Chinese Independent Designers' Participatory Behaviors in Different Fashion Cities

Authors: Zhe Wang


The fashion week, as a critical international fashion event in shaping world fashion cities, is one of the most significant world events that serves as the core medium for designers to stage new collections. However, its role in bringing about and shaping design ideologies of major fashion cities have long been neglected from a fashion ecosystem perspective. With the expanding scale of international fashion weeks in terms of culture and commerce, the organizational structures of these fashion weeks are becoming more complex. In the emerging fashion city, typified by Shanghai, a newly-formed 'hodgepodge' transforming the current global fashion ecosystem. A city’s legitimate fashion institutions, typically the organizers of international fashion weeks, have cultivated various cultural characteristics via rules and regulations pertaining to international fashion weeks. Under these circumstances, designers’ participatory behaviors, specifically show design and production, are influenced by the cultural ideologies of official organizers and institutions. This research compares international based Chinese (IBC) independent designers’ participatory behavior in London and Shanghai Fashion Weeks: specifically, the way designers present their clothing and show production. both of which are found to be profoundly influenced by cultural and design ideologies of fashion weeks. They are, to a large degree, manipulated by domestic institutions and organizers. Shanghai fashion week has given rise to a multiple, mass-ended entertainment carnival design and cultural ideology in Shanghai, thereby impacting the explicit cultural codes or intangible rules that IBC designers must adhere to when designing and producing fashion shows. Therefore, influenced by various cultural characteristics in the two cities, IBC designers’ show design and productions, in turn, play an increasingly vital role in shaping the design characteristic of an international fashion week. Through researching the organizational systems and design preferences of organizers of London and Shanghai fashion weeks, this paper demonstrates the embeddedness of design systems in the forming of design ideologies under various cultural and institutional contexts. The core methodology utilized in this research is ethnography. As a crucial part of a Ph.D. project on innovations in fashion shows under a cross-cultural context run by Edinburgh College of Art, School of Design, the fashion week’s organizational culture in various cultural contexts is investigated in London and Shanghai for approximately six months respectively. Two IBC designers, Angel Chen and Xuzhi Chen were followed during their participation of London and Shanghai Fashion Weeks from September 2016 to June 2017, during which two consecutive seasons were researched in order to verify the consistency of design ideologies’ associations with organizational system and culture.

Keywords: institutional ideologies, international fashion weeks, IBC independent designers; fashion show

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10325 Participatory Financial Inclusion Hypothesis: A Preliminary Empirical Validation Using Survey Design

Authors: Edward A. Osifodunrin, Jose Manuel Dias Lopes


In Nigeria, enormous efforts/resources had, over the years, been expended on promoting financial inclusion (FI); however, it is seemingly discouraging that many of its self-declared targets on FI remained unachieved, especially amongst the Rural Dwellers and Actors in the Informal Sectors (RDAIS). Expectedly, many reasons had been earmarked for these failures: low literacy level, huge informal/rural sectors, etc. This study posits that in spite of these truly-debilitating factors, these FI policy failures could have been avoided or mitigated if the principles of active and better-managed citizens’ participation had been strictly followed in the (re)design/implementation of its FI policies. In other words, in a bid to mitigate the prevalent FE in Nigeria, this study hypothesizes the positive impact of increased/active citizens’ participation on FI outcome(s), backed by a preliminary empirical validation. Also, the study introduces the RDAIS-focused participatory financial inclusion policy (PFIP) as a major FI policy regeneration/improvement tool. The three categories of respondents that served as research subjects are FI experts in Nigeria (n = 72), RDAIS from the very rural/remote village of Unguwar Dogo in Northern Nigeria (n = 43), and RDAIS from another rural village of Sekere (n = 56) in the Southern region of Nigeria. Using survey design (5-point Likert scale questionnaires), random/stratified sampling, and descriptive/inferential statistics, the study often recorded independent consensus (amongst these three categories of respondents) that RDAIS’s active participation in iterative FI policy initiation, (re)design, implementation, (re)evaluation could indeed give improved FI outcomes. However, some questionnaire items also recorded divergent opinions and various statistically significant differences in the mean scores of these three categories. The PFIP (or any customized version of it) should then be carefully integrated into the NFIS of Nigeria (and possibly in the NFIS of other developing countries) to truly/fully provide FI policy integration for these excluded RDAIS and arrest the prevalence of FE.

