Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 90

Search results for: Geeta Kumari

90 Quantitative Assessment of Different Formulations of Antimalarials in Sentinel Sites of India

Authors: Taruna Katyal Arora, Geeta Kumari, Hari Shankar, Neelima Mishra

Abstract:

Substandard and counterfeit antimalarials is a major problem in malaria endemic areas. The availability of counterfeit/ substandard medicines is not only decreasing the efficacy in patients, but it is also one of the contributing factors for developing antimalarial drug resistance. Owing to this, a pilot study was conducted to survey quality of drugs collected from different malaria endemic areas of India. Artesunate+Sulphadoxine-Pyrimethamine (AS+SP), Artemether-Lumefantrine (AL), Chloroquine (CQ) tablets were randomly picked from public health facilities in selected states of India. The quality of antimalarial drugs from these areas was assessed by using Global Pharma Health Fund Minilab test kit. This includes physical/visual inspection and disintegration test. Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) was carried out for semi-quantitative assessment of active pharmaceutical ingredients. A total of 45 brands, out of which 21 were for CQ, 14 for AL and 10 for AS+SP were tested from Uttar Pradesh (U.P.), Mizoram, Meghalaya and Gujrat states. One out of 45 samples showed variable disintegration and retension factor. The variable disintegration and retention factor which would have been due to substandard quality or other factors including storage. However, HPLC analysis confirms standard active pharmaceutical ingredient, but may be due to humid temperature and moisture in storage may account for the observed result.

Keywords: antimalarial medicines, counterfeit, substandard, TLC

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
89 Laboratory Scale Experimental Studies on CO₂ Based Underground Coal Gasification in Context of Clean Coal Technology

Authors: Geeta Kumari, Prabu Vairakannu

Abstract:

Coal is the largest fossil fuel. In India, around 37 % of coal resources found at a depth of more than 300 meters. In India, more than 70% of electricity production depends on coal. Coal on combustion produces greenhouse and pollutant gases such as CO₂, SOₓ, NOₓ, and H₂S etc. Underground coal gasification (UCG) technology is an efficient and an economic in-situ clean coal technology, which converts these unmineable coals into valuable calorific gases. The UCG syngas (mainly H₂, CO, CH₄ and some lighter hydrocarbons) which can utilized for the production of electricity and manufacturing of various useful chemical feedstock. It is an inherent clean coal technology as it avoids ash disposal, mining, transportation and storage problems. Gasification of underground coal using steam as a gasifying medium is not an easy process because sending superheated steam to deep underground coal leads to major transportation difficulties and cost effective. Therefore, for reducing this problem, we have used CO₂ as a gasifying medium, which is a major greenhouse gas. This paper focus laboratory scale underground coal gasification experiment on a coal block by using CO₂ as a gasifying medium. In the present experiment, first, we inject oxygen for combustion for 1 hour and when the temperature of the zones reached to more than 1000 ºC, and then we started supplying of CO₂ as a gasifying medium. The gasification experiment was performed at an atmospheric pressure of CO₂, and it was found that the amount of CO produced due to Boudouard reaction (C+CO₂  2CO) is around 35%. The experiment conducted to almost 5 hours. The maximum gas composition observed, 35% CO, 22 % H₂, and 11% CH4 with LHV 248.1 kJ/mol at CO₂/O₂ ratio 0.4 by volume.

Keywords: underground coal gasification, clean coal technology, calorific value, syngas

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
88 Backstepping Design and Fractional Differential Equation of Chaotic System

Authors: Ayub Khan, Net Ram Garg, Geeta Jain

Abstract:

In this paper, backstepping method is proposed to synchronize two fractional-order systems. The simulation results show that this method can effectively synchronize two chaotic systems.

