Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 172

Search results for: William Shakespeare

172 The Impact of Judeo-Christian Myth and Celtic Myth in Selected Plays of William Shakespeare

Authors: Smriti Mary Gupta

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This article intends to show strong facts of ‘Judeo-Christian myth’ and ‘Celtic myth’ in selected plays of William Shakespeare. Giving the vast proliferation of Shakespeare studies we examine the strong impact of Bible in his plays. Inevitably, for instance, the study of Shakespeare and the Bible overlaps the study of Shakespeare and religion, which justify the use of Judeo-Christian myth in his works. There is some evidence that Shakespeare had read and used the ‘Geneva Bible’ in his works. The glimpse of parables and references of Biblical myth can be seen very clearly in Macbeth, King Lear and Measure for Measure. Defining a religion based on myths is difficult because it is built upon a belief of large number of people in the society. The Judeo-Christian myth which is based on the Bible, Celtic religious myth will also be discussed in this paper which had a strong impact on the audience of sixteenth century and it is still continuing at the present time.

Keywords: Celtic myth, Geneva Bible, Judeo-Christian myth, Shakespearean plays

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171 Mimesis in William Shakespeare's Selected Sonnets

Authors: Roselyn T. Bustos

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Literature is an imitation of life. It depicts man's culture as well as his struggles. In short, literature is a part of man's way of life- a reflection of his personal or vicarious experiences. Using the qualitative-descriptive content analysis, this study investigates the mimetic signification in the five select sonnets of William Shakespeare.An in- depth analysis of the poetic elements such as the figurative language used and the themes extracted is made to draw out the universal meaning of his works. It is found out that his select sonnets use figurative languages such as simile, metaphor, personification, and hyperbaton which becomes a potent element that allows his sonnets to convey the themes of love and perseverance. With these findings, it is concluded that William Shakespeare's sonnets are evidently written within the context of the universals and that they are worthy of wide readership not only because of him being a renowned English poet and playwright but most importantly of the realities his sonnets signify.

Keywords: imitation, mimesis, potent, realities

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170 Literature, Culture, and Shakespeare's Dramatization of Linguistic Scenes

Authors: Cheang Wai Fong

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This paper takes language and its interconnection with power as a point of departure to analyze some linguistic scenes played up by William Shakespeare. By placing language into the big picture of literature and culture, and by reexamining the etymological relations between the three terms, language, literature and culture, the paper attempts to formulate an understanding of their more expansive meanings. It compares their respective traditional notions with their modern concepts brought up by literary critics, anthropologists and sociolinguists. Then it uses these expansive meanings to reinterpret Shakespeare’s linguistic scenes featuring language contentions, and to discuss Shakespeare’s success as a signification of literature’s role within the linguistic and cultural context of Elizabethan England.

Keywords: culture, language, literature, shakespeare

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169 The Analysis of Female Characters in Shakespeare’s Work; Contrast between the Submissive and the Wicked

Authors: Jeong Hwa Ryong

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Numerous characters appear in the works of England’s most prominent play writer, William Shakespeare. Most of the time, his male protagonists possess various and complex characteristics throughout the storyline of his work, making it interesting for the readers to analyze their actions in many different aspects. However, some critics argue that unlike male characters, Shakespeare’s female characters are rather more flat and one-sided, pointing out that they are either the extreme version of good or evil. Especially, it is a significant topic to discuss in the modern days, considering the fact that gender stereotype is now a sensitive issue. Starting from such argument, it is important to address their purpose of being in the play and suggest their meaning to the modern readers of today. In this context, this paper analyzes several female characters of Shakespeare’s work by closely examining their actions and lines. The characters analyzed are Ophelia from Hamlet, Cordelia from King Lear, Katherine from The Taming of the Shrew, Goneril from King Lear and Lady Macbeth from Macbeth. Nevertheless, some female protagonists of Shakespeare’s work do not fall in to this category and exceed the limitations of others. Therefore this paper proposes alternative characters such as Juliet from Romeo and Juliet and Portia from The Merchant of Venice that are rather more complex and difficult to include in just one category. By doing so, this paper critically analyzes the strengths and weaknesses of many female characters in Shakespeare’s play.

Keywords: female characters, gender stereotype, William Shakespeare

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168 Remembering and Forgetting in Shakespeare Sonnets

Authors: Nasreddin Bushra Ahmed

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Humans use language to externalize their mental perceptions and conceptions and thereby set up an interdependent consciousness about the concrete and abstract spheres of their existence. Language also represents a recording device whereby they capture the transient moment in their lives. Literature with it its various manifestations help keep the individual and collective memories alive. Works of the English literature’s prototypical figure, William Shakespeare provides the best illustration of this fact. Shakespeare’s sonnets abound in prescient insights about the intricacies of human relations. Though they have been the concern of scholars’ investigations for centuries, many of their thematic potentialities are yet to be tapped. The present study aspires to highlight the theme of remembering and forgetting in some of these sonnets as reverse faces of the same coin. Using close reading it is intended to demonstrate how Shakespeare, through imagery and literary tropes, plays with the issues of mortality and immortality, and how he has reaffirmed that literature can provide a locus for perennial presence despite the temporariness of individuals’ existence.

