Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Terry Ng

20 Evaluation Criteria for Performance of Knitted Terry Fabrics and Building Elements of Fashion: A Critical Review

Authors: Harpinder Kaur, Amit Madahar

Abstract:

The terry fabric is one of the fastest growing and challenging sub-sectors of the textile industry. Terry fabrics are produced using ground weft, ground warp, and pile yarns. The terry fabrics not only finds applications in towels but also in home textile products, sauna dressing- gowns, slippers, jackets, garments, apparels, outerwears, overcoats, sweatshirts, children’s clothes, and hygiene products for babies, beachwear, sleepwear, gloves, scarfs, shawls, etc. In some cases, these wide ranges of applications not only demand a high degree of absorption but also necessitate the due consideration for the handle properties of the fabrics. These fabrics are required to be accessed for their performance in terms of absorbency and comfort characteristics. Since material (yarns, colors, fabrics, fashion, patrons, accessories and fittings) are the core elements of structure of fashion, hence textile and fashion go hand in hand. This paper throws some light on the performance evaluation of terry fabrics. Here, characteristics/features that are required to be achieved for satisfactory performance of the terry fabrics with reference to fashion are discussed. The terry fabrics are being modified over the years in terms of the raw material requirements such as 100% cotton or blends or cotton with other fibers in order to obtain better performance as well as their structural parameters including stitch length and stitch density etc.

Keywords: absorbency, comfort, cotton, performance, terry fabrics, fashion

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19 The Biomechanical Consequences of Pes Planus

Authors: Mariette Swanepoel, Terry Ellapen, Henriette Hammil, Juandre Williams, Timothy Qumbu

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The biomechanical consequence of pes planus is a topic seldom reviewed in regards to energy expenditure and predisposition to injury. However its comprehension in the field of foot rehabilitation, pre-and post-surgery is fundamental to successful patient management. This short communication unites the present literature to provide the reader with better insight on the consequence of pes planus, foot mechanics and its predisposition to injury at the foot and tibiofemoral joint. Further, the consideration of synergistic dominance of the foot invertors to compensate for the ineffective torque production of the fibularis longus due pes planus is presented.

Keywords: pes planus, fibularis longus, synergistic dominance, injury

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18 Interactions on Silent Mode: Parental Smartphone Distractions on Infant Mental Health

Authors: Terry Gomez

Abstract:

This interpretive phenomenological qualitative study explored potential risks related to infant mental health with parental smartphone use while caring for infants. Data were collected through nine online interviews of first-time parents with infants under one-year-old. All parents reported using their smartphone during child-bonding activities such as playtime, feeding, and sleep-time. Results indicated that smartphone distractions appear to influence the synchrony of parent-child interactions. Infants displayed physical, verbal, or emotional reactions to parents’ smartphone distractions, indicating that smartphone use influences infants’ behaviors. Parents shared information on how smartphones helped them with their transition into parenthood. The findings of this study provide insights helpful to inform infant mental health professionals and parents about potential developmental consequences associated with parental technoference and absent presence.

Keywords: absent presence, infant mental health, parental distractions, smartphones, technoference

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17 The Effectiveness of ICT-Assisted PBL on College-Level Nano Knowledge and Learning Skills

Authors: Ya-Ting Carolyn Yang, Ping-Han Cheng, Shi-Hui Gilbert Chang, Terry Yuan-Fang Chen, Chih-Chieh Li

Abstract:

Nanotechnology is widely applied in various areas so professionals in the related fields have to know more than nano knowledge. In the study, we focus on adopting ICT-assisted PBL in college general education to foster professionals who possess multiple abilities. The research adopted a pretest and posttest quasi-experimental design. The control group received traditional instruction, and the experimental group received ICT-assisted PBL instruction. Descriptive statistics will be used to describe the means, standard deviations, and adjusted means for the tests between the two groups. Next, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) will be used to compare the final results of the two research groups after 6 weeks of instruction. Statistics gathered in the end of the research can be used to make contrasts. Therefore, we will see how different teaching strategies can improve students’ understanding about nanotechnology and learning skills.