Keywords: backstepping method, fractional order, synchronization, chaotic system

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
87 Kinetic Studies on CO₂ Gasification of Low and High Ash Indian Coals in Context of Underground Coal Gasification

Authors: Geeta Kumari, Prabu Vairakannu

Abstract:

Underground coal gasification (UCG) technology is an efficient and an economic in-situ clean coal technology, which converts unmineable coals into calorific valuable gases. This technology avoids ash disposal, coal mining, and storage problems. CO₂ gas can be a potential gasifying medium for UCG. CO₂ is a greenhouse gas and, the liberation of this gas to the atmosphere from thermal power plant industries leads to global warming. Hence, the capture and reutilization of CO₂ gas are crucial for clean energy production. However, the reactivity of high ash Indian coals with CO₂ needs to be assessed. In the present study, two varieties of Indian coals (low ash and high ash) are used for thermogravimetric analyses (TGA). Two low ash north east Indian coals (LAC) and a typical high ash Indian coal (HAC) are procured from the coal mines of India. Low ash coal with 9% ash (LAC-1) and 4% ash (LAC-2) and high ash coal (HAC) with 42% ash are used for the study. TGA studies are carried out to evaluate the activation energy for pyrolysis and gasification of coal under N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. Coats and Redfern method is used to estimate the activation energy of coal under different temperature regimes. Volumetric model is assumed for the estimation of the activation energy. The activation energy estimated under different temperature range. The inherent properties of coals play a major role in their reactivity. The results show that the activation energy decreases with the decrease in the inherent percentage of coal ash due to the ash layer hindrance. A reverse trend was observed with volatile matter. High volatile matter of coal leads to the estimation of low activation energy. It was observed that the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere at 400-600°C is less as compared to N₂ inert atmosphere. At this temperature range, it is estimated that 15-23% reduction in the activation energy under CO₂ atmosphere. This shows the reactivity of CO₂ gas with higher hydrocarbons of the coal volatile matters. The reactivity of CO₂ with the volatile matter of coal might occur through dry reforming reaction in which CO₂ reacts with higher hydrocarbon, aromatics of the tar content. The observed trend of Ea in the temperature range of 150-200˚C and 400-600˚C is HAC > LAC-1 >LAC-2 in both N₂ and CO₂ atmosphere. At the temperature range of 850-1000˚C, higher activation energy is estimated when compared to those values in the temperature range of 400-600°C. Above 800°C, char gasification through Boudouard reaction progressed under CO₂ atmosphere. It was observed that 8-20 kJ/mol of activation energy is increased during char gasification above 800°C compared to volatile matter pyrolysis between the temperature ranges of 400-600°C. The overall activation energy of the coals in the temperature range of 30-1000˚C is higher in N₂ atmosphere than CO₂ atmosphere. It can be concluded that higher hydrocarbons such as tar effectively undergoes cracking and reforming reactions in presence of CO₂. Thus, CO₂ gas is beneficial for the production of high calorific value syngas using high ash Indian coals.

Keywords: clean coal technology, CO₂ gasification, activation energy, underground coal gasification

Procedia PDF Downloads 87
86 Effect of Organochlorine Insecticide (Endosulfan) on Albino Rat at the Rate of Blood Uric Acid Level

Authors: Bindu Kumari, Bindu Kumari Singh

Abstract:

Endosulfan is known to be one of the highly toxic agricultural pesticides commonly used in our societies. With the widespread use of Endosulfan in agriculture, human beings are most likely to be exposed to it, either orally by eating Endosulfan-contaminated foods or by nose and whole body inhalation in the farms during its application. The present study was conducted to observe the changes in the serum uric acid level of the Swiss albino rats due to the administration of Endosulfan. 3.0 mg Endosulfan/kg body weight was daily administered orally to albino rats for 28 days period. Alterations in their K.F.T. parameters were recorded at a regular interval of 7 days within this 28 days period and were compared with those of control rats. All rats were monitored for any observable toxic symptoms throughout the experimental period and they also were weighted weekly to monitor body weight gain. Alteration recorded in K.F.T. parameters within the groups were due to Endosulfan exposure and serum uric acid level was significantly elevated in the 3mg/kg dose group. Pathological changes of rats treated with Endosulfan were observed with typical signs of toxicity. Uric acid is a heterocyclic compound formed as an end product of metabolism of purine nucleotides. It forms ions and salts known as urate and acid urate which are harmful to our health. Uric acid clearance is one of the numerous important functions of the kidney. Defects in this process resulted in Gout, kidney stone or Kidney failure.

Keywords: KFT parameters, blood uric acid level, endosulfan, eat

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
85 Error Analysis of Wavelet-Based Image Steganograhy Scheme

Authors: Geeta Kasana, Kulbir Singh, Satvinder Singh

Abstract:

In this paper, a steganographic scheme for digital images using Integer Wavelet Transform (IWT) is proposed. The cover image is decomposed into wavelet sub bands using IWT. Each of the subband is divided into blocks of equal size and secret data is embedded into the largest and smallest pixel values of each block of the subband. Visual quality of stego images is acceptable as PSNR between cover image and stego is above 40 dB, imperceptibility is maintained. Experimental results show better tradeoff between capacity and visual perceptivity compared to the existing algorithms. Maximum possible error analysis is evaluated for each of the wavelet subbands of an image.