Keywords: citizens’ participation, development, financial inclusion, formal financial services, national financial inclusion strategy, participatory financial inclusion policy, rural dwellers and actors in the informal sectors

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10324 Developing an Edutainment Game for Children with ADHD Based on SAwD and VCIA Model

Authors: Bruno Gontijo Batista


This paper analyzes how the Socially Aware Design (SAwD) and the Value-oriented and Culturally Informed Approach (VCIA) design model can be used to develop an edutainment game for children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). The SAwD approach seeks a design that considers new dimensions in human-computer interaction, such as culture, aesthetics, emotional and social aspects of the user's everyday experience. From this perspective, the game development was VCIA model-based, including the users in the design process through participatory methodologies, considering their behavioral patterns, culture, and values. This is because values, beliefs, and behavioral patterns influence how technology is understood and used and the way it impacts people's lives. This model can be applied at different stages of design, which goes from explaining the problem and organizing the requirements to the evaluation of the prototype and the final solution. Thus, this paper aims to understand how this model can be used in the development of an edutainment game for children with ADHD. In the area of education and learning, children with ADHD have difficulties both in behavior and in school performance, as they are easily distracted, which is reflected both in classes and on tests. Therefore, they must perform tasks that are exciting or interesting for them, once the pleasure center in the brain is activated, it reinforces the center of attention, leaving the child more relaxed and focused. In this context, serious games have been used as part of the treatment of ADHD in children aiming to improve focus and attention, stimulate concentration, as well as be a tool for improving learning in areas such as math and reading, combining education and entertainment (edutainment). Thereby, as a result of the research, it was developed, in a participatory way, applying the VCIA model, an edutainment game prototype, for a mobile platform, for children between 8 and 12 years old.

Keywords: ADHD, edutainment, SAwD, VCIA

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10323 Participatory Planning and Pro-ecological City Development – Searching for a Remedy for Upgrading Public Greenery

Authors: D. Pazder


The main assumption of the study is to examine the coherence between two aspects of spatial planning important in Poland. The first one is the need to realize a participatory planning paradigm, and the second is a global trend of the pro-ecological orientation of city development. The aim of the research is the verification of the possibility of finding the right balance between economic and socio-spatial dimensions of urban redefinition, especially within public green areas. The significance of the examination lies in the fact that there are a huge anthropopressure and overinvestment in downtown areas of big Polish cities. The methodology used in the research of a case study was the three-layered comparative analyses of spatial planning documents, participatory planning undertakings, soft and hard actions concerning a given area in the period of 2008-2020. The main findings are that there is a lack of satisfactory cooperation between the municipality and local communities, a connection between soft actions and investment in green public space, inhabitants are of high ecological consciousness but not so concerned about spatial planning legislation. The conclusion is that it is needed to provide real participation in spatial planning processes so as to take advantage of local communities’ activity and to combine more top-down and bottom-up actions so as to integrate people and educate them on how to act in favor of a common good in democratic citizenship.

Keywords: placemaking, participatory planning, anesthetization, public greenery

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10322 Involving Children in Creating a Healthy Environment in Low Socioeconomic Position (SEP) Neighborhoods in the Netherlands: A Participatory Action Research (PAR) Project.

Authors: Lisa Wilderink, Ingrid Bakker, Albertine J. Schuit, Jacob C. Seidell, Carry M. Renders


To ensure that health behavior interventions for children living in low socioeconomic position (SEP) neighborhoods are in line with children’s wishes and needs, participation of the children in the development, implementation, and evaluation is crucial. In this paper, we show how children living in three low-SEP neighborhoods in the Netherlands can be involved in Participatory Action Research (PAR) and what influences this participation process. The Photovoice method was used and provided comprehensive information from the children’s perspectives. With the help of the community workers, the children identified feasible actions. This paper shows that it is possible to involve children from low SEP neighborhoods in a meaningful way. We found that it is important to constantly discuss the process with participants, start with a concrete question or problem and adapt the project to the local context and skills of participants

Keywords: children, healthy behavior, participatory action research, socioeconomic health inequalities

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10321 The Strategic Formulation of Competitive Advantage on Private Higher Education Institution Using Participatory Prospective Analysis

Authors: Muhammad Yusuf Sulfarano Barusman


Research for the strategic formulation of competitive advantage development on Indonesian Private Higher Education Institutions (IPHEI) is mostly done using positivistic paradigm by means of analytical thinking. This study emphasized of the participatory paradigm by using synthesis as a way of thinking in order to achieve its goal. The purposes of this study are to: 1) build future scenario of the external environmental dynamics that will be encountered by IPHEI, 2) formulate a strategy that can be implemented by IPHEI through developing the organization's competitive advantage in the future. The used research methodology is Participatory Prospective Analysis (PPA). The results showed that the future scenario of external environmental conditions that will be encountered by IPHEI in the future can be described in three conditions, namely: optimistic, moderate, and pessimistic scenarios. The strategic formulation from the research results is based on four internal factors as its foundation (the effectiveness of leadership, the availability of funds and financing, the effectiveness of human resource management strategy, and the relevance of curriculum). A set of resulted strategic formulation is knowledge of the experts that needed to be followed up wisely so that their use can be optimized for the development of IPHE organizational competitive advantage in the future.