Keywords: forgetting, immortality, literature, remembering, Shakespeare, sonnet

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167 Rabih Alameddine's Appropriation of Shakespeare's The Tempest

Authors: Yousef Abu Amrieh

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This paper explores how Arab American novelist Rabih Alameddine's recent novel The Angel of History (2016) appropriates certain motifs, tropes, and themes from Shakespeare's The Tempest. In particular, Alameddine's novel re-tells the story of Caliban and his mother from the perspective of a Yemeni bastard whose mis/fortunes take him to the US shores in the eighties of the previous century. The novel, specifically, re-writes the scene in which Caliban is gazed at by European travelers like Stephano and Trinculo whose first reaction to seeing him is to consider how to sell him or give him as a gift when they safely return to Europe. The novel contests Shakespeare's representation of Caliban as 'marketable' through depicting his daily experiences in modern day America.

Keywords: appropriation, Alameddine, Shakespeare, The Tempest

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166 A Survey and Theory of the Effects of Various Hamlet Videos on Viewers’ Brains

Authors: Mark Pizzato

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How do ideas, images, and emotions in stage-plays and videos affect us? Do they evoke a greater awareness (or cognitive reappraisal of emotions) through possible shifts between left-cortical, right-cortical, and subcortical networks? To address these questions, this presentation summarizes the research of various neuroscientists, especially Bernard Baars and others involved in Global Workspace Theory, Matthew Lieberman in social neuroscience, Iain McGilchrist on left and right cortical functions, and Jaak Panksepp on the subcortical circuits of primal emotions. Through such research, this presentation offers an ‘inner theatre’ model of the brain, regarding major hubs of neural networks and our animal ancestry. It also considers recent experiments, by Mario Beauregard, on the cognitive reappraisal of sad, erotic, and aversive film clips. Finally, it applies the inner-theatre model and related research to survey results of theatre students who read and then watched the ‘To be or not to be’ speech in 8 different video versions (from stage and screen productions) of William Shakespeare’s Hamlet. Findings show that students become aware of left-cortical, right-cortical, and subcortical brain functions—and shifts between them—through staging and movie-making choices in each of the different videos.

Keywords: cognitive reappraisal, Hamlet, neuroscience, Shakespeare, theatre

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165 Analyzing Mexican Adaptation of Shakespeare: A Study of Onstage Violence in Richard III and Its Impact on Mexican Viewers

Authors: Nelya Babynets

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Shakespeare and Mexican theatregoers have enjoyed quite a complex relationship. Shakespearean plays have appeared on the Mexican stage with remarkable perseverance, yet with mixed success. Although Shakespeare has long been a part of the global cultural marketplace and his works are celebrated all around the world, the adaptation of his plays on the contemporary Mexican stage is always an adventure, since the works of this early modern author are frequently seen as the legacy of a ‘high’, but obsolete, culture, one that is quite distant from the present-day viewers’ daily experiences and concerns. Moreover, Mexican productions of Shakespeare are presented mostly in Peninsular Spanish, a language similar yet alien to the language spoken in Mexico, one that does not wholly fit into the viewers’ cultural praxis. This is the reason why Mexican dramatic adaptations of Shakespearean plays tend to replace the cultural references of the original piece with ones that are more significant and innate to Latin American spectators. This paper analyses the new Mexican production of Richard III adapted and directed by Mauricio Garcia Lozano, which employs onstage violence - a cultural force that is inherent to all human beings regardless of their beliefs, ethnic background or nationality - as the means to make this play more relevant to a present-day audience. Thus, this paper addresses how the bloody bombast of staged murders helps to avoid the tyranny of a rigid framework of fixed meanings that denies the possibility of an intercultural appropriation of this European play written over four hundred years ago. The impact of violence displayed in Garcia Lozano’s adaptation of Richard III on Mexican audiences will also be examined. This study is particularly relevant in Mexico where the term ‘tragedy’ has become a commonplace and where drug wars and state-sanctioned violence have already taken the lives of many people.

Keywords: audience, dramatic adaptation, Shakespeare, viewer

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164 Global Dimensions of Shakespearean Cinema: A Study of Shakespearean Presence around the Globe