Keywords: DWT, IWT, MSE, PSNR

Procedia PDF Downloads 349
84 Crime against Women behind Closed Doors in Indian Society

Authors: Rasha Kumari Panda

Abstract:

The crime against women in closed door is an important burning issue in day to day life. Domestic violence has become daily part of women’s life. It affects the millions of the women throughout the India as it violates their human rights. Crime against women behind closed door is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, discrimination against women moreover, when the world is approaching towards modernization, worse the condition of women and girls in our society. This paper examines how the rights of women are being violated and suggests the remedial measures to empower women. Powerlessness of women is the root cause of violence has been specifically addressed.

Keywords: domestic violence, cruelty, dowry, statutes

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
83 In situ Biodegradation of Endosulfan, Imidacloprid, and Carbendazim Using Indigenous Bacterial Cultures of Agriculture Fields of Uttarakhand, India

Authors: Geeta Negi, Pankaj, Anjana Srivastava, Anita Sharma

Abstract:

In the present study, the presence of endosulfan, imidacloprid, carbendazim, in the soil /vegetables/cereals and water samples was observed in agriculture fields of Uttarakhand. In view of biodegradation of these pesticides, nine bacterial isolates were recovered from the soil samples of the fields which tolerated endosulfan, imidacloprid, carbendazim from 100 to 200 µg/ml. Three bacterial consortia used for in vitro bioremediation experiments were three bacterial isolates for carbendazim, imidacloprid and endosulfan, respectively. Maximum degradation (87 and 83%) of α and β endosulfan respectively was observed in soil slurry by consortium. Degradation of Imidacloprid and carbendazim under similar conditions was 88.4 and 77.5% respectively. FT-IR analysis of biodegraded samples of pesticides in liquid media showed stretching of various bonds. GC-MS of biodegraded endosulfan sample in soil slurry showed the presence of non-toxic intermediates. A pot trial with Bacterial treatments lowered down the uptake of pesticides in onion plants.

Keywords: biodegradation, carbendazim, consortium, endosulfan

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
82 Mathematical Modeling and Analysis of Forced Vibrations in Micro-Scale Microstretch Thermoelastic Simply Supported Beam

Authors: Geeta Partap, Nitika Chugh

Abstract:

The present paper deals with the flexural vibrations of homogeneous, isotropic, generalized micropolar microstretch thermoelastic thin Euler-Bernoulli beam resonators, due to Exponential time varying load. Both the axial ends of the beam are assumed to be at simply supported conditions. The governing equations have been solved analytically by using Laplace transforms technique twice with respect to time and space variables respectively. The inversion of Laplace transform in time domain has been performed by using the calculus of residues to obtain deflection.The analytical results have been numerically analyzed with the help of MATLAB software for magnesium like material. The graphical representations and interpretations have been discussed for Deflection of beam under Simply Supported boundary condition and for distinct considered values of time and space as well. The obtained results are easy to implement for engineering analysis and designs of resonators (sensors), modulators, actuators.

Keywords: microstretch, deflection, exponential load, Laplace transforms, residue theorem, simply supported

Procedia PDF Downloads 106
81 Pre-Shared Key Distribution Algorithms' Attacks for Body Area Networks: A Survey

Authors: Priti Kumari, Tricha Anjali

Abstract:

Body Area Networks (BANs) have emerged as the most promising technology for pervasive health care applications. Since they facilitate communication of very sensitive health data, information leakage in such networks can put human life at risk, and hence security inside BANs is a critical issue. Safe distribution and periodic refreshment of cryptographic keys are needed to ensure the highest level of security. In this paper, we focus on the key distribution techniques and how they are categorized for BAN. The state-of-art pre-shared key distribution algorithms are surveyed. Possible attacks on algorithms are demonstrated with examples.