Keywords: nanotechnology, science education, project-based learning, information and communication technology

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16 Investigation of Comfort Properties of Knitted Fabrics

Authors: Mehmet Karahan, Nevin Karahan

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Water and air permeability and thermal resistance of fabrics are the important attributes which strongly influence the thermo-physiological comfort properties of sportswear fabrics in different environmental conditions. In this work, terry and fleece fabrics were developed by varying the fiber content and areal density of fabrics. Further, the thermo-physical properties, including air permeability, water vapor permeability, and thermal resistance, of the developed fabrics were analyzed before and after washing. The multi-response optimization of thermo-physiological comfort properties was done by using principal component analysis (PCA) and Taguchi signal to noise ratio (PCA-S/N ratio) for optimal properties. It was found that the selected parameters resulted in a significant effect on thermo-physiological comfort properties of knitted fabrics. The PCA analysis showed that before wash, 100% cotton fabric with an aerial weight of 220 g.m⁻² gave optimum values of thermo-physiological comfort.

Keywords: thermo-physiological comfort, fleece knitted fabric, air permeability, water vapor transmission, cotton/polyester

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15 A Randomised, Single-Dose, Two-Period, Cross-Over Phase I Pharmacokinetic Study to Compare TDS®-Diazepam with Rectal Diazepam in Healthy Adult Subjects

Authors: Faisal O. Al-Otaibi, Arthur T. Tucker, Richard M. Langford, Stuart Ratcliffe, Atholl Johnston, Terry D. Lee, Kenneth B. Kirby, Chandan A. Alam

Abstract:

The Transdermal Delivery System (TDS®) is a proprietary liquid formulation that can be applied to intact skin via a metered pump spray to facilitate drug delivery to the circulation. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of the TDS preparation to deliver diazepam systemically, and to characterize the pharmacokinetic profile of the drug in healthy adult subjects. We conducted a randomized, single-dose, two-period, crossover phase I (pharmacokinetic) comparative study in twelve healthy volunteers. All volunteers received both 10 mg TDS-diazepam topically to the upper chest and 10 mg of the rectal diazepam preparation (Diastat®, 10 mg diazepam gel), with a minimum washout of 14 days between dosing episodes. Both formulations were well tolerated in all volunteers. Following topical application of TDS-diazepam, the mean AUC0-72h was 1241 ng/mL.h and the Cmax 34 ng/mL. The values for rectal Diastat were 4109 ng/mL.h and 300 ng/mL respectively. This proof of concept study demonstrates that the TDS preparation successfully delivered diazepam systemically to adults. As expected, the concentration of diazepam following the TDS application was lower and not bioequivalent to rectal gel. Future development of this unique system is required.

Keywords: transdermal delivery system, diazepam, seizure, bioequivalence, pharmacokinetic

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14 Glycan Analyzer: Software to Annotate Glycan Structures from Exoglycosidase Experiments

Authors: Ian Walsh, Terry Nguyen-Khuong, Christopher H. Taron, Pauline M. Rudd

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Glycoproteins and their covalently bonded glycans play critical roles in the immune system, cell communication, disease and disease prognosis. Ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) coupled with mass spectrometry is conventionally used to qualitatively and quantitatively characterise glycan structures in a given sample. Exoglycosidases are enzymes that catalyze sequential removal of monosaccharides from the non-reducing end of glycans. They naturally have specificity for a particular type of sugar, its stereochemistry (α or β anomer) and its position of attachment to an adjacent sugar on the glycan. Thus, monitoring the peak movements (both in the UPLC and MS1) after application of exoglycosidases provides a unique and effective way to annotate sugars with high detail - i.e. differentiating positional and linkage isomers. Manual annotation of an exoglycosidase experiment is difficult and time consuming. As such, with increasing sample complexity and the number of exoglycosidases, the analysis could result in manually interpreting hundreds of peak movements. Recently, we have implemented pattern recognition software for automated interpretation of UPLC-MS1 exoglycosidase digestions. In this work, we explain the software, indicate how much time it will save and provide example usage showing the annotation of positional and linkage isomers in Immunoglobulin G, apolipoprotein J, and simple glycan standards.

