Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5299

Search results for: population balance

5299 Investigation Bubble Growth and Nucleation Rates during the Pool Boiling Heat Transfer of Distilled Water Using Population Balance Model

Authors: V. Nikkhah Rashidabad, M. Manteghian, M. Masoumi, S. Mousavian


In this research, the changes in bubbles diameter and number that may occur due to the change in heat flux of pure water during pool boiling process. For this purpose, test equipment was designed and developed to collect test data. The bubbles were graded using Caliper Screen software. To calculate the growth and nucleation rates of bubbles under different fluxes, population balance model was employed. The results show that the increase in heat flux from q=20 kw/m2 to q=102 kw/m2 raised the growth and nucleation rates of bubbles.

Keywords: heat flux, bubble growth, bubble nucleation, population balance model

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
5298 Evaluating the Baseline Chatacteristics of Static Balance in Young Adults

Authors: K. Abuzayan, H. Alabed


The objectives of this study (baseline study, n = 20) were to implement Matlab procedures for quantifying selected static balance variables, establish baseline data of selected variables which characterize static balance activities in a population of healthy young adult males, and to examine any trial effects on these variables. The results indicated that the implementation of Matlab procedures for quantifying selected static balance variables was practical and enabled baseline data to be established for selected variables. There was no significant trial effect. Recommendations were made for suitable tests to be used in later studies. Specifically it was found that one foot-tiptoes tests either in static balance is too challenging for most participants in normal circumstances. A one foot-flat eyes open test was considered to be representative and challenging for static balance.

Keywords: static balance, base of support, baseline data, young adults

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
5297 Relationship between Joint Hypermobility and Balance in Patients with Down’s Syndrome

Authors: Meltem Ramoglu, Ertugrul Safran, Hikmet Ucgun, Busra Kepenek Varol, Hulya Nilgun Gurses


Down’s syndrome (DS) is a human genetic disorder caused by the presence of all or part of an extra chromosome 21. Many patients with DS have musculoskeletal problems that affect weak muscle tone (hypotonia) and ligament laxity. This leads to excessive joint hypermobility and decreased position sense (proprioception). Lack of proprioception may cause balance problems. The aim of our study was to investigate how does joint hypermobility affect balance in patients with DS. Our study conducted with 13 DS patients age between 18 to 40 years. Demographic data were recorded. Beighton Hypermobility Score (BHS) was used to evaluate joint hypermobility. Balance score of participants was evaluated with Berg Balance Scale (BBS). Mean age of our participants was 29,8±3,57 year. Average score of body mass index and BHS were; 33,23 ±3,78 kg/m2 and 7,61±1,04, respectively. Out of a maximum possible score of 56 on the Berg Balance Scale, scores of participants with DS ranged from 36–51, with a mean of 43±4,45. Significant correlation was found between BHS and BBS (r: -,966, p=0.00). All of our participants have 6/9 or higher grade from BHS. As a conclusion of our study; joint hypermobility may affect balance score in patients with DS. The results suggest that people with DS have worse balance scores which affected by hypermobility. Further studies need larger population for more reliable results.

Keywords: adults, balance, Down's syndrome, joint hypermobility

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5296 The Trend of Competitive Balance in Turkish Football Super League

Authors: Tugbay Inan


Competitive balance is known to have an important effect in determining the result of football matches. The degree of competitiveness is referred as competitive balance in football. Sports economics are the extent to which overall league attendances will be raised by measures, such as media effect, home advantage, revenue sharing, which aim to improve competitive balance. The purpose of present study was to measure the competitive balance in the football league of Turkey. In this study, by using long term competitive balance analysis, some facing problems and precautions were discussed through the seasons (1987-2014) in Turkish Football Super League (TSL). Within the practice of this study, The way that competitive balance level followed was determined in the history of super league (27 years). Based on this purpose, C5 Competitive Balance Index (C5CBI) and a Herfindahl index of competitive balance (HICB) were used. Finally, it is seen that in Super League, competitive balance factor took place time to time, however in total, a view apart from competitive balance is obviously seen.