Keywords: attacks, body area network, key distribution, key refreshment, pre-shared keys

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
80 Productivity and Profitability of Field Pea as Influenced by Different Levels of Fertility and Bio-Fertilizers under Irrigated Condition

Authors: Akhilesh Mishra, Geeta Rai, Arvind Srivastava, Nalini Tiwari

Abstract:

A field experiment was conducted during two consecutive Rabi seasons of 2007 and 2008 to study the economics of different bio-fertilizer’s inoculations in fieldpea (cv. Jai) at Chandra Shekhar Azad University of Agriculture and Technology, Kanpur (India). Results indicated that the seed inoculation with Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR improved all the growth; yield attributes and yields of field pea. Fresh and dry weight plant-1, nodules number and dry weight plant-1 were found significantly maximum. Number of grains pod-1, number and weight of pods plant-1 at maturity attributed significantly in increasing the grain yield as well as net return. On pooled basis, maximum net income (Rs.22169 ha-1) was obtained with the use of Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR which was improved by a margin of Rs.1502 (6.77%), 2972 (13.40%), 2672 (12.05%), 5212 (23.51%), 6176 (27.85%), 4666 (21.04%) and 8842/ha (39.88%) over the inoculation of PSB + PGPR, Rhizobium + PGPR, Rhizobium + PSB, PGPR, PSB, Rhizobium and control, respectively. Thus, it can be recommended that to earn the maximum net profit from dwarf field pea, seed should be inoculated with Rhizobium + PSB + PGPR.

Keywords: rhizobium, phosphorus solubilizing bacteria, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria, field pea

Procedia PDF Downloads 324
79 A Study of Financial Literacy among Undergraduates

Authors: Prasansha Kumari

Abstract:

Financial Literacy is the possession of knowledge and understanding of financial matters. Financial Literacy often entails the knowledge of properly making decisions pertaining to certain personal financial areas like real estate, insurance investing, and savings. This paper intends to identify and analyze the financial knowledge among university undergraduates by using 200 undergraduates in four faculties of University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. Collected data will be analyzed by descriptive research method using SPSS package. Expected outcomes are considerable percentage of undergraduates have basic knowledge on financial matters while it has a law percentage for advanced financial literacy among undergraduates. Students from faculty of Commerce and Management and Science have good understanding about financial matters than undergraduates in other two faculties

Keywords: advanced finance, undergraduates, financial literacy, savings

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
78 Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti, Kumar Prashant

Abstract:

Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyses these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show that how pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, data traffic sent, throughput, retransmission attempts.

Keywords: MANET, AODV, DSDV, DSR, ZRP

Procedia PDF Downloads 456
77 Efficacy of Bio-Control Agents against Colletotrichum falcatum Causing Red Rot Disease of Sugarcane

Authors: Geeta Sharma, Suma Chandra

Abstract:

Sugarcane is one of the major commercial crop playing roles in agriculture and industrial economy of India. Globally sugarcane is affected by approximately 240 diseases caused by various plant pathogenic organisms. Among them, red rot disease caused by the fungus Colletotrichum falcatum, is one of the most important diseases. In the present investigation, one fungal bioagent of Trichoderma harzianum, Pant Bioagent 1 and one bacterial bioagent Pseudomonas fluorescence, Pant Bioagent 2 (PBAT 1 and PBAT 2, respectively) were tested by dual culture method against the pathogen under laboratory conditions. The effectiveness of biocontrol agents was observed against four isolates of C. falcatum. In the case of PBAT1 maximum percent inhibition of pathogen was recorded in isolated Cf 0238 (61.05%), followed by Cf 09 (60.62%) whereas, minimum percent inhibition was recorded in Cf 3220 (48.55%) and in case of PBAT2 maximum mycelial growth inhibition percent was recorded in Cf 767 (50.50%) followed by Cf 088230(48.83%), whereas minimum percent inhibition was recorded in Cf 08 (40.16%) followed by Cf 0238 (41.83%). The present study showed that these biocontrol agents have the potential of controlling the pathogen and can further be used for the management of red rot disease in field.

Keywords: biocontrol agents, Colletotrichum falcatum, isolates, sugarcane

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
76 Multiple Relaxation Times in the Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo Simulation of Phase Separation

Authors: Bina Kumari, Subir K. Sarkar, Pradipta Bandyopadhyay

Abstract:

The autocorrelation function of the density fluctuation is studied in each of the two phases in a Gibbs Ensemble Monte Carlo (GEMC) simulation of the problem of phase separation for a square well potential with various values of its range. We find that the normalized autocorrelation function is described very well as a linear combination of an exponential function with a time scale τ₂ and a stretched exponential function with a time scale τ₁ and an exponent α. Dependence of (α, τ₁, τ₂) on the parameters of the GEMC algorithm and the range of the square well potential is investigated and interpreted. We also analyse the issue of how to choose the parameters of the GEMC simulation optimally.