Keywords: bioinformatics, automated glycan assignment, liquid chromatography, mass spectrometry

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13 Cleaning Performance of High-Frequency, High-Intensity 360 kHz Frequency Operating in Thickness Mode Transducers

Authors: R. Vetrimurugan, Terry Lim, M. J. Goodson, R. Nagarajan

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This study investigates the cleaning performance of high intensity 360 kHz frequency on the removal of nano-dimensional and sub-micron particles from various surfaces, uniformity of the cleaning tank and run to run variation of cleaning process. The uniformity of the cleaning tank was measured by two different methods i.e 1. ppbTM meter and 2. Liquid Particle Counting (LPC) technique. In the second method, aluminium metal spacer components was placed at various locations of the cleaning tank (such as centre, top left corner, bottom left corner, top right corner, bottom right corner) and the resultant particles removed by 360 kHz frequency was measured. The result indicates that the energy was distributed more uniformly throughout the entire cleaning vessel even at the corners and edges of the tank when megasonic sweeping technology is applied. The result also shows that rinsing the parts with 360 kHz frequency at final rinse gives lower particle counts, hence higher cleaning efficiency as compared to other frequencies. When megasonic sweeping technology is applied each piezoelectric transducers will operate at their optimum resonant frequency and generates stronger acoustic cavitational force and higher acoustic streaming velocity. These combined forces are helping to enhance the particle removal and at the same time improve the overall cleaning performance. The multiple extractions study was also carried out for various frequencies to measure the cleaning potential and asymptote value.

Keywords: power distribution, megasonic sweeping, cavitation intensity, particle removal, laser particle counting, nano, submicron

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12 Development of a Diagnostic Device to Predict Clinically Significant Inflammation Associated with Cardiac Surgery

Authors: Mohamed Majrashi, Patricia Connolly, Terry Gourlay

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Cardiopulmonary bypass is known to cause inflammatory response during open heart surgery. It includes the initiation of different cascades such as coagulation, complement system and cytokines. Although the immune system is body’s key defense mechanism against external assault, when overexpressed, it can be injurious to the patient, particularly in a cohort of patients in which there is a heightened and uncontrolled response. The inflammatory response develops in these patients to an exaggerated level resulting in an autoimmune injury and may lead to poor postoperative outcomes (systemic inflammatory response syndrome and multi-organs failure). Previous studies by this group have suggested a correlation between the level of IL6 measured in patient’s blood before surgery and after polymeric activation and the observed inflammatory response during surgery. Based upon these findings, the present work is aimed at using this response to develop a test which can be used prior to the open heart surgery to identify the high-risk patients before their operation. The work will be accomplished via three main clinical phases including some pilot in-vitro studies, device development and clinical investigation. Current findings from studies using animal blood, employing DEHP and DEHP plasticized PVC materials as the activator, support the earlier results in patient samples. Having established this relationship, ongoing work will focus on developing an activated lateral flow strip technology as a screening device for heightened inflammatory propensity.

Keywords: cardiopulmonary bypass, cytokines, inflammatory response, overexpression

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11 A Laboratory Study into the Effects of Surface Waves on Freestyle Swimming

Authors: Scott Draper, Nat Benjanuvatra, Grant Landers, Terry Griffiths, Justin Geldard

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Open water swimming has been an Olympic sport since 2008 and is growing in popularity world-wide as a low impact form of exercise. Unlike pool swimming, open water swimmers experience a range of different environmental conditions, including surface waves, variable water temperature, aquatic life, and ocean currents. This presentation will describe experimental research to investigate how freestyle swimming behaviour and performance is influenced by surface waves. A group of 12 swimmers were instructed to swim freestyle in the 54 m long wave flume located at The University of Western Australia’s Coastal and Offshore Engineering Laboratory. A variety of different regular waves were simulated, varying in height (up to 0.3 m), period (1.25 – 4s), and direction (with or against the swimmer). Swimmer’s velocity and acceleration, respectively, were determined from video recording and inertial sensors attached to five different parts of the swimmer’s body. The results illustrate how the swimmers stroke rate and the wave encounter frequency influence their forward speed and how particular wave conditions can benefit or hinder performance. Comparisons to simplified mathematical models provide insight into several aspects of performance, including: (i) how much faster swimmers can travel when swimming with as opposed to against the waves, and (ii) why swimmers of lesser ability are expected to be affected proportionally more by waves than elite swimmers. These findings have implications across the spectrum from elite to ‘weekend’ swimmers, including how they are coached and their ability to win (or just successfully complete) iconic open water events such as the Rottnest Channel Swim held annually in Western Australia.