Authors: Rupali Chaudhary

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Shakespeare has been widely revisited by dramatists, critics, filmmakers and scholars around the globe. Shakespeare's kaleidoscopic work has been borrowed and redesigned into resonant patterns by artists, thus weaving myriad manifestations to pick from. Along with adaptation into wholly verbal medium (e.g., translations) the practice of indigenization through performing arts has played a great role in amplifying the reach of plays. The proliferation of Shakespeare's oeuvre commenced with the spread of colonialism itself. The plays illustrating the core values of Western tradition were introduced in the colonies. Therefore, the colonial domination extended to cultural domination. The plays were translated and adapted by the locals at times as it is and sometimes intermingled with the altered landscape and culture. The present paper discusses the global dimensions of Shakespearean cinema along with the historical cinematic shift from silent era to spoken dialogue in multiple languages. The methodology followed is descriptive in nature, and related information is availed from related literature, i.e., books, research articles and films. America and Europe dominated the silent era Shakespearean film production, thereby giving the term 'global' a less broad meaning. Five nations that dominated silent Shakespearean cinema were the United States, England, Italy, France, and Germany. Gradually the work of the exemplary figure with artistic and literary greatness surpassed the boundaries of the colonies and became a global legacy. Presently apart from English speaking nations Shakespearean films have been shot or produced in many of non-Anglophone locales. The findings indicate that when discussing about global dimensions of Shakespearean cinema various factors can be considered: involvement of actors and directors of foreign origin, transportability and universal comprehensibility of visual imagery across geographical borders, commodification of art or West's use of it as a tool of cultural hegemony or promotion of international amity, propagation of interculturalism through individual director's cultural translations and localization of Western art. Understanding of Shakespeare as a global export also depends on how an individual Shakespearean film works. Shakespeare's global appeal for cinema does not reside alone in his exquisite writings, distinctive characters, the setting, the story and the plots that have nurtured cinema since the medium's formative years. Shakespeare's global cinematic appeal is present in the spirit of cinema itself, i.e., the moving images capturing human behaviour and emotions that the plays invoke in audiences.

Keywords: adaptation, global dimensions, Shakespeare, Shakespearean cinema

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163 Culture and Commodification: A Study of William Gibson's the Bridge Trilogy

Authors: Aruna Bhat

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Culture can be placed within the social structure that embodies both the creation of social groups, and the manner in which they interact with each other. As many critics have pointed out, culture in the Postmodern context has often been considered a commodity, and indeed it shares many attributes with commercial products. Popular culture follows many patterns of behavior derived from Economics, from the simple principle of supply and demand, to the creation of marketable demographics which fit certain criterion. This trend is exemplary visible in contemporary fiction, especially in contemporary science fiction; Cyberpunk fiction in particular which is an off shoot of pure science fiction. William Gibson is one such author who in his works portrays such a scenario, and in his The Bridge Trilogy he adds another level of interpretation to this state of affairs, by describing a world that is centered on industrialization of a new kind – that focuses around data in the cyberspace. In this new world, data has become the most important commodity, and man has become nothing but a nodal point in a vast ocean of raw data resulting into commodification of each thing including Culture. This paper will attempt to study the presence of above mentioned elements in William Gibson’s The Bridge Trilogy. The theories applied will be Postmodernism and Cultural studies.

Keywords: culture, commodity, cyberpunk, data, postmodern

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162 Interplay of Imaginary, Symbolic and Real In Shakespeare's Hamlet, Disturbance of Nature

Authors: Mahnaz Poorshahidi

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This article is a psychological reading of Shakespeare’s Hamlet applying Lacan’s ideas to work with a new look. Lacan entitled Hamlet ‘tragedy of desire’. He believes that Hamlet is caught up in the desire of his mother. So he is the universal symbol of all human beings, regardless of their sex, who desire their mother, but based on the rules of Nature and Father, this unity is impossible. Hamlet hesitates in fulfilling the task of revenge and the text says nothing about the reasons and motives behind it. However, this essay tries to answer the question and justify Hamlet’s hesitation. There is one question for the readers, which is why Hamlet appears to delay in killing his uncle, despite the fact that this is precisely what he seems to want to do. In 1958-59 Lacan delivered a series of lectures on Hamlet entitled ‘Desire and Its Interpretations’ and called it ‘tragedy of desire’. However, this article will have a new representation of Hamlet’s decision not to take revenge. The research demonstrates that Hamlet has passed through imaginary, symbolic and real stages, which are the natural process of life. Eliminating father means disturbing this natural process. This essay is going to conclude that killing Claudius can break the natural order of life. On the other hand, Claudius has also disturbed nature and is regretful about his deed. Hamlet’s ever-present speech ‘To be or not to be’ reflects his mental turmoil and disturbance of the natural life cycle: Nature.

Keywords: desire, father figure, lacan, nature

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161 Narrating Irish Identity: Retrieving ‘Irishness’ in the Works of William Butler Yeats and Seamus Heaney

Authors: Rafik Massoudi

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Irish identity continues to be discussed in various fields including social science, culture, literary humanities as well as political debates. In this context, Irishness had been usurped for a long time by the hegemonic power of the British Empire. That is why, Irish writers, in general, and Seamus Heaney along with William Butler Yeats, in particular, endeavored to retrieve this lost identity by shedding light on Irish history, folklore, communal traditions, landscape, indigenous people, language as well as culture. In this context, we may speak of a decolonizing attempt that allowed these writers to represent the autonomous Irish subjectivity by establishing an ethical relationship based on an extraordinary approach to the represented alterity. This article, indeed, places itself within the arena of postmodern, postcolonial discussions of the issue of identity and, particularly, of Irishness.