Keywords: autocorrelation function, density fluctuation, GEMC, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
75 Kinetic Alfvén Wave Localization and Turbulent Spectrum

Authors: Anju Kumari, R. P. Sharma

Abstract:

The localization of Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW) caused by finite amplitude background density fluctuations has been studied in intermediate beta plasma. KAW breaks up into localized large amplitude structures when perturbed by MHD fluctuations of the medium which are in the form of magnetosonic waves. Numerical simulation has been performed to analyse the localized structures and resulting turbulent spectrum of KAW applicable to magnetopause. Simulation results reveal that power spectrum deviates from Kolmogorov scaling at the transverse size of KAW, equal to ion gyroradius. Steepening of power spectrum at shorter wavelengths may be accountable for heating and acceleration of the plasma particles. The obtained results are compared with observations collected from the THEMIS spacecraft in magnetopause.

Keywords: Kinetic Alfvén Wave (KAW), localization, turbulence, turbulent spectrum

Procedia PDF Downloads 418
74 Image Steganography Using Least Significant Bit Technique

Authors: Preeti Kumari, Ridhi Kapoor

Abstract:

 In any communication, security is the most important issue in today’s world. In this paper, steganography is the process of hiding the important data into other data, such as text, audio, video, and image. The interest in this topic is to provide availability, confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of data. The steganographic technique that embeds hides content with unremarkable cover media so as not to provoke eavesdropper’s suspicion or third party and hackers. In which many applications of compression, encryption, decryption, and embedding methods are used for digital image steganography. Due to compression, the nose produces in the image. To sustain noise in the image, the LSB insertion technique is used. The performance of the proposed embedding system with respect to providing security to secret message and robustness is discussed. We also demonstrate the maximum steganography capacity and visual distortion.

Keywords: steganography, LSB, encoding, information hiding, color image

Procedia PDF Downloads 397
73 Screening of Potential Sources of Tannin and Its Therapeutic Application

Authors: Mamta Kumari, Shashi Jain

Abstract:

Tannins are a unique category of plant phytochemicals especially in terms of their vast potential health-benefiting properties. Researchers have described the capacity of tannins to enhance glucose uptake and inhibit adipogenesis, thus being potential drugs for the treatment of non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. Thus, the present research was conducted to find out tannin content of food products. The percentage of tannin in various analyzed sources ranged from 0.0 to 108.53%; highest in kathaa and lowest in ker and mango bark. The percentage of tannins present in the plants, however, varies. Numerous studies have confirmed that the naturally occurring polyphenols are key factor for the beneficial effects of the herbal medicines. Isolation and identification of active constituents from plants, preparation of standardized dose & dosage regimen can play a significant role in improving the hypoglycaemic action.

Keywords: tannins, diabetes, polyphenols, antioxidant, hypoglycemia

Procedia PDF Downloads 319
72 Optimization of Pressure in Deep Drawing Process

Authors: Ajay Kumar Choubey, Geeta Agnihotri, C. Sasikumar, Rashmi Dwivedi

Abstract:

Deep-drawing operations are performed widely in industrial applications. It is very important for efficiency to achieve parts with no or minimum defects. Deep drawn parts are used in high performance, high strength and high reliability applications where tension, stress, load and human safety are critical considerations. Wrinkling is a kind of defect caused by stresses in the flange part of the blank during metal forming operations. To avoid wrinkling appropriate blank-holder pressure/force or drawbead can be applied. Now-a-day computer simulation plays a vital role in the field of manufacturing process. So computer simulation of manufacturing has much advantage over previous conventional process i.e. mass production, good quality of product, fast working etc. In this study, a two dimensional elasto-plastic Finite Element (F.E.) model for Mild Steel material blank has been developed to study the behavior of the flange wrinkling and deep drawing parameters under different Blank-Holder Pressure (B.H.P.). For this, commercially available Finite Element software ANSYS 14 has been used in this study. Simulation results are critically studied and salient conclusions have been drawn.