Keywords: competitive advantage, participatory prospective analysis, PPA, private higher education institutions, PHEI, strategic formulation

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10320 Participatory Communication in the IDP (Integrate Development Plan) Context of Local Government: Case Study of Matlosana Municipality, South Africa

Authors: Tshephang Bright Molale


Much is written on the importance of participatory communication and its role in uplifting indigent communities. As the closest government sphere to communities, local government is charged with directly improving the lives of the poor and is required by legislation to conduct Integrated Development Planning (IDP). This requires a municipality to utilise participatory communication aspects including dialogue, empowerment, and planning. These are most important pillars of community development. However, many studies have warned that elements such as modernisation, dependency and bureaucracy need to be observed with caution since they have the potential to impede and limit the extent of participatory communication in community development. These concepts serve as the basic points of departure and theoretical background underpinning this study, which is tasked with exploring the extent of participatory communication in the IDP context of Jouberton Township in the Matlosana Local Municipality, South Africa. In her public address on challenges facing South Africa’s local municipalities in January 2014, former premier, Thandi Modise, emphasised the need for communities to attend municipal IDP meetings, approve earmarked IDP projects, and learn about municipal budget spending. It is evident from theory and higher echelon of government that participatory communication is seen as cardinal to the existence of municipal government. From this background, this study was carried out under the assumption that the practice of participatory communication in contemporary local government only exists on paper; while in reality the public does not enjoy active participation in municipal IDP consultative frameworks. This is despite much discourse being available in government and in academia around the importance of participatory communication in community development. The study espoused a qualitative research approach to gather data and purposive sampling was used to select respondents linked to two IDP projects in Jouberton Township from the 2012/13 financial year. Its purpose was to explore perceptions among municipal representatives and community members in Jouberton Township on the extent of participatory communication in the IDP context. The empirical part of the study comprised of focus group, unstructured interviews, and participant observation. The study revealed that Jouberton communities are passive participators in municipal IDP consultative frameworks where they participate by just being informed about what is going to happen or has already happened and feedback is minimal. This is opposed to a desired form of empowered participation which is recommended by scholars in development communication where stakeholders granted space to participate in joint analysis and joint decision-making about what should be achieved and how. It has been discovered that there is a lack of active participation in community development in the IDP context of Matlosana Municipality and the study makes recommendations on how transformative participatory communication can be applied to improve current norms and standards in local government.

Keywords: development communication, government communication, integrated development plan, participatory communication

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10319 Broadening the Public Sphere: Examining the Role of Community Radio in Fostering Participatory Democracy in Selected Communities in Ondo State, Nigeria

Authors: John Ibanga


Since May 1999, when Nigeria returned to uninterrupted democratic rule, there have been various attempts by successive governments at committing themselves to democratic ideals. Such efforts include a revision of communication policies after repeated calls by civil society organisations, development partners, researchers, and academics to allow not only the commencement of campus radio broadcasting but also the takeoff of community radio broadcasting. Thus, in 2015, operating licenses were granted to several communities spread across the six geopolitical zones in the country for the establishment of community radio stations culminating in the establishment of the first community radio in Nigeria on July 17, 2015. And, since citizens’ involvement in policy matters and governance is one of the tenets of participatory democracy, it becomes imperative to investigate how the emerging community radio sector in Nigeria is facilitating participatory democracy among Nigerians, even in the face of attempts by the present government to silence all dissenting voices. This study, therefore, examines how residents in Ondo State, Southwest Nigeria, are utilising programmes on Ejule Nen and Kakaaki community radio stations in Ondo State, Nigeria, to deepen participatory democracy. Much of the existing studies on the role of community radio in participatory democracy and citizens' engagement efforts miss out on Nigeria because of the delayed implementation of community radio policy in Nigeria being Africa’s most populous nation as well as a major player in the affairs of the African continent. While the participatory communication and communication infrastructure theories were used as framework, data were collected from in-depth interviews with staff of the community radio station and community leaders, focus group discussions with the community residents, and qualitative content analysis of programmes on the station. The residents used the community radio stations as platforms for demanding accountability from government, mobilising resources for the execution of a number of community projects, promoting credible electoral practices, and influencing the implementation of free education policy in their communities. Hence the community radio stations became the reliable and authoritative voices of residents for participating in the public sphere and, generally, the democratic process.