Keywords: open water, surface waves, wave height/length, wave flume, stroke rate

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10 Effective Strategies Migrants Adopted to Improve Food Security in a Regional Area of Australia

Authors: Joanne Sin Wei Yeoh, Quynh Lê, Daniel R. Terry, Rosa Mc Manamey

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Food security is a global issue and one of the concerns in Australia, particularly in regional and rural areas. Despite Australia’s current ability to produce enough food to feed more than its current population, evidence has been accumulating over the last decade to demonstrate many Australians struggle to feed themselves, including immigrants from cultural and linguistically diverse (CALD) backgrounds. This study aims to identify the acculturation strategies used by migrants to enhance their approach to food security in Tasmania. The study employed a mixed methods approach that used both questionnaires and semi-structured interviews with migrants living in Tasmania. Descriptive and inferential statistics was used to analyse data collected from questionnaire, whereas, thematic analysis was employed to analyse the interview data. Migrants (n=301) completed the questionnaire with a response rate of 50.2% and 33 follow-up interviews were conducted. We found that majority of the migrants (70.0%) replaced food ingredients and went without the food they could not buy from shops with similar ingredients. Support and advice from friends were effective ways to improve their food access. Additionally, length of stays in Tasmania and region of origin were significantly associated with the ways migrants dealing with food security. The interview results revealed that migrants managed to adapt to the new food culture by using different acculturation strategies, including access food ingredients from other country; adjusting or adapting; home gardening and access to technology. In addition, social and cultural capitals were also treated as vital roles in improving migrants’ food security. To summarize, migrants employed different strategies for food security while acculturating into the new environment. Our findings could become the guidelines for migrants and relevant government or private sectors that address food security.

Keywords: food security, migrants, strategies, inferential statistics

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9 Experimental Study of Near Wake of Wind Turbines

Authors: Ramin Rezaei, Terry Ng, Abdollah Afjeh

Abstract:

Near wake development of a wind turbine affects the aerodynamic loads on the tower and the wind turbine. Design considerations of both isolated wind turbines and wind farms must include unsteady wake flow conditions under which the turbines must operate. The consequent aerodynamic loads could lead to over design of wind turbines and adversely affect the cost of wind turbines and, in turn, the cost of energy produced by wind turbines. Reducing the weight of turbine rotors is particularly desirable since larger wind turbine rotors can be utilized without significantly increasing the cost of the supporting structure. Larger rotor diameters produce larger swept areas and consequently greater energy production from the wind thereby reducing the levelized cost of wind energy. To understand the development and structure of the near tower wake of a wind turbine, an experimental study was conducted to describe the flow field of the near wake for both upwind and downwind turbines. The study was conducted under controlled environment of a wind tunnel using a scaled model of a turbine. The NREL 5 MW reference wind turbine was used as a baseline design and was modified as necessary to design and build upwind and downwind scaled wind turbine models. This paper presents the results of the wind tunnel study using turbine models to quantify the near wake of upwind and downwind wind turbine configurations for various lengths of tower-to-turbine spacing. The variations of mean velocity and turbulence are measured using a computer-controlled, traversing hot wire probe. Additionally, smoke flow visualizations were conducted to qualitatively study the wake. The results show a more rapid dissipation of the near wake for an upwind configuration. The results can readily be incorporated into low fidelity system level turbine simulation tools to more accurately account for the wake on the aerodynamic loads of a upwind and downwind turbines.

Keywords: hot wire anemometry, near wake, upwind and downwind turbine. Hot wire anemometry, near wake, upwind and downwind turbine

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8 Response Surface Methodology to Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of Microalgal Lipids

Authors: Yen-Hui Chen, Terry Walker

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As the world experiences an energy crisis, investing in sustainable energy resources is a pressing mission for many countries. Microalgae-derived biodiesel has attracted intensive attention as an important biofuel, and microalgae Chlorella protothecoides lipid is recognized as a renewable source for microalgae-derived biodiesel production. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO₂) is a promising green solvent that may potentially substitute the use of organic solvents for lipid extraction; however, the efficiency of SC-CO₂ extraction may be affected by many variables, including temperature, pressure and extraction time individually or in combination. In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to optimize the process parameters, including temperature, pressure and extraction time, on C. protothecoides lipid yield by SC-CO₂ extraction. A second order polynomial model provided a good fit (R-square value of 0.94) for the C. protothecoides lipid yield. The linear and quadratic terms of temperature, pressure and extraction time—as well as the interaction between temperature and pressure—showed significant effects on lipid yield during extraction. The optimal lipid yield from the model was predicted as the temperature of 59 °C, the pressure of 350.7 bar and the extraction time 2.8 hours. Under these conditions, the experimental lipid yield (25%) was close to the predicted value. The principal fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) of C. protothecoides lipid-derived biodiesel were oleic acid methyl ester (60.1%), linoleic acid methyl ester (18.6%) and palmitic acid methyl ester (11.4%), which made up more than 90% of the total FAMEs. In summary, this study indicated that RSM was useful to characterize the optimization the SC-CO₂ extraction process of C. protothecoides lipid yield, and the second-order polynomial model could be used for predicting and describing the lipid yield very well. In addition, C. protothecoides lipid, extracted by SC-CO₂, was suggested as a potential candidate for microalgae-derived biodiesel production.