Keywords: ANSYS, deep drawing, BHP, finite element simulation, wrinkling

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
71 Possibility of Agritourism Development for Sustainable Rural Development in Sri Lanka

Authors: Prasansha Kumari

Abstract:

Agritourism is a growing industry in many parts of the world. At present, agritourism is promoted by most of the countries in the world aiming at sustainable rural development. This study intends to identify and analyze the potential for agritourism development in Sri Lanka with special reference to five farming areas in Kegalle district. SWOT analysis used to identify the possibility of agritourism in this areas. The study rival that there are several opportunities to the development of agritourism while identified the main threat and weakness for developing agritourism in the study areas. The opportunities related to a number of tourist attraction places and increase the demand for agritourism. The main problems related to infrastructure facilities, large farming lands, knowledge and skill of farmers, government support, credits and financial assistance, attitude of young generation and environmental impact.

Keywords: agritourism, sustainable rural development, farming, tourism

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
70 Structural Analysis of Hydro-Turbine Head Cover Using Ansys

Authors: Surjit Angra, Manisha Kumari, Vinod Kumar

Abstract:

The objective of the Hydro Turbine Head Cover is to support the guide bearing, guide vane regulating mechanism and even in some design for generator thrust bearing support. Mechanical design of head cover deals with high static as well as fluctuating load acting on the structure. In the present work structural analysis of hydro turbine Head-cover using ANSYS software is carried out. Finite element method is used to calculate stresses on head cover. These calculations were done for the maximum possible loading under operating condition “LCI Quick Shut Down”. The results for equivalent Von-Mises stress, total deformation and directional deformation have been plotted and compared with the existing results whether the design is safe or not.

Keywords: ANSYS, head cover, hydro-turbine, structural analysis, total deformation, Von-Mises stress

Procedia PDF Downloads 381
69 Model-Independent Price Bounds for the Swiss Re Mortality Bond 2003

Authors: Raj Kumari Bahl, Sotirios Sabanis

Abstract:

In this paper, we are concerned with the valuation of the first Catastrophic Mortality Bond that was launched in the market namely the Swiss Re Mortality Bond 2003. This bond encapsulates the behavior of a well-defined mortality index to generate payoffs for the bondholders. Pricing this bond is a challenging task. We adapt the payoff of the terminal principal of the bond in terms of the payoff of an Asian put option and present an approach to derive model-independent bounds exploiting comonotonic theory. We invoke Jensen’s inequality for the computation of lower bounds and employ Lagrange optimization technique to achieve the upper bound. The success of these bounds is based on the availability of compatible European mortality options in the market. We carry out Monte Carlo simulations to estimate the bond price and illustrate the strength of these bounds across a variety of models. The fact that our bounds are model-independent is a crucial breakthrough in the pricing of catastrophic mortality bonds.

Keywords: mortality bond, Swiss Re Bond, mortality index, comonotonicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 179
68 Statistical Modeling for Permeabilization of a Novel Yeast Isolate for β-Galactosidase Activity Using Organic Solvents

Authors: Shweta Kumari, Parmjit S. Panesar, Manab B. Bera

Abstract:

The hydrolysis of lactose using β-galactosidase is one of the most promising biotechnological applications, which has wide range of potential applications in food processing industries. However, due to intracellular location of the yeast enzyme, and expensive extraction methods, the industrial applications of enzymatic hydrolysis processes are being hampered. The use of permeabilization technique can help to overcome the problems associated with enzyme extraction and purification of yeast cells and to develop the economically viable process for the utilization of whole cell biocatalysts in food industries. In the present investigation, standardization of permeabilization process of novel yeast isolate was carried out using a statistical model approach known as Response Surface Methodology (RSM) to achieve maximal b-galactosidase activity. The optimum operating conditions for permeabilization process for optimal β-galactosidase activity obtained by RSM were 1:1 ratio of toluene (25%, v/v) and ethanol (50%, v/v), 25.0 oC temperature and treatment time of 12 min, which displayed enzyme activity of 1.71 IU /mg DW.