Keywords: competitive balance, turkish football, c5 competitive balance index, Herfindahl-Hirschman Index

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5295 Developing the Methods for the Study of Static and Dynamic Balance

Authors: K. Abuzayan, H. Alabed, J. Ezarrugh, M. Agila


Static and dynamic balance are essential in daily and sports life. Many factors have been identified as influencing static balance control. Therefore, the aim of this study was to apply the (XCoM) method and other relevant variables (CoP, CoM, Fh, KE, P, Q, and, AI) to investigate sport related activities such as hopping and jumping. Many studies have represented the CoP data without mentioning its accuracy, so several experiments were done to establish the agreement between the CoP and the projected CoM in a static condition. Five male healthy (Mean ± SD:- age 24.6 years ±4.5, height 177 cm ± 6.3, body mass 72.8 kg ± 6.6) participated in this study. Results found that The implementation of the XCoM method was found to be practical for evaluating both static and dynamic balance. The general findings were that the CoP, the CoM, the XCoM, Fh, and Q were more informative than the other variables (e.g. KE, P, and AI) during static and dynamic balance. The XCoM method was found to be applicable to dynamic balance as well as static balance.

Keywords: centre of mass, static balance, dynamic balance, extrapolated centre of mass

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5294 Towards a Rigorous Analysis for a Supercritical Particulate Process

Authors: Yousef Bakhbakhi


Crystallization with supercritical fluids (SCFs), as a developed technology to produce particles of micron and sub-micron size with narrow size distribution, has found appreciable importance as an environmentally friendly technology. Particle synthesis using SCFs can be achieved employing a number of special processes involving solvent and antisolvent mechanisms. In this study, the compressed antisolvent (PCA) process is utilized as a model to analyze the theoretical complexity of crystallization with supercritical fluids. The population balance approach has proven to be an effectual technique to simulate and predict the particle size and size distribution. The nucleation and growth mechanisms of the particles formation in the PCA process is investigated using the population balance equation, which describes the evolution of the particle through coalescence and breakup levels with time. The employed mathematical population balance model contains a set of the partial differential equation with algebraic constraints, which demands a rigorous numerical approach. The combined Collocation and Galerkin finite element method are proposed as a high-resolution technique to solve the dynamics of the PCA process.

Keywords: particle formation, particle size and size distribution, PCA, supercritical carbon dioxide

Procedia PDF Downloads 80
5293 The Effect of Static Balance Enhance by Table Tennis Training Intervening on Deaf Children

Authors: Yi-Chun Chang, Ching-Ting Hsu, Wei-Hua Ho, Yueh-Tung Kuo


Children with hearing impairment have deficits of balance and motors. Although most of parents teach deaf children communication skills in early life, but rarely teach the deficits of balance. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether static balance improved after table tennis training. Table tennis training was provided four times a week for eight weeks to two 12-year-old deaf children. The table tennis training included crossover footwork, sideway attack, backhand block-sideways-flutter forehand attack, and one-on-one tight training. Data were gathered weekly and statistical comparisons were made with a paired t-test. We observed that the dominant leg is better than the non-dominant leg in static balance and girl balance ability is better than boy. The final result shows that table tennis training significantly improves the deaf children’s static balance performance. It indicates that table tennis training on deaf children helps the static balance ability.

Keywords: deaf children, static balance, table tennis, vestibular structure

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5292 Experimental Correlation for Erythrocyte Aggregation Rate in Population Balance Modeling

Authors: Erfan Niazi, Marianne Fenech


Red Blood Cells (RBCs) or erythrocytes tend to form chain-like aggregates under low shear rate called rouleaux. This is a reversible process and rouleaux disaggregate in high shear rates. Therefore, RBCs aggregation occurs in the microcirculation where low shear rates are present but does not occur under normal physiological conditions in large arteries. Numerical modeling of RBCs interactions is fundamental in analytical models of a blood flow in microcirculation. Population Balance Modeling (PBM) is particularly useful for studying problems where particles agglomerate and break in a two phase flow systems to find flow characteristics. In this method, the elementary particles lose their individual identity due to continuous destructions and recreations by break-up and agglomeration. The aim of this study is to find RBCs aggregation in a dynamic situation. Simplified PBM was used previously to find the aggregation rate on a static observation of the RBCs aggregation in a drop of blood under the microscope. To find aggregation rate in a dynamic situation we propose an experimental set up testing RBCs sedimentation. In this test, RBCs interact and aggregate to form rouleaux. In this configuration, disaggregation can be neglected due to low shear stress. A high-speed camera is used to acquire video-microscopic pictures of the process. The sizes of the aggregates and velocity of sedimentation are extracted using an image processing techniques. Based on the data collection from 5 healthy human blood samples, the aggregation rate was estimated as 2.7x103(±0.3 x103) 1/s.