Keywords: identity, Irishess, narration, postcolonialism

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160 Translation of Culture-Specific References in the Turkish Translation of Shakespeare's Macbeth

Authors: Feride Sumbul

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Drama is a literary genre that mirrors the people and society and transfers the human nature and life to the reader or the audience within its own social-cultural structure. Each play takes on a new reality in the time and culture of the staging, and each performance actually brings a new interpretation to the play. Similarly, each translation adds a new meaning to the source text. In other words, the translated theatrical text transcends the boundaries of its language and culture and finds a new interpretation. Thus the translation of drama takes place as a transfer from one culture to another as a cross cultural communication. In this context, translating culture specific references play a key role in terms of reflecting cultural aspects of a target society. This study aims to explore the use of Venuti's translation principles of domestication and foreignization in the transfer of culture specific references in the Turkish translation of Shakespeare's Macbeth. Macbeth is to be compared with its Turkish version in terms of the transference of culture specific references such as religious, witchcraft, and mythological, which have no equivalent in the target language and culture. To evaluate these principles of Venuti, Davies’s translation strategies are also conducted. As a method, for the most part, he predominantly uses Davies’ method of ‘addition’ through adding extra information in the notes. For instance, rather than finding the Turkish renderings of them, the translator mostly chooses to transfer witchcraft references through retaining them in the target text, but he mainly adds extra information about the references in the notes. Therefore, the translator Nutku mostly uses Venuti’s translation principle of foreignization so that he preserves the foreignness of the theatrical text.

Keywords: drama translation, theatrical texts, culture specific references, Macbeth

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159 Ecocriticism and Sustainable Development: A Study of Kamila Shamsie's a God in Every Stone

Authors: Shaista Maseeh

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English Literature from the beginning itself has had psychological, social and environment concerns. Virgil, Shakespeare, John Milton, William Wordsworth to the most current Robert Hass have shown and proved their environmental and ecological interests as well as distress related to its loss. Pastoral literature is also one such genre that links literature with environment. Thanks to the contemporary literary theories that they successfully are relating Literature formally to the subjects other than written text. One of such literary theory is 'Ecocriticism.' It stands under the umbrella of the Economics term, Sustainable Development,' or it can also be understood as an ecological extension of it. Ecocriticism helps the reader to study the dynamic relation between literature and our degrading environment. It draws attention towards the ravaged condition of nature and animals, that how nature is exploited by human beings for their own benefit leaving nature at a repairable loss. For instance, deforestation is reducing the size of forest every year, injuring permanently flora, fauna and also the habitat of animals. This paper will study the ecological and environmental concerns in the latest novel by Pakistani British writer Kamila Shamsie, A God in every Stone (2014). The book is not only a literary masterpiece in elegant prose, but also a novel posing a lot of questions about 'nature and environment' in general and 'animals' in particular. It gives the glimpses of the interesting history of Temple of Zeus in Greece and Ancient Caria, and covers many episodes of history the Indian freedom struggle. In course of novel's narrative Kamila Shamsie poses disturbing question about environmental abuse, about how human beings are more 'beasts' than so call beasts, poor animals. She also glorifies the simplicity of past. The novel has enough instances to prove Shamsie's positive stand on saving the earth that is being more abused than used by human beings. This paper will provide an ecocritical approach to study A God in Every Stone (2014).

Keywords: animals, ecocriticism, environment, nature

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158 A Modernist Project: An Analysis on Dupont’s Translations of Faulkner’s Works

Authors: Edilei Reis, Jose Carlos Felix

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This paper explores Waldir Dupont’s translations of William Faulkner’s novels to Brazilian Portuguese language in order to comprehend how his translation project regarding Faulkner’s works has addressed modernist traits of the novelist fiction, particularly the ambivalence of language, multiple and fragmented points of view and syntax. Wladir Dupont (1939-2014) was a prolific Brazilian journalist who benefitted from his experiences as an international correspondent living abroad (EUA and Mexico) to become an acclaimed translator later in life. He received a Jabuiti Award (Brazilian most prestigious literary award) for his translation of ‘La Otra Voz’ (1994), by Mexican poet, critic and translator Octavio Paz, a writer to whom he devoted the first years of his carrier as a translator. As Dupont pointed out in some interviews, the struggles in finding a way out to overcome linguistic and cultural obstacles in the process of translating texts from Spanish to Portuguese was paramount for ascertaining his engagement in the long-term project of translating to Brazilian Portuguese the fiction of William Faulkner. His first enterprise was the translation of Faulkner’s trilogy Snopes: The Hamlet (1940) and The Town (1957), the first two novels, were published in 1997 as O povoado and A cidade; in 1999 the last novel, The mansion (1959), was published as A mansão. In 2001, Dupont tackled what is considered one of the most challenging novels by the author due to his use of multiple points of view, As I lay dying (1930). In 2003, The Reivers (1962) was published under the title Os invictos. His enterprise finishes in 2012 with the publication of an anthology of Faulkner’s thriller short-stories Knight’s Gambit (1932) as Lance mortal. Hence, in this paper we will consider the Dupont’s trajectory as a translator, paying special attention to the way in which his identity as such is constituted through the process of translating Faulkner’s works.