Keywords: Chlorella protothecoides, microalgal lipids, response surface methodology, supercritical carbon dioxide extraction

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7 The Impact of the Plagal Cadence on Nineteenth-Century Music

Authors: Jason Terry

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Beginning in the mid-nineteenth century, hymns in the Anglo-American tradition often ended with the congregation singing ‘amen,’ most commonly set to a plagal cadence. While the popularity of this tradition is well-known still today, this research presents the origins of this custom. In 1861, Hymns Ancient & Modern deepened this convention by concluding each of its hymns with a published plagal-amen cadence. Subsequently, hymnals from a variety of denominations throughout Europe and the United States heavily adopted this practice. By the middle of the twentieth century the number of participants singing this cadence had suspiciously declined; however, it was not until the 1990s that the plagal-amen cadence all but disappeared from hymnals. Today, it is rare for songs to conclude with the plagal-amen cadence, although instrumentalists have continued to regularly play a plagal cadence underneath the singers’ sustained finalis. After examining a variety of music theory treatises, eighteenth-century newspaper articles, manuscripts & hymnals from the last five centuries, and conducting interviews with a number of scholars around the world, this study presents the context of the plagal-amen cadence through its history. The association of ‘amen’ and the plagal cadence was already being discussed during the late eighteenth century, and the plagal-amen cadence only grew in attractiveness from that time forward, most notably in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Throughout this research, the music of Thomas Tallis, primarily through his Preces and Responses, is reasonably shown to be the basis for the high status of the plagal-amen cadence in nineteenth- and twentieth-century society. Tallis’s immediate influence was felt among his contemporary English composers as well as posterity, all of whom were well-aware of his compositional styles and techniques. More importantly, however, was the revival of his music in nineteenth-century England, which had a greater impact on the plagal-amen tradition. With his historical title as the father of English cathedral music, Tallis was favored by the supporters of the Oxford Movement. Thus, with society’s view of Tallis, the simple IV–I cadence he chose to pair with ‘amen’ attained a much greater worth in the history of Western music. A musical device such as the once-revered plagal-amen cadence deserves to be studied and understood in a more factual light than has thus far been available to contemporary scholars.

Keywords: amen cadence, Plagal-amen cadence, singing hymns with amen, Thomas Tallis

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6 Uncertainty Quantification of Corrosion Anomaly Length of Oil and Gas Steel Pipelines Based on Inline Inspection and Field Data

Authors: Tammeen Siraj, Wenxing Zhou, Terry Huang, Mohammad Al-Amin

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The high resolution inline inspection (ILI) tool is used extensively in the pipeline industry to identify, locate, and measure metal-loss corrosion anomalies on buried oil and gas steel pipelines. Corrosion anomalies may occur singly (i.e. individual anomalies) or as clusters (i.e. a colony of corrosion anomalies). Although the ILI technology has advanced immensely, there are measurement errors associated with the sizes of corrosion anomalies reported by ILI tools due limitations of the tools and associated sizing algorithms, and detection threshold of the tools (i.e. the minimum detectable feature dimension). Quantifying the measurement error in the ILI data is crucial for corrosion management and developing maintenance strategies that satisfy the safety and economic constraints. Studies on the measurement error associated with the length of the corrosion anomalies (in the longitudinal direction of the pipeline) has been scarcely reported in the literature and will be investigated in the present study. Limitations in the ILI tool and clustering process can sometimes cause clustering error, which is defined as the error introduced during the clustering process by including or excluding a single or group of anomalies in or from a cluster. Clustering error has been found to be one of the biggest contributory factors for relatively high uncertainties associated with ILI reported anomaly length. As such, this study focuses on developing a consistent and comprehensive framework to quantify the measurement errors in the ILI-reported anomaly length by comparing the ILI data and corresponding field measurements for individual and clustered corrosion anomalies. The analysis carried out in this study is based on the ILI and field measurement data for a set of anomalies collected from two segments of a buried natural gas pipeline currently in service in Alberta, Canada. Data analyses showed that the measurement error associated with the ILI-reported length of the anomalies without clustering error, denoted as Type I anomalies is markedly less than that for anomalies with clustering error, denoted as Type II anomalies. A methodology employing data mining techniques is further proposed to classify the Type I and Type II anomalies based on the ILI-reported corrosion anomaly information.