Keywords: red blood cell, rouleaux, microfluidics, image processing, population balance modeling

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
5291 Relationship between Body Composition and Balance in Young Adults

Authors: Ferruh Taspinar, Gulce K. Seyyar, Gamze Kurt, Eda O. Okur, Emrah Afsar, Ismail Saracoglu, Betul Taspinar


Overweight and obesity has been associated with postural balance. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between body composition and balance. One hundred and thirty two young adults (58 male, 74 female) were included in the study. Mean age of participants were found as 21.21±1.51 years. Body composition (body mass index, total body fat ratio, total body muscle ratio) and balance (right anterior, right postero-medial, right postero-lateral, left anterior, left postero-medial, left postero-lateral) were evaluated by Tanita BC-418 and Y balance test, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between the parameters. Significance level in statistical analysis was accepted as 0.05. According to results, no correlation was found between body mass index and balance parameters. There was negative correlation between total body fat ratio and balance parameters (r=0.419-0.509, p˂0.05). On the other hand, positive correlation was found between total body muscle ratio and balance parameters (r=0.390-0.494, p˂0.05). This study demonstrated that body fat and muscle ratio affects the balance. Body composition should be considered in rehabilitation programs including postural balance training.

Keywords: balance, body composition, body mass, young adults

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5290 Relationship between Dynamic Balance and Explosive Leg Power in Young Female Gymnasts

Authors: A. Aleksic-Veljkovic, K. Herodek, M. Bratic, M. Mitic


The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between variables of dynamic balance and countermovement jump in young, female gymnasts. A single-group design was used. Forty-seven young, female gymnasts (Mean±SD; age: 8-12 years, height: 42.88±10.38 cm, mass: 35.59±8.15 kg; body mass index: 17.18±1.62 kg/m2; training hours per week: 15-18 h/week) performed measurements of dynamic balance and countermovement jump with and without arm swing. Significant, but small to medium associations were observed between variables of balance and height of the jump in both protocols of the countermovement jump ranging from r = +0.313 to +0.426. No significant associations were observed between variables of dynamic balance and relative power and peak power of countermovement jump with or without arm swings. The data indicate that dynamic balance and leg power imply that balance and power are independent of each other and may have to be tested and trained complementarily in young gymnasts.

Keywords: artistic gymnastics, countermovement jump, jump height, testing

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5289 Electroencephalography Activity during Sensory Organization Balance Test

Authors: Tariq Ali Gujar, Anita Hökelmann


Postural balance plays essential role throughout life in daily activities. Somatosensory, visual and vestibular inputs play the fundamental role in maintaining body equilibrium to balance the posture. The aim of this study was to find out electroencephalography (EEG) responses during balance activity of young people during Sensory Organization Balance Test. The outcome of this study will help to create the fitness and neurorehabilitation plan. 25 young people (25 ± 3.1 years) have been analyzed on Balance Master NeuroCom® with the coupling of Brain Vision 32 electrode wireless EEG system during the Sensory Organization Test. From the results it has been found that the balance score of samples is significantly higher under the influence of somatosensory input as compared to visual and vestibular input (p < 0.05). The EEG between somatosensory and visual input to balance the posture showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) alpha and beta activities during somatosensory input in somatosensory, attention and visual functions of the cortex whereas executive and motor functions of the cerebral cortex showed significantly higher (p < 0.05) alpha EEG activity during the visual input. The results suggest that somatosensory and attention function of the cerebral cortex has alpha and beta activity, respectively high during somatosensory and vestibular input in maintaining balance. In patients with balance impairments both physical and cognitive training, including neurofeedback will be helpful to improve balance abilities.

Keywords: balance, electroencephalography activity, somatosensory, visual, vestibular

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5288 The Amount of Information Processing and Balance Performance in Children: The Dual-Task Paradigm

Authors: Chin-Chih Chiou, Tai-Yuan Su, Ti-Yu Chen, Wen-Yu Chiu, Chungyu Chen


The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of reaction time (RT) or balance performance as the number of stimulus-response choices increases, the amount of information processing of 0-bit and 1-bit conditions based on Hick’s law, using the dual-task design. Eighteen children (age: 9.38 ± 0.27 years old) were recruited as the participants for this study, and asked to assess RT and balance performance separately and simultaneously as following five conditions: simple RT (0-bit decision), choice RT (1-bit decision), single balance control, balance control with simple RT, and balance control with choice RT. Biodex 950-300 balance system and You-Shang response timer were used to record and analyze the postural stability and information processing speed (RT) respectively for the participants. Repeated measures one-way ANOVA with HSD post-hoc test and 2 (balance) × 2 (amount of information processing) repeated measures two-way ANOVA were used to test the parameters of balance performance and RT (α = .05). The results showed the overall stability index in the 1-bit decision was lower than in 0-bit decision, and the mean deflection in the 1-bit decision was lower than in single balance performance. Simple RTs were faster than choice RTs both in single task condition and dual task condition. It indicated that the chronometric approach of RT could use to infer the attention requirement of the secondary task. However, this study did not find that the balance performance is interfered for children by the increasing of the amount of information processing.