Keywords: literary translation, translator’s identity, William Faulkner, Wladir DuPont

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157 Memorializing the Holocaust in the Present Century

Authors: Mehak Burza

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As we pause to observe the Holocaust Remembrance Day each year on 27 January, it becomes important to consider how the Holocaust is witnessed, and its education is perceived across the globe. The dissemination of knowledge of the Holocaust becomes more pertinent in the countries that were not directly affected by it. The Holocaust education is not widespread in Asian countries and is thus not mandatory as an academic discipline for school and university students. One such Asian country that often considers Holocaust as an isolated event is India. Though the struggle for freedom began with the 1857 mutiny (the first war of Indian independence) but the freedom revolts gained momentum specifically during the years 1944-1947, when India was steeped in a battery of rebellions. However, freedom for the Indian subcontinent from the domination of British Raj came at the cost of partition of India that resulted in widespread bloodshed and immigration. For India, it is this backdrop of her freedom struggle that always outweighs the incidents of the Second World War, including the catastrophic event of the Holocaust. As a result, the knowledge about the Holocaust is available through secondary sources such as Holocaust documentaries and movies. Besides Anne Frank’s diary, the knowledge about the Holocaust is disseminated through the course readings in the universities. The most common literary acquaintances with the Jewish faith for university students are when they come across the Jewish characters in their course readings. The Prioress’s Tale in Geoffrey Chaucer’s Canterbury Tales, the character of Shylock in William Shakespeare’s The Merchant of Venice, and the Jewish protagonist, Barabas, in Christopher Marlow’s Jew of Malta. Apart from this, the school textbooks mention a detailed chapter on Holocaust and Hitler, which is an encouraging turn. However, there still exists a yawning gap between dissemination and sensitization of Holocaust education owing to different geographical locales. My paper presentation aims to trace the intersectional elements between India and the Holocaust that can serve as the required pivotal stand-board to foster sensitization towards Holocaust education in the Indian subcontinent. For instance, Maharaja Jam SahebDigvijaysinhjiRanjitsinhji, the ruler of Nawanagar, a princely state in British India, helped save thousand Polish Jewish children in 1945 at the time when India herself was steeped in its struggle for freedom. Famously known as the ‘Indian Oskar Schindler’ Polish government has named a street after him in Krakow, Poland. Another example that deserves mention is the spy princess, Noor Inayat Khan, a descendent of Tipu Sultan, who became the most celebrated British spyand fought against the Nazis. Additionally, by offering refuge to Jews, India has proved to be a distant haven for them. Researching further the domain of Jewish refugees in India will not only illuminate a dull/gray zone of investigation but also enable the educators to provide appropriate entry points for introducing the subject of Shoah/Holocaust in India, a subject which unfortunately hitherto is either seldom discussed or is equated with the Partition of India.

Keywords: awareness, dissemination, holocaust, India

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156 Trauma Informed Applied Theatre: The Use of Performance to Connect With Mental Dysfunction Using Physical Embodiment

Authors: Stephanie Elizabeth Talder

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Applied theatre programs provide a unique opportunity to engage with people using theatre with the intention of helping them with a variety of other ailments. Applied theatre within a medical setting allows for there to be other arts focused interventions that would allow for a creative and enjoyable way to connect with those who experience the same impairments as you. These programs have the potential to aid in health benefits as well as engage with theatre. This study will focus on those who have cognitive dysfunction and mental health advocacy. Due to the severe need for mental health initiatives, providing a community of those who are experiencing similar symptoms and connecting with playwrights such as Shakespeare will be meaningful. This study will partner with mental health and wellness professionals within the medical field to work with memory retention and increase mental wellness.

Keywords: applied theatre, trauma-informed, mental wellness advocacy, cognitive dysfunction

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155 Socio-Cultural Representations through Lived Religions in Dalrymple’s Nine Lives

Authors: Suman

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In the continuous interaction between the past and the present that historiography is, each time when history gets re/written, a new representation emerges. This new representation is a reflection of the earlier archives and their interpretations, fragmented remembrances of the past, as well as the reactions to the present. Memory, or lack thereof, and stereotyping generally play a major role in this representation. William Dalrymple’s Nine Lives: In Search of the Sacred in Modern India (2009) is one such written account that sets out to narrate the representations of religion and culture of India and contemporary reactions to it. Dalrymple’s nine saints belong to different castes, sects, religions, and regions. By dealing with their religions and expressions of those religions, and through the lived mysticism of these nine individuals, the book engages with some important issues like class, caste and gender in the contexts provided by historical as well as present India. The paper studies the development of religion and accompanied feeling of religiosity in modern as well as historical contexts through a study of these elements in the book. Since, the language used in creation of texts and the literary texts thus produced create a new reality that questions the stereotypes of the past, and in turn often end up creating new stereotypes or stereotypical representations at times, the paper seeks to actively engage with the text in order to identify and study such stereotypes, along with their changing representations. Through a detailed examination of the book, the paper seeks to unravel whether some socio-cultural stereotypes existed earlier, and whether there is development of new stereotypes from Dalrymple’s point of view as an outsider writing on issues that are deeply rooted in the cultural milieu of the country. For this analysis, the paper takes help from the psycho-literary theories of stereotyping and representation.