Keywords: clustered corrosion anomaly, corrosion anomaly assessment, corrosion anomaly length, individual corrosion anomaly, metal-loss corrosion, oil and gas steel pipeline

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5 The Use of Palm Kernel Cake in Ration and Its Influence on VFA, NH3 and pH Rumen Fluid of Goat

Authors: Arief, Noovirman Jamarun, Benni Satria

Abstract:

Background: The main problem in the development of livestock in Indonesia is feed both in terms of quality and quantity. On the other hand, conventional feed ingredients are expensive and difficult to obtain. Therefore, it is necessary to find alternative feed ingredients that have good quality, potential, and low cost. Feed ingredients that meet the above requirements are by-products of the palm oil industry, namely palm kernel cake (PKC). This study aims to obtain the best PKC composition for Etawa goat concentrate ration. Material and Methode : This research consists of 2 stages. Stage I is invitro study using Tilley and Terry method. The study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 4 treatments of rations and 4 replications. The treatment is the composition of the use of palm kernel cake (PKC) in the ration, namely, A). 10%, B). 20%, C). 30%, D). 40%. Other feed ingredients are corn, rice bran, tofu waste and minerals. The measured variables are the characteristics of the rumen fluid (pH, VFA and NH3). Stage II was done using the best ration of stage I (Ration C), followed by testing the use of Tithonia (Thitonia difersifolia) and agricultural waste of sweet potato leaves as a source of forage for livestock by in-vitro. The study used a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with 3 treatments and 5 replications. The treatments were: Treatment A) Best Concentrate Ration Stage I + Titonia (Thitonia difersifolia), Treatment B) Best Concentrate Ration Stage I + Tithonia (Thitonia difersifolia) and Sweet potato Leaves, Treatment C) Best Concentrate Ration Stage I + Sweet potato leaves. The data obtained were analyzed using variance analysis while the differences between treatments were tested using the Duncant Multiple Range Test (DMRT) according to Steel and Torrie. Results of Stage II showed that the use of PKC in rations as concentrate feed combined with forage originating from Tithonia (Thitonia difersifolia) and sweet potato leaves produced pH, VFA and NH3-N which were still in normal conditions. The best treatment was obtained from diet B (P <0.05) with 6.9 pH, 116.29 mM VFA and 15mM NH3-N. Conclussion From the results of the study it can be concluded that PKC can be used as feed ingredients for dairy goat concentrate with a combination of forage from Tithonia (Tithonia difersifolia) and sweet potato leaves.

Keywords: palm oil by-product, palm kernel cake, concentrate, rumen fluid, Etawa goat

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4 Determination of the Toxicity of a Lunar Dust Simulant on Human Alveolar Epithelial Cells and Macrophages in vitro

Authors: Agatha Bebbington, Terry Tetley, Kathryn Hadler

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Background: Astronauts will set foot on the Moon later this decade, and are at high risk of lunar dust inhalation. Freshly-fractured lunar dust produces reactive oxygen species in solution, which are known to cause cellular damage and inflammation. Cytotoxicity and inflammatory mediator release was measured in pulmonary alveolar epithelial cells (cells that line the gas-exchange zone of the lung) exposed to a lunar dust simulant, LMS-1. It was hypothesised that freshly-fractured LMS-1 would result in increased cytotoxicity and inflammatory mediator release, owing to the angular morphology and high reactivity of fractured particles. Methods: A human alveolar epithelial type 1-like cell line (TT1) and a human macrophage-like cell line (THP-1) were exposed to 0-200μg/ml of unground, aged-ground, and freshly-ground LMS-1 (screened at <22μm). Cell viability, cytotoxicity, and inflammatory mediator release (IL-6, IL-8) were assessed using MMT, LDH, and ELISA assays, respectively. LMS-1 particles were characterised for their size, surface area, and morphology before and after grinding. Results: Exposure to LMS-1 particles did not result in overt cytotoxicity in either TT1 epithelial cells or THP-1 macrophage-like cells. A dose-dependent increase in IL-8 release was observed in TT1 cells, whereas THP-1 cell exposure, even at low particle concentrations, resulted in increased IL-8 release. Both cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory responses were most marked and significantly greater in TT1 and THP-1 cells exposed to freshly-fractured LMS-1. Discussion: LMS-1 is a novel lunar dust simulant; this is the first study to determine its toxicological effects on respiratory cells in vitro. An increased inflammatory response in TT1 and THP-1 cells exposed to ground LMS-1 suggests that low particle size, increased surface area, and angularity likely contribute to toxicity. Conclusions: Evenlow levels of exposure to LMS-1 could result in alveolar inflammation. This may have pathological consequences for astronauts exposed to lunar dust on future long-duration missions. Future research should test the effect of low-dose, intermittent lunar dust exposure on the respiratory system.