Keywords: β-galactosidase, optimization, permeabilization, response surface methodology, yeast

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
67 The Impact of Sport Tourism on Small Scale Business Development in Sri Lanka

Authors: Vimuckthi Charika Wickramaratne, Prasansha Kumari

Abstract:

Sport tourism refers to travel which involves either observing or participating in a sporting event apart from their usual environment. Sport tourism in a fast growing sector of the Sri Lankan travelling industry since Cricket are more popular sport game in the country. This study intends to analyze the impact of these popular sport events for creating and developing small scale business in the country. Primary data gathered from 100 small entrepreneurs around Keththarama Cricket Ground in Sri Lanka. Collected data analyzed using descriptive research methods. The study revealed that local and international visitors for cricket games had impacted on small scale business activities such as retail, handicraft, transport, vehicle parking, small restaurant, hotels, foods and beverage industry. In addition, it was identified that these type of small business are sessional income generating activities for the short period.

Keywords: sport tourism, small scale business, cricket, entrepreneurs

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
66 A Comparative Study of Modern Trends in Traditional Farming Methods of Paddy Cultivation

Authors: Prasansha Kumari

Abstract:

This research intends to identify and analyze the new trends of usage the traditional farming methods to modern paddy cultivation. Information gathered through conducting interviews with total of 200 farmers in selected paddy cultivation areas in Kurunegalla district. As well as this research utilized by case study and observation in Ulpotha Traditional Village, Galgamuwa of Sri Lanka. Secondary data collected from books, articles, relevant websites and other relevant documents. Collected data analyzed by descriptive research methodology. Outcomes are there is growing interest in usage the traditional farming methods to the small consumption level paddy lands that have emerged during the last few decades as well as the research revealed that traditional farming method has identified the ecofriendly farming practices to restrict long term side effects inherited from the modern methods. The study finds out the demand of traditional rice varieties has been growing among the community as health and nutrition purpose.

Keywords: traditional farming, organic, inorganic, paddy cultivation

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
65 Efficacy of Eutectic Mixture of Local Anaesthetics and Diclofenac Spray in Attenuating Intravenous Cannulation Pain- Paeallel Randomized Trial

Authors: Anju Rani, Geeta, Sudha Rani, Choudhary, Puhal

Abstract:

Method- A total of 300 patients were studied, with 100 patients in each group. Patients aged 16-60 years, ASA grade I and II undergoing elective general surgical, urology and orthopedic procedures were included in the study. The patients were randomly allocated to any of the three groups by Using Sealed envelopes. 1. Group A: EMLA (eutectic mixture of 2.5% lidocaine with 2.5% prilocaine) - Patients receiving eutectic Lidocaine/ Prilocaine cream (2gm/10cm2) of Prilox cream), for 60- 70 min under occlusive dressing. 2. Group B - Patients receiving topical diclofenac 4 % spray gel for 60- 70 min, covering an absorption area of 50 cm2 3. Group C: control – Direct cannulation was done without any intervention. Results - Group B showed significantly least number of patients complaining pain on IV cannulation in comparison to group A and group C. The Mean VAS scores were found to be maximum in GROUP C: control-8.76 ± 4.14, then in GROUP A: EMLA- 2.54 ± 4.21.and least in GROUP B: Diclofenac 4% spray-1.13 ± 3.05. Erythema, induration and edema were significantly reported to be higher for the control group. Also group A patients reported adverse skin reactions more than patients in group B. Conclusion - It can be concluded that diclofenac spray 4 % and EMLA cream are effective in reducing the incidence and severity of venous cannulation pain as compared to the control group. However, a higher incidence of skin blanching, erythema, and oedema associated with EMLA cream and a lower incidence of these adverse effects favours the use of diclofenac spray 4%. They are promising agents for the treatment of venous cannulation pain.

Keywords: diclofenac spray, EMLA, intravenous, pain

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
64 Treatment of Industrial Effluents by Using Polyethersulfone/Chitosan Membrane Derived from Fishery Waste

Authors: Suneeta Kumari, Abanti Sahoo

Abstract:

Industrial effluents treatment is a major problem in the world. All wastewater treatment methods have some problems in the environment. Due to this reason, today many natural biopolymers are being used in the waste water treatment because those are safe for our environment. In this study, synthesis and characterization of polyethersulfone/chitosan membranes (Thin film composite membrane) are carried out. Fish scales are used as raw materials. Different characterization techniques such as Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) and Thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) are analysed for the synthesized membrane. The performance of membranes such as flux, rejection, and pore size are also checked. The synthesized membrane is used for the treatment of steel industry waste water where Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD), pH, colour, Total dissolved solids (TDS), Total suspended solids (TSS), Electrical conductivity (EC) and Turbidity aspects are analysed.