Keywords: stereotyping, representation, William Dalrymple, religion

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154 Embracing Complex Femininity: A Comparative Analysis of the Representation of Female Sexuality in John Webster and William Faulkner

Authors: Elisabeth Pedersen

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Representations and interpretations of womanhood and female sexualities bring forth various questions regarding gender norms, and the implications of these norms, which are permeating and repetitive within various societies. Literature is one form of media which provides the space to represent and interpret women, their bodies, and sexualities, and also reveals the power of language as an affective and affected force. As literature allows an opportunity to explore history and the representations of gender, power dynamics, and sexuality through historical contexts, this paper uses engaged theory through a comparative analysis of two work of literature, The Duchess of Malfi by John Wester, and The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner. These novels span across space and time, which lends to the theory that repetitive tropes of womanhood and female sexuality in literature are influenced by and have an influence on the hegemonic social order throughout history. It analyzes how the representation of the dichotomy of male chivalry and honor, and female purity are disputed and questioned when a woman is portrayed as sexually emancipated, and explores the historical context in which these works were written to examine how socioeconomic events challenged the hegemonic social order. The analysis looks at how stereotypical ideals of womanhood and manhood have damaging implications on women, as the structure of society provides more privilege and power to men than to women, thus creating a double standard for men and women in regards to sexuality, sexual expression, and rights to sexual desire. This comparative analysis reveals how strict gender norms are permeating and have negative consequences. However, re-reading stories through a critical lens can provide an opportunity to challenge the repetitive tropes of female sexuality, and thus lead to the embrace of the complexity of female sexuality and expression.

Keywords: femininity, literature, representation, sexuality

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153 Linking Business Owners’ Choice of Organizational Form to Appraisers’ Determination of Value: An Agency Theory Perspective

Authors: Majdi Anwar Quttainah, William Paczkowski, Ali Muhammad

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Determining the value of a privately held firms confound those in academia as well as practitioners in the fields of appraisal, forensic accounting, and law. Divergent parties to the transfer look to apply the valuation technique to serve their own best interests. This paper seeks to explore how agency theory induces owners to choose the form of their businesses at inception and how this choice will affect the appraisers’ valuation of the firm at the transfer of ownership.

Keywords: organizational form, agency theory, value

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152 After Schubert’s Winterreise: Contemporary Aesthetic Journeys

Authors: Maria de Fátima Lambert

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Following previous studies about Writing and Seeing, this paper focuses on the aesthetic assumptions within the concept of Winter Journey (Voyage d’Hiver/Winterreise) both in Georges Perec’s Saga and the Oulipo Group vis-à-vis with the creations by William Kentridge and Michael Borremans. The aesthetic and artistic connections are widespread. Nevertheless, we can identify common poetical principles shared by these different authors, not only according to the notion of ekphrasis, but also following the procedures of contemporary creation in literature and visual arts. The analysis of the ongoing process of the French writers as individuals and as group and the visual artists’ acting might contribute for another crossed definition of contemporary conception. The same title/theme was a challenge and a goal for them. Let’s wonder how deep the concept encouraged them and which symbolic upbringings were directing their poetical achievements. The idea of an inner journey became the main point, and got “over” and “across” a shared path worth to be followed. The authors were chosen due to the resilient contents of their visual and written images, and looking for the reasons that might had driven their conceptual basis to be. In Pérec’s “Winter Journey” as for the following fictions by Jacques Roubaud, Hervé le Tellier, Jacques Jouet and Hugo Vernier (that emerges from Perec’s fiction and becomes a real author) powerful aesthetic and enigmatic reflections grow connected with a poetic (and aesthetic) understanding of Walkscapes. They might be assumed as ironic fictions and poetical drifts. Outstanding from different logics, the overwhelming impact of Winterreise Lied by Schubert after Wilhelm Müller’s poems is a major reference in present authorship creations. Both Perec and Oulipo’s author’s texts are powerfully ekphrastic, although we should not forget they follow goals, frameworks and identities. When acting as a reader, they induce powerful imageries - cinematic or cinematographic - that flow in our minds. It was well-matched with William Kentridge animated video Winter Journey (2014) and the creations (sharing the same title) of Michael Borremans (2014) for the KlaraFestival, Bozar, Cité de la musique, in Belgium. Both were taken by the foremost Schubert’s Winterreise. Several metaphors fulfil new Winter Journeys (or Travels) that were achieved in contemporary art and literature, as it once succeeded in the 19th century. Maybe the contemporary authors and artists were compelled by the consciousness of nothingness, although outstanding different aesthetics and ontological sources. The unbearable knowledge of the road’s end, and also the urge of fulfilling the void might be a common element to all of them. As Schopenhauer once wrote, after all, Art is the only human subjective power that we can call upon in life. These newer aesthetic meanings, released from these winter journeys are surely open to wider approaches that might happen in other poetic makings to be.