Keywords: capacity theory, reaction time, Hick’s law, balance

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5287 The Influence of Using Soft Knee Pads on Static and Dynamic Balance among Male Athletes and Non-Athletes

Authors: Yaser Kazemzadeh, Keyvan Molanoruzy, Mojtaba Izady


The balance is the key component of motor skills to maintain postural control and the execution of complex skills. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of soft knee pads on static and dynamic balance of male athletes. For this aim, thirty young athletes in different sport fields with 3 years professional sport training background and thirty healthy young men nonathletic (age: 24.5 ± 2.9, 24.3 ± 2.4, weight: 77.2 ± 4.3 and 80/9 ± 6/3 and height: 175 ± 2/84, 172 ± 5/44 respectively) as subjects selected. Then, subjects in two manner (without knee and with soft knee pads made of neoprene) execute standard error test (BESS) to assess static balance and star test to assess dynamic balance. For analyze of data, t-tests and one-way ANOVA were significant 05/0 ≥ α statistical analysis. The results showed that the use of soft knee significantly reduced error rate in static balance test (p ≥ 0/05). Also, use a soft knee pads decreased score of athlete group and increased score of nonathletic group in star test (p ≥ 0/05). These findings, indicates that use of knees affects static and dynamic balance in athletes and nonathletic in different manner and may increased athletic performance in sports that rely on static balance and decreased performance in sports that rely on dynamic balance.

Keywords: static balance, dynamic balance, soft knee, athletic men, non athletic men

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
5286 The Effects of Kicking Leg Preference on the Bilateral Balance Ability Asymmetries in Collegian Football Players

Authors: Mehmet Yildiz, Mehmet Kale


The primary aim of the present study was to identify the bilateral balance asymmetries when comparing the dominant (DL) vs. the non-dominant leg (NDL) in the collegian soccer players. The secondary aim was to compare the inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI) when differentiating by kicking preference (right-dominant vs. left-dominant). 34 right-dominant leg (RightDL) (age:21.12±1.85, height:174.50±5.18, weight:69.42±6.86) and 23 left-dominant leg (LeftDL), (age:21.70±2.03, height:176.2±6.27, weight:68.73±5.96) collegian football players were tested for bilateral static and dynamic balance. Balance ability was assessed by measuring centre of pressure deviation on a single leg. Single leg static and dynamic balance scores and inter-limb asymmetry index (ASI) were determined. Student t tests were used for the comparison of dominant and nondominant leg balance scores and RightDL and LeftDL football players’ inter-limb asymmetry index of the balance scores. The results showed that there were significant differences in the dynamic balance scores in favour of the nondominant leg, (DL:738±211 vs. NDL:606±226, p < 0.01). Also, it has been seen that LeftDL players have significantly higher inter-limb asymmetry index when compared with rightDL players for both static (rightDL:-7.07±94.91 vs. leftDL:-183.19±354.05, p < 0.01) and dynamic (rightDL: 1.73±49.65 vs. leftDL:27.08±23.34, p < 0.05) balance scores. In conclusion, bilateral dynamic balance asymmetries may be affected using single leg predominantly in the mobilization workouts. Because of having higher inter-limb asymmetry index, left-dominant leg players may be screened and trained to minimize balance asymmetry.

Keywords: bilateral balance, asymmetries, dominant leg, leg preference

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5285 Effect of the Community Chair-Based Exercise Programme on the Balance of the Elderly in Hong Kong