Keywords: community, community radio, democracy, participatory democracy

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10318 Examining the Role of Farmer-Centered Participatory Action Learning in Building Sustainable Communities in Rural Haiti

Authors: Charles St. Geste, Michael Neumann, Catherine Twohig


Our primary aim is to examine farmer-centered participatory action learning as a tool to improve agricultural production, build resilience to climate shocks and, more broadly, advance community-driven solutions for sustainable development in rural communities across Haiti. For over six years, sixty plus farmers from Deslandes, Haiti, organized in three traditional work groups called konbits, have designed and tested low-input agroecology techniques as part of the Konbit Vanyan Kapab Pwoje Agroekoloji. The project utilizes a participatory action learning approach, emphasizing social inclusion, building on local knowledge, experiential learning, active farmer participation in trial design and evaluation, and cross-community sharing. Mixed methods were used to evaluate changes in knowledge and adoption of agroecology techniques, confidence in advancing agroecology locally, and innovation among Konbit Vanyan Kapab farmers. While skill and knowledge in application of agroecology techniques varied among individual farmers, a majority of farmers successfully adopted techniques outside of the trial farms. The use of agroecology techniques on trial and individual farms has doubled crop production in many cases. Farm income has also increased, and farmers report less damage to crops and property caused by extreme weather events. Furthermore, participatory action strategies have led to greater local self-determination and greater capacity for sustainable community development. With increased self-confidence and the knowledge and skills acquired from participating in the project, farmers prioritized sharing their successful techniques with other farmers and have developed a farmer-to-farmer training program that incorporates participatory action learning. Using adult education methods, farmers, trained as agroecology educators, are currently providing training in sustainable farming practices to farmers from five villages in three departments across Haiti. Konbit Vanyan Kapab farmers have also begun testing production of value-added food products, including a dried soup mix and tea. Key factors for success include: opportunities for farmers to actively participate in all phases of the project, group diversity, resources for application of agroecology techniques, focus on group processes and overcoming local barriers to inclusive decision-making.

Keywords: agroecology, participatory action learning, rural Haiti, sustainable community development

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10317 A Photographic Look on the Socio-Educational Inclusion of Young Refugees and Asylum-Seekers

Authors: Mara Gabrielli, Jordi Pamies Rovira


From a theoretical and interdisciplinary approach to visual ethnography and visual anthropology, this small scale, in-depth study explores the potential of photography as a participatory ethnographic method for a deep-understanding of the socio-educational integration of young refugees and asylum-seekers in the host society as regards their daily experiences, their needs, desires, expectations, and future goals. Qualitative data is collected by the author by observing 12 young participants in the age group 12-24 years per week for 12 months. The data consists of field notes, participatory observation, in-depth interviews with professionals, and the use of visual participatory ethnographic methods. Therefore, the young participants build their stories through the implementation of two participatory photographic methods - the 'photo-diary' and the 'photo-elicitation' - that permit them to analyse and narrate their social and educational experiences from their perspectives, thus collaborating in the construction of knowledge during the different stages of the research. Preliminary findings show the high resilience and social adaptability of young refugees and asylum-seekers to achieve their goals and overcome structural and socio-cultural barriers. However, the uncertainty of their administrative situation during the asylum submission and the lack of specific resources might impact negatively on their educational pathways and the transition to the labour market. Finally, this study also highlights the benefits of participatory photographic methods in ethnographic research, which impacts positively the well-being of these young people, helps them to develop critical thinking, and it also allows them to access information more respectfully when narrating painful experiences.

Keywords: photo-diary, photo-elicitation, resilience, strategies, visual methodologies, young refugees and asylum seekers

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10316 Decentralization and Participatory Approach in the Cultural Heritage Management in Local Thailand

Authors: Amorn Kritsanaphan


This paper illustrates the decentralization of cultural heritage management in local Thailand, a place similar to other middle- income developing countries characterized by rapid tourism-industrialization, weakness formal state institutions and procedures, and intensity use of the cultural heritage resources. The author conducted field research in local Thailand, principally using qualitative primary data gathering. These were combined with records reviews and content analysis of documents. The author also attended local public meetings, and social activities, and interacted casually with local residents and governments. Cultural heritage management has been supposed to improve through multi-stakeholder participation and decentralization. However, processes and outcomes are far from being straightforward and depend on a variety of contingencies and contexts involved. Multi-stakeholder and participatory approach in decentralization of the cultural heritage management in Thailand have pushed to the forefront and sharpened a number of existing problems. However, under the decentralization, the most significant contribution has been in creating real political space where various local stakeholders have become active, respond and address their concerns in various ways vis-à-vis cultural heritage problems. Improving cultural heritage sustainability and viability of local livelihoods through decentralization and participatory approach is by no means certain. However, the shift instead creates spaces potent with possibilities for a meaningful and constructive engagement between and among local state and non-state actors that can lead to synergies and positive outcomes.