Keywords: Aesthetic, voyage D’Hiver, George Perec & Oulipo, William Kentridge & Michael Borreman, Schubert's Winterreise

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151 Shakespeare’s Sister and the Crisis of Women’s Autonomy: A Critical Analysis of a Room of One’s Own

Authors: Ali Mohammadi

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This study explored the root causes of women's lack of writing in literature by digging into Virginia Woolf's A Room of One’s Own. Virginia Woolf was the pioneer of feminist literary criticism in the 20th century. She was hugely preoccupied, throughout her writing life, with the role of women in history and with the relationship between women and fiction. Besides, she wrote continuously about the difficulties of women's writing and of writing as a woman. This research aims to mirror a number of key arguments concerning women’s issues: the social and economic conditions necessary for writing; the problem of a tradition of women's writing; the concept of a 'female sentence' articulating women's voices and values and the idea of the androgynous aesthetic in which an author would be able to write free from an awareness of their sex as male or female. Woolf was very wary of making any definitive assertions about women's writing, or at least in terms of its style or form. Indeed, much of the essay is taken up with her reflections on the lack of women's writing over the history of English literature. It was concluded that the reason for this absence of female writing does not just spring from the deficiency of genius, but of material circumstances and facilities. Additionally, the demands of the domestic household, the poverty of education available to women, and the laws that denied married women’s ownership of funds or property made it virtually impossible for women to take up writing as a profession.

Keywords: autonomy, facilities, genius, literature, women

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150 Of Rites of Narration and Representation of Orient and Occident in Thomas Heywood's Fair Maid of the West

Authors: Tarik Bouguerba

Abstract:

Thomas Heywood was an outstanding, prolific playwright of the period, writing both in prose and verse. Unlike Shakespeare in particular, Heywood could be considered as a playwright who was well informed about Morocco and wrote in greater detail about a possible dialogue among cultures. As it is a historical platform for power relations, The Fair Maid of the West recalled the heroism and excitement of English counterattacks against Spain in the Post-Armada period. This paper therefore pins down the acts of narration and representation of Morocco and Moroccans and examines how the Occident has contributed to the production of the Orient and finally attests to the metamorphosis the plot undergoes in Part I and Part II. As an adventure play, The Fair Maid of the West teaches about, informs of and confirms the existing patterns of virtue in European voyagers and at the same time it asserts how honor and chastity are European par excellence whereas villainy and wickedness are Oriental assets. Once taken captive, these virtues and traits are put into task as the plot disentangles. This paper also examines how the play in both parts generates a whole history of stereotypes about Morocco and unexpectedly subverts this stereotype; such a biased mode of narration of the Orient the playwright took up at first was played down at a later phase in the narrative.

Keywords: Heywood, Occident, Orientalism, Stereotype, Virtue

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149 Empowering Persons with Disabilities in Indonesia: Translating the Disability Law into Practice

Authors: Marthella Rivera Roidatua

Abstract:

Since the release of Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities in 2006, disability became a mainstreamed global issue. Many developed countries have shown the continuous effort to improve their disability employment policy, for example, the US and the UK with their integrated support system through disability benefits. Relative little recent research on developing country is available. Surprisingly, Indonesia, just enacted the Law No.8/2016 on Disability that bravely highlighted on integrating disabled people into the workforce. It shows a positive progress shifting traditional perspective to what Tom Shakespeare’s concept of a social model of disability. But, the main question is how can this law support the disabled people to access and maintain paid work. Thus, besides the earlier literature reviews, interviews with leading sectors, Ministry of Social Affairs and Ministry of Manpower, was conducted to examine government’s attitude towards the disabled worker. Insights from two local social enterprises on disability were also engaged in building better perspective. The various source of data was triangulated then analysed with a thematic approach. Results were encouraging the Indonesian government to have a better collaboration with other impactful local organisations in promoting the disability employment. In the end, this paper also recommends the government to make a reasonable adjustment and practical guideline for companies in hiring disabled.

Keywords: disability, employment, policy, Indonesia, collaboration, guidelines

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148 Corporate Social Media: Understanding the Impact of Service Quality and Social Value on Customer Behavior

Authors: Regina Connolly, Murray Scott, William DeLone

Abstract:

Social media are revolutionary technologies that are transforming the way we communicate, the way we collaborate and the way we influence. Companies are making major investments in platforms such as Facebook and Twitter because they realize that social media are an influential force on customer perceptions and behavior. However, to date there is little guidance on what constitutes an effective deployment of social media and there is no empirical evidence that social medial investments are yielding positive returns. This research develops and validates the components of an effective corporate social media platform in order to examine the impact of effective social media on customer intentions and behavior.