Authors: Wai Sang Wu, Florence Pik Sze Mok


Introduction: Ageing population is one of the hot topics nowadays in the world and this phenomenon is believed to exacerbate continuously in the future. According to the latest information from World Health Organization (WHO) in 2016, the proportion of people aged more than 60 years is projected to be doubled from 12% in 2015 to 22% in 2050 of the world's population. Similarly, according to figures released by the Census and Statistic Department of Hong Kong in 2015, the contribution of elderly aged more than 65 years olds is projected to increase from 15% in 2014 to 34% in 2064 in local community. On the other hand, falls in elderly is a common problem, and it can bring along many negative consequences among elders, such as reducing their mobility level as well as their quality of life. In addition, it can also increase the caring stress of their family caregivers and as well increase the reliance and burden on the medical care system of Hong Kong. Therefore, appropriate measures should be implemented in order to minimize the risk of fall among elders. The objective of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of the chair-based exercise programme in affecting the balance of the elderly in Hong Kong. Methods: Thirteen healthy subjects (males = 2; females = 11; mean age: 76.2 ± 7.8 years old) were recruited from an elderly social centre in the community to participate in a structural chair-based exercise programme for 6 weeks (1 session per week; 60-minutes per session). Subjects were being assessed on their balance ability using three commonly used clinical assessments, namely, 1) single leg stance (SLS) test, 2) functional reach test, and 3) 360-degree turn test, before and after their participation in the chair-based exercise programme. Pre and post within-subject comparison was adopted to assess the effectiveness of the programme. Results: There was significant improvement (p < 0.05) in all balance parameters of the subjects after their participation in the exercise programme. Elderly demonstrated significant improvement in SLS (p < 0.012), functional reach (p < 0.030) and 360 degree turn (p < 0.043). Conclusions: This study showed that a community chair-based exercise programme is effective in improving the balance ability of the elders. It seems to be another exercise regime that should be promoted among the elders in order to minimize their risk of falls and its negative consequence.

Keywords: balance, chair-based exercise programme, community, elderly

Procedia PDF Downloads 197
5284 2D CFD-PBM Coupled Model of Particle Growth in an Industrial Gas Phase Fluidized Bed Polymerization Reactor

Authors: H. Kazemi Esfeh, V. Akbari, M. Ehdaei, T. N. G. Borhani, A. Shamiri, M. Najafi


In an industrial fluidized bed polymerization reactor, particle size distribution (PSD) plays a significant role in the reactor efficiency evaluation. The computational fluid dynamic (CFD) models coupled with population balance equation (CFD-PBM) have been extensively employed to investigate the flow behavior in the poly-disperse multiphase fluidized bed reactors (FBRs) utilizing ANSYS Fluent code. In this study, an existing CFD-PBM/ DQMOM coupled modeling framework has been used to highlight its potential to analyze the industrial-scale gas phase polymerization reactor. The predicted results reveal an acceptable agreement with the observed industrial data in terms of pressure drop and bed height. The simulated results also indicate that the higher particle growth rate can be achieved for bigger particles. Hence, the 2D CFD-PBM/DQMOM coupled model can be used as a reliable tool for analyzing and improving the design and operation of the gas phase polymerization FBRs.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, population balance equation, fluidized bed polymerization reactor, direct quadrature method of moments

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5283 Using Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors in Population Growth and Stability Obtaining

Authors: Abubakar Sadiq Mensah


The Knowledge of the population growth of a nation is paramount to national planning. The population of a place is studied and a model developed over a period of time, Matrices is used to form model for population growth. The eigenvalue ƛ of the matrix A and its corresponding eigenvector X is such that AX = ƛX is calculated. The stable age distribution of the population is obtained using the eigenvalue and the characteristic polynomial. Hence, estimation could be made using eigenvalues and eigenvectors.

Keywords: eigenvalues, eigenvectors, population, growth/stability

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5282 Efficacy of Transcranial Magnetic Therapy on Balance in Patients with Vestibular Dysfunction

Authors: Ibrahim M. I. Hamoda, Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi, Mohammed K. Mohamed, Nawal A. Abu-Shady


Background: Most of patients with vestibular dysfunction suffering from balance disorders, Abnormality in balance increase effort and exertion which affect the independency, so this study might be a guide in managing balance problem and consequently improve walking with less exertion and maximum function. Purpose: to analyze and discuss the effect of transcranial magnetic therapy on balance in patients with vestibular dysfunction. Methods: forty subjects from both sexes were classified to divided randomly into two equal groups; Group I study group: this group received transcranial magnetic therapy, with a selected physical therapy program for improving balance and vestibular disorders (Balance training, Cawthorne-Cooksey Exercises) and group II (control group): this group received a selected physical therapy program as group I without transcranial magnetic therapy. This treatment procedure will be applied three times weekly for three months. The mean age was 54.53±3.44 and 55.33±2.32 years and BMI 35.7±3.03 and 35.73±1.03 kg/m2 for group I and II respectively. The Biodex Balance System, Berge balances scale (BBS) and brain MRI were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted before and after treatment. The treatment program for group I included balance training, Cawthorne-Cooksey Exercises and pulsed magnetic therapy (Parameters used in the program of 20 minutes, Intensity 2 gausses, Frequency 1 Hz). This selected program was done in approximately one hour every other day for three month. The treatment program group II Patients received the same program as group A without transcranial magnetic therapy. Results: The One-way ANOVA revealed that there were no significant differences in BBS scores, overall balance index, Anterior / posterior balance index, Medial / lateral balance index and dynamic limits of stability between both groups. Moreover, the BBS scores increased and overall balance index, Anterior / posterior balance index, Medial / lateral balance index and dynamic limits of stability decreased significantly after treatment in group I and II compared with before treatment. Interpretation/Conclusion: Adding pulsed magnetic therapy to balance training, Cawthorne-Cooksey Exercises has no effect on static and dynamic balance in patients with balance problems due to benign positional paroxysmal vertigo.