Keywords: decentralization, participatory approach, cultural heritage management, multi-stakeholder approach

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10315 Logo Design of Pajamas, OTOP Product of Sainoi Community, Sainoi District, Nonthaburi Province

Authors: Witthaya Mekhum, Napasri Suwanajote, Isara Sangprasert


This research on logo design of pajamas, OTOP product of Sainoi community, Sainoi district, Nonthanuri Province is a participatory action research aiming to find the logo for pajamas, an OTOP product of Sainoi community. Sample of this research is 50 local residents from Sainoi community in Sainoi district, Nonthanuri Province. The questionnaire consisted of 4 main parts. Part 1: factors that influence the decisions of consumers; Part 2: characteristics of the materials used in the design; Part 3: attitude assessment and needs of consumers about logo designing to develop marketing channels; Part 4: suggestions. Interviews were conducted. For data analysis, checklist items were analyzed with frequency and percentage. Open-end items were analyzed by summarizing and using ratio scale and mean and standard deviation. The research results showed that the design, cutting and fabric affect the decision of the consumers. They want design to be decent and beautiful. Illustrations used in graphic design logos should be Lines. Fonts should be English letters and the color of the font should be the same color.

Keywords: design, logo, OTOP product, pajamas

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10314 Governance Question and the Participatory Policy Making: Making the Process Functional in Nigeria

Authors: Albert T. Akume, P. D. Dahida


This paper examines the effect of various epochs of governments on policy making in Nigeria. The character of governance and public policy making of both epochs was exclusive, non-participatory and self-centric. As a consequence the interests of citizenry were not represented, neither protected nor sought to meet fairly the needs of all groups. The introduction of the post-1999 democratic government demand that the hitherto skewed pattern of policy making cease to be a character of governance. Hence, the need for citizen participation in the policy making process. The question then is what mode is most appropriate to engender public participation so as to make the policy making process functional? Given the prevailing social, economic and political dilemmas the utilization of the direct mode of citizen participation to affect policy outcome is doubtful if not unattainable. It is due to these predicament that this paper uses the documentary research design argues for the utilization of the indirect mode of citizen participation in the policy making process so as to affect public policy outcome appropriately and with less cost, acrimony and delays.

Keywords: governance, public policy, participation, representation, civil society

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10313 Participatory Action Research for Strengthening Health Systems: A Freirian Critique from a Community Based Study Conducted in the Northern Areas of Pakistan

Authors: Sohail Bawani, Kausar S. Khan, Rozina Karmaliani, Shehnaz Mir


Action research (AR) is one of the types of health systems research (HSR), and participatory action research (PAR) is known for being effective in health systems strengthening (HSS). The current literature on PAR for HSS cites numerous examples and case studies that led to improve health services; build child health information system; increase knowledge and awareness of people about health problems, and identify pathways for institutional and policy change by engaging people in research. But examples of marginalized communities being agents of change in health governance are not common in health systems research (HSR). This approach to PAR is at the heart of Paolo Freire’s Social Transformation Theory and Critical Consciousness building, which was used to design a community-based PAR study in the Northern/mountainous areas of Pakistan. The purpose of the study was to understand the place and role of marginalized communities in strengthening existing health governance structure (health facility and village health committees and health boards) by taking marginalized communities as partners. Community meetings were carried out to identify who is living at the social, political, cultural and economic margins in 40 different villages. Participatory reflection and analysis (PRA) tools were used during the meeting to facilitate identification. Focus group discussions were conducted with marginalized groups using PRA tools and family ethnographies with marginalized families identified through group discussions. Findings of the study revealed that for the marginalized health systems constitute more than just delivery of health services, but it also embraces social determinants that surround systems and its governance. The paper argues that from Frerian perspective people’s participation should not only be limited to knowledge generation. People must be seen active users of the knowledge that they generate for achieving better health outcomes that they want to achieve in the time to come. PAR provides a pathway to the marginalized in playing a role in health governance. The study dissemination planned shall engage the marginalized in a dialogue with service providers so that together a role for the marginalized can be outlined.

Keywords: participatory action research, health systems, marginalized, health services

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