Keywords: fish scale, membrane synthesis, treatment of industrial effluents, chitosan

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
63 Treatment and Reuse of Nonmetallic PCBs Waste

Authors: Johan Sohaili, Siti Suhaila Mohamad, Shantha Kumari Muniyandi

Abstract:

The strength development, durability and leachability aspects of mortar added with nonmetallic printed circuit board (NMPCBs) were investigated. This study aims to propose methods for treatment and reuse of NMPCBs waste. The leachability of raw NMPCBs was tested for toxicity by performing the Crushed Block Leachability (CBL) test. The effectiveness of the treatment was evaluated by performing compressive, flexural strength, durability and whole block leachability (WBL) tests on the mortar. The results indicated that the concentration of metals leach from the raw NMPCBs are within the standard limits and higher than the concentration of metals from WBL test. The compressive and flexural strength of the NMPCBs mortar was generally lower than the standard mortar. From durability tests, weight and compressive strength both of mortars was decrease after soaking in acid solution. As a conclusion, the treated NMPCBs can be reused in profitable and environmentally friendly ways and has broad application prospects.

Keywords: nonmetallic, printed circuit board, treatment, reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
62 Sustainable and Efficient Recovery of Polyhydroxyalkanoate Polymer from Cupriavidus necator Using Environment Friendly Solvents

Authors: Geeta Gahlawat, Sanjeev Kumar Soni

Abstract:

An imprudent use of environmentally hazardous petrochemical-based plastics and limited availability of fossil fuels have provoked research interests towards production of biodegradable plastics - polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHAs). However, the industrial application of PHAs based products is primarily restricted by their high cost of recovery and extraction protocols. Moreover, solvents used for the extraction and purification are toxic and volatile which causes adverse environmental hazards. Development of efficient downstream recovery strategies along with utilization of non-toxic solvents will accelerate their commercialization. In this study, various extraction strategies were designed for sustainable and cost-effective recovery of PHAs from Cupriavidus necator using non-toxic environment friendly solvents viz. 1,2-propylene carbonate, ethyl acetate, isoamyl alcohol, butyl acetate. The effect of incubation time i.e. 10, 30 and 50 min and temperature i.e. 60, 80, 100, 120°C was tested to identify the most suitable solvent. PHAs extraction using a recyclable solvent, 1,2 propylene carbonate, showed the highest recovery yield (90%) and purity (93%) at 120°C and 30 min incubation. Ethyl acetate showed the better capacity to recover PHAs from cells than butyl acetate. Extraction with ethyl acetate exhibited high recovery yield and purity of 96% and 92%, respectively at 100°C. Effect of non-toxic surfactant such as linear alkylbenzene sulfonic acid (LAS) was also studied at 40, 60 and 80°C, and detergent pH range of 3.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 9.0 for the extraction of PHAs from the cells. LAS gave highest yield of 86% and purity of 88% at temperature 80°C and 5.0 pH.

Keywords: polyhydroxyalkanoates, Cupriavidus necator, extraction, recovery yield

Procedia PDF Downloads 435
61 Modelling Fluoride Pollution of Groundwater Using Artificial Neural Network in the Western Parts of Jharkhand

Authors: Neeta Kumari, Gopal Pathak

Abstract:

Artificial neural network has been proved to be an efficient tool for non-parametric modeling of data in various applications where output is non-linearly associated with input. It is a preferred tool for many predictive data mining applications because of its power , flexibility, and ease of use. A standard feed forward networks (FFN) is used to predict the groundwater fluoride content. The ANN model is trained using back propagated algorithm, Tansig and Logsig activation function having varying number of neurons. The models are evaluated on the basis of statistical performance criteria like Root Mean Squarred Error (RMSE) and Regression coefficient (R2), bias (mean error), Coefficient of variation (CV), Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE), and the index of agreement (IOA). The results of the study indicate that Artificial neural network (ANN) can be used for groundwater fluoride prediction in the limited data situation in the hard rock region like western parts of Jharkhand with sufficiently good accuracy.

Keywords: Artificial neural network (ANN), FFN (Feed-forward network), backpropagation algorithm, Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm, groundwater fluoride contamination

Procedia PDF Downloads 345