Keywords: balance, transcranial magnetic therapy, vestibular dysfunction, biomechanic

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
5281 Relationship between Age, Gender, Anthropometrics Characteristics and Dynamic Balance in Children Age Group between 5 to 12 Years Old at Anand City, Gujarat

Authors: Dhruveshi B. Rana, Nirav P. Vaghela, Jigar N. Mehta


Objective: To assess the relationships among age, gender, anthropometrics and dynamic balance in 5 to 12 years of children in Anand city. Method: Cross-sectional study was conducted. 150 school going children of 5-12 (75-girls, 75-boys) years were recruited from the school of the Anand city-Shivam English Medium school, Veer Vithalbhai Patel school, Adarsh Primary school. Height, weight, arm length, and foot length were measured in 150 children of 5 to 12 years. Dynamic balance was assessed using Time Up and Go Test, Functional Reach Test, Pediatric Balance Scale. Results: Positive relationship (r = 0.58 and r= 0.77) were found between increasing age and FRT and PBS scores. A negative relationship (r = - 0.46) was observed between age of boys and TUG test. Significant gender by age group difference was observed in FRT. Arm length and height has the strongest influence on FRT, and age, height, foot length; and arm length has the strongest influence on PBS. Conclusions: Age and arm length have the strongest relationship with the dynamic balance (FRT, PBS). Dynamic balance ability is directly related to the age. It helps the pediatric therapists in selecting dynamic balance test according to the age.

Keywords: age, gender, anthropometric, dynamic balance

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5280 Modeling of Polyethylene Particle Size Distribution in Fluidized Bed Reactors

Authors: R. Marandi, H. Shahrir, T. Nejad Ghaffar Borhani, M. Kamaruddin


In the present study, a steady state population balance model was developed to predict the polymer particle size distribution (PSD) in ethylene gas phase fluidized bed olefin polymerization reactors. The multilayer polymeric flow model (MPFM) was used to calculate the growth rate of a single polymer particle under intra-heat and mass transfer resistance. The industrial plant data were used to calculate the growth rate of polymer particle and the polymer PSD. Numerical simulations carried out to describe the influence of effective monomer diffusion coefficient, polymerization rate and initial catalyst size on the catalyst particle growth and final polymer PSD. The results present that the intra-heat and mass limitation is important for the ethylene polymerization, the growth rate of particle and the polymer PSD in the fluidized bed reactor. The effect of the agglomeration on the PSD is also considered. The result presents that the polymer particle size distribution becomes broader as the agglomeration exits.

Keywords: population balance, olefin polymerization, fluidized bed reactor, particle size distribution, agglomeration

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5279 Long Hours Impact on Work-Life Balance

Authors: Syeda Faiza Gardazi, Syed Ahsan Ali Gardazi, Ajmal Waheed


The trend of overtime is increasing among workers due to more pressure to perform workloads, job insecurity, and financial issues. Overtime work affects the work-life balance conflict negatively as well positively. Work-life balance conflict has become an important issue as traditional work and family roles have changed. The purpose of the current research was to study the impact of overtime work on work-life balance conflict along with the moderating role of job satisfaction. For this purpose, data is collected from the employees working in different public and private sectors of Pakistan using simple random sampling technique. Descriptive statistics was used for data presentation and analysis. Correlation and regression analysis were used to test four research hypotheses proposed on the basis of research framework. The findings led to the acceptance of four hypotheses. The results show that high working hours and overtime in general lead to high work-life balance conflict. Moreover, job satisfaction moderates the relationship between overtime work and work-life balance conflict.

Keywords: family to work conflict, overtime work, work to family conflict, work-life balance conflict

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5278 How to Applicate Knowledge Management in Security Environment within the Scope of Optimum Balance Model

Authors: Hakan Erol, Altan Elibol, Ömer Eryılmaz, Mehmet Şimşek


Organizations aim to manage information in a most possible effective way for sustainment and development. In doing so, they apply various procedures and methods. The very same situation is valid for each service of Armed Forces. During long-lasting endeavors such as shaping and maintaining security environment, supporting and securing peace, knowledge management is a crucial asset. Optimum Balance Model aims to promote the system from a decisive point to a higher decisive point. In this context, this paper analyses the application of optimum balance model to knowledge management in Armed Forces and tries to find answer to the question how Optimum Balance Model is integrated in knowledge management.