Keywords: service quality, social value, social media, IS success, Web 2.0, customer behaviour

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147 Investigating the Efficacy of Developing Critical Thinking through Literature Reading

Authors: Julie Chuah Suan Choo

Abstract:

Due to the continuous change in workforce and the demands of the global workplace, many employers had lamented that the majority of university graduates were not prepared in the key areas of employment such as critical thinking, writing, self-direction and global knowledge which are most needed for the purposes of promotion. Further, critical thinking skills are deemed as integral parts of transformational pedagogy which aims at having a more informed society. To add to this, literature teaching has recently been advocated for enhancing students’ critical thinking and reasoning. Thus this study explored the effects of incorporating a few strategies in teaching literature, namely a Shakespeare play, into a course design to enhance these skills. An experiment involving a pretest and posttest using the California Critical Thinking Skills Test (CCTST) were administered on 80 first-year students enrolled in the Bachelor of Arts programme who were randomly assigned into the control group and experimental group. For the next 12 weeks, the experimental group was given intervention which included guided in-class discussion with Socratic questioning skills, learning log to detect their weaknesses in logical reasoning; presentations and quizzes. The results of CCTST which included paired T-test using SPSS version 22 indicated significant differences between the two groups. Findings have significant implications on the course design as well as pedagogical practice in using literature to enhance students’ critical thinking skills.

Keywords: literature teaching, critical thinking, California critical thinking skills test (CCTST), course design

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146 Venezuela in the US Oil Geopolitics: An Analysis in the Light of the New Oil Landscape

Authors: William Clavijo, Edmar Almeida

Abstract:

The article analyzes the importance of Venezuela in the US geopolitics of oil considering the new oil landscape. To this end, the importance of oil in the geopolitics of the United States is discussed from the perspective of energy security as well as considering a broader view of national security. Based on this discussion, the relevance of Venezuelan oil reserves on US geopolitical agenda is analyzed. Among the results, the article shows that the transformations in the supply structure of the international oil market during the last decade have allowed the United States to achieve greater levels of independence from oil imports from other producing countries. This new reality has profoundly changed the US interest in Venezuelan oil to a broader subject that involves sensitive issues of its national security agenda.

Keywords: oil geopolitics, Venezuela, United States, energy security, national security

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145 Financial Inclusion for Inclusive Growth in an Emerging Economy

Authors: Godwin Chigozie Okpara, William Chimee Nwaoha

Abstract:

The paper set out to stress on how financial inclusion index could be calculated and also investigated the impact of inclusive finance on inclusive growth in an emerging economy. In the light of these objectives, chi-wins method was used to calculate indexes of financial inclusion while co-integration and error correction model were used for evaluation of the impact of financial inclusion on inclusive growth. The result of the analysis revealed that financial inclusion while having a long-run relationship with GDP growth is an insignificant function of the growth of the economy. The speed of adjustment is correctly signed and significant. On the basis of these results, the researchers called for tireless efforts of government and banking sector in promoting financial inclusion in developing countries.

Keywords: chi-wins index, co-integration, error correction model, financial inclusion

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144 Cultural Effects on the Performance of Non- Profit and For-Profit Microfinance Institutions

Authors: Patrick M. Stanton, William R. McCumber

Abstract:

Using a large dataset of more than 2,400 individual microfinance institutions (MFIs) from 120 countries from 1999 to 2016, this study finds that nearly half of the international MFIs operate as for-profit institutions. Formal institutions (business regulatory environment, property rights, social protection, and a developed financial sector) impact the likelihood of MFIs being for-profit across countries. Cultural differences across countries (power distance, individualism, masculinity, and indulgence) seem to be a factor in the legal status of the MFI (non-profit or for-profit). MFIs in countries with stronger formal institutions, a greater degree of power distance, and a higher degree of collectivism experience better financial and social performance.

Keywords: Hofstede cultural dimensions, international finance, microfinance institutions, non-profite

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143 A Case of Postpartum Pulmonary Edema Induced by Oxytocin

Authors: May Zaw, Amber Latif, William Lim

Abstract:

Postpartum dyspnea can be due to many causes, such as pulmonary embolism, amniotic fluid embolism, and peripartum cardiomyopathy, but less frequently due to acute pulmonary edema. The incidence of acute pulmonary edema during pregnancy and in the postpartum period has been estimated to be around 0.08%. About half of the cases are attributed to tocolytic therapy. Herein, we present a case of a young woman presenting with acute hypoxia after induction of labor with oxytocin and found to have acute pulmonary edema. This case aims to illustrate and add to a growing body of literature regarding oxytocin-induced acute pulmonary edema and highlights the importance of recognizing the rare complication of oxytocin and necessary interventions to avoid complications. Oxytocin-induced pulmonary edema is a relatively uncommon condition, but physicians should have a high index of suspicion to initiate timely intervention and avoid fetal complications.

Keywords: pulmonary, pregnancy, oxytocin, postpartum

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