Keywords: optimum balance model, knowledge management, security environment, supporting peace

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5277 Static Balance in the Elderly: Comparison Between Elderly Performing Physical Activity and Fine Motor Coordination Activity

Authors: Andreia Guimaraes Farnese, Mateus Fernandes Reu Urban, Leandro Procopio, Renato Zangaro, Regiane Albertini


Senescence changes include postural balance, inferring the risk of falls, and can lead to fractures, bedridden, and the risk of death. Physical activity, e.g., cardiovascular exercises, is notable for improving balance due to brain cell stimulations, but fine coordination exercises also elevate cell brain metabolism. This study aimed to verify whether the elderly person who performs fine motor activity has a balance similar to that of those who practice physical activity. The subjects were divided into three groups according to the activity practice: control group (CG) with seven participants for the sedentary individuals, motor coordination group (MCG) with six participants, and activity practitioner group (PAG) with eight participants. Data comparisons were from the Berg balance scale, Time up and Go test, and stabilometric analysis. Descriptive statistical and ANOVA analyses were performed for data analysis. The results reveal that including fine motor activities can improve the balance of the elderly and indirectly decrease the risk of falls.

Keywords: balance, barapodometer, coordination, elderly

Procedia PDF Downloads 47
5276 Regulation of Water Balance of the Plant from the Different Geo-Environmental Locations

Authors: Astghik R. Sukiasyan


Under the drought stress condition, the plants would grow slower. Temperature is one of the most important abiotic factors which suppress the germination processes. However, the processes of transpiration are regulated directly by the cell water, which followed to an increase in volume of vacuoles. During stretching under the influence of water pressure, the cell goes into the state of turgor. In our experiments, lines of the semi-dental sweet maize of Armenian population from various zones of growth under mild and severe drought stress were tested. According to results, the value of the water balance of the plant cells may reflect the ability of plants to adapt to drought stress. It can be assumed that the turgor allows evaluating the number of received dissolved substance in cell.

Keywords: turgor, drought stress, plant growth, Armenian Zea Maize Semidentata

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5275 Impact of Obesity on Fertility in a Population of Women in the Wilaya of Batna

Authors: S. Benbia, W. Bouafia, D. Khellaf, A. Chennaf, M. Yahia


Our study was designed to highlight changes in certain biochemical parameters (CH, TG, HDL, GOT, GPT, LDL, and CRP), obese women infertile fertile witnesses and research potential pathophysiological link between obesity and infertility in this population of women. This practical work was focused on a population of 24 obese women infertile, compared to controls, subjects without any pathology causing disruption of parameters to be studied to determine the contribution of obesity in the etiology of infertility. The assay results revealed a highly significant difference between the two groups in serum CH, TG, HDL, TGO and TGP (P < 0.0001) and in the rate of LDL (p = 0.0017) and CRP (p = 0.02). The hormonal balance also shows a significant difference between the two groups (P < 0.0001).The present study indicates that obesity is associated with infertility, but there is no direct pathophysiological link between obesity and infertility has not been determined. Further in-depth studies are needed to determine the exact mechanism by which overweight leads to female infertility.

Keywords: obesity, fertility, infertility, biochemical, women

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
5274 Iterative White Balance Adjustment Process in Production Line

Authors: Onur Onder, Celal Tanuca, Mahir Ozil, Halil Sen, Alkım Ozkan, Engin Ceylan, Ali Istek, Ozgur Saglam


White balance adjustment of LCD TVs is an important procedure which has a direct influence on quality perception. Existing methods adjust RGB gain and offset values in different white levels during production. This paper suggests an iterative method in which the gamma is pre-adjusted during the design stage, and only 80% white is adjusted during production by modifying only RGB gain values (offset values are not modified). This method reduces the white balance adjustment time, contributing to the total efficiency of the production. Experiment shows that the adjustment results are well within requirements.

Keywords: color temperature, LCD panel deviation, LCD TV manufacturing, white balance

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
5273 Interaction Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation and Aerobic Exercises on Balance and Physical Performance in Children with Down Syndrome

Authors: Mohamed A. Eid, Sobhy M. Aly, Marwa M. Ibrahim, Nadia L. Radwan


To investigate the interaction effects of vitamin D supplementation combined with aerobic exercises (AE) and conventional physical therapy program (CPTP) on balance and physical performance in children with Down syndrome (DS).Methods: A randomized controlled trial was conducted for 38 children with DS, with ages ranging from 8 to 12 years. They were divided randomly to two groups. The control group (n=19) received the CPTP, while the study group (n=19) received the CPTP, AE, and vitamin D in the form of an oral daily dose of vitamin D3 400 IU (Cholecalciferol). Evaluation of balance by using the Biodex Stability System and physical performance by using the six-minute walk test (6MWT)was performed before and after 12 weeks of the treatment program. Findings: All groups showed a significant improvement in balance and physical performance after treatment (p < 0.05). The study group showed a significant improvement in balance and physical performancecompared with that of the control group (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Vitamin D supplementation combined with AE and CPTP could improve balance and physical performance in children with DS. Therefore, vitamin D and AEshould be considered as adjunctive to the rehabilitation program of these children.

Keywords: aerobic exercises, balance, down syndrome, physical performance, vitamin D

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
5272 Task Kicking Performance with Biomechanical Instrumentation

Authors: T. Hirata, M. G. Silva, L. M. Rosa


The balance ability during task kick in soccer is a determining factor in the execution of functional movements that require a high-performance motor coordination. The current experiment explored it during an instep soccer kick and functional task kicking. Their kicking performance was measured in terms of the sway characteristics using lateral and antero-posterior balance of the center of pressure (COP) for the supporting leg and the kinematic data, the supporting leg’s knee angle. The motion was realized with one-legged stance of five male indoor soccer players and using the trigger device ball controller. The results showed large balance in antero-posterior direction than in lateral direction. However, each player adopts a different way to kick the ball, and the media-lateral displacement of the COP showed no correlation with the balance skill.

Keywords: kicking performance, center of pressure, one-legged stance, balance ability

Procedia PDF Downloads 509
5271 Relationship between Static Balance and Body Characteristics in the Elderly

Authors: J. W. Kim, Y. R. Kwon, Y. J. Ho, H. M. Jeon, G. M. Eom


The aim of this study was to investigate the association of anthropometry with static balance in the elderly and their possible gender difference. Forty six subjects (23 men and 23 women) participated in this study. COP (Center of Pressure) was measured on a force-platform during quiet feet-together standing. As outcome measures, mean distance were derived from the COP. Weight was significantly correlated with postural variable only in the elderly men. This result suggests that the gender should be considered when normalizing postural variables.

Keywords: body characteristics, postural balance, elderly, gender difference

Procedia PDF Downloads 337
5270 On Panel Data Analysis of Factors on Economic Advances in Some African Countries

Authors: Ayoola Femi J., Kayode Balogun


In some African Countries, increase in Gross Domestic Products (GDP) has not translated to real development as expected by common-man in his household. For decades, a lot of contests on economic growth and development has been a nagging issues. The focus of this study is to analysing the effects of economic determinants/factors on economic advances in some African Countries by employing panel data analysis. The yearly (1990-2013) data were obtained from the world economic outlook database of the International Monetary Fund (IMF), for probing the effects of these variables on growth rate in some selected African countries which include: Nigeria, Algeria, Angola, Benin, Botswana, Burundi, Cape-Verde, Cameroun, Central African Republic, Chad, Republic Of Congo, Cote di’ Voire, Egypt, Equatorial-Guinea, Ethiopia, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea Bissau, Kenya, Lesotho, Madagascar, Mali, Mauritius, Morocco, Mozambique, Niger, Rwanda, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, and Uganda. The effects of 6 macroeconomic variables on GDP were critically examined. We used 37 Countries GDP as our dependent variable and 6 independent variables used in this study include: Total Investment (totinv), Inflation (inf), Population (popl), current account balance (cab), volume of imports of goods and services (vimgs), and volume of exports of goods and services (vexgs). The results of our analysis shows that total investment, population and volume of exports of goods and services strongly affect the economic growth. We noticed that population of these selected countries positively affect the GDP while total investment and volume of exports negatively affect GDP. On the contrary, inflation, current account balance and volume of imports of goods and services’ contribution to the GDP are insignificant. The results of our analysis shows that total investment, population and volume of exports of goods and services strongly affect the economic growth. We noticed that population of these selected countries positively affect the GDP while total investment and volume of exports negatively affect GDP. On the contrary, inflation, current account balance and volume of imports of goods and services’ contribution to the GDP are insignificant. The results of this study would be useful for individual African governments for developing a suitable and appropriate economic policies and strategies. It will also help investors to understand the economic nature and viability of Africa as a continent as well as its individual countries.

Keywords: African countries, economic growth and development, gross domestic products, static panel data models

Procedia PDF Downloads 393