Keywords: lunar dust, LMS-1, lunar dust simulant, long-duration space travel, lunar dust toxicity

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3 Investigating Student Behavior in Adopting Online Formative Assessment Feedback

Authors: Peter Clutterbuck, Terry Rowlands, Owen Seamons

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In this paper we describe one critical research program within a complex, ongoing multi-year project (2010 to 2014 inclusive) with the overall goal to improve the learning outcomes for first year undergraduate commerce/business students within an Information Systems (IS) subject with very large enrolment. The single research program described in this paper is the analysis of student attitudes and decision making in relation to the availability of formative assessment feedback via Web-based real time conferencing and document exchange software (Adobe Connect). The formative assessment feedback between teaching staff and students is in respect of an authentic problem-based, team-completed assignment. The analysis of student attitudes and decision making is investigated via both qualitative (firstly) and quantitative (secondly) application of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) with a two statistically-significant and separate trial samples of the enrolled students. The initial qualitative TPB investigation revealed that perceived self-efficacy, improved time-management, and lecturer-student relationship building were the major factors in shaping an overall favorable student attitude to online feedback, whilst some students expressed valid concerns with perceived control limitations identified within the online feedback protocols. The subsequent quantitative TPB investigation then confirmed that attitude towards usage, subjective norms surrounding usage, and perceived behavioral control of usage were all significant in shaping student intention to use the online feedback protocol, with these three variables explaining 63 percent of the variance in the behavioral intention to use the online feedback protocol. The identification in this research of perceived behavioral control as a significant determinant in student usage of a specific technology component within a virtual learning environment (VLE) suggests that VLEs could now be viewed not as a single, atomic entity, but as a spectrum of technology offerings ranging from the mature and simple (e.g., email, Web downloads) to the cutting-edge and challenging (e.g., Web conferencing and real-time document exchange). That is, that all VLEs should not be considered the same. The results of this research suggest that tertiary students have the technological sophistication to assess a VLE in this more selective manner.

Keywords: formative assessment feedback, virtual learning environment, theory of planned behavior, perceived behavioral control

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2 Sexual Consent: Exploring the Perceptions of Heterosexual, Gay, and Bisexual Men

Authors: Shulamit Sternin, Raymond M. McKie, Carter Winberg, Robb N. Travers, Terry P. Humphreys, Elke D. Reissing

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Issues surrounding sexual consent negotiation have become a major topic of societal concern. The majority of current research focuses on the complexities of sexual consent negotiations and the multitude of nuanced issues that surround the consent obtainment of heterosexual adults in post-secondary educational institutions. To date, the only study that has addressed sexual consent negotiation behaviour in same-sex relationships focused on the extent to which individuals used a variety of different verbal and nonverbal sexual consent behaviours to initiate or respond to sexual activity. The results were consistent with trends found within heterosexual individuals; thus, suggesting that the current understanding of sexual consent negotiation, which is grounded in heterosexual research, can serve as a strong foundation for further exploration of sexual consent negotiation within same-sex relationships populations. The current study quantitatively investigated the differences between heterosexual men and gay and bisexual men (GBM) in their understanding of sexual consent negotiation. Exploring how the perceptions of GBM differ from heterosexual males provides insight into some of the unique challenges faced by GBM. Data were collected from a sample of 252 heterosexual men and 314 GBM from Canada, the United States, and Western Europe. Participants responded to the question, 'do you think sexual consent and sex negotiation is different for heterosexual men compared to gay men? If so, how?' by completed an online survey. Responses were analysed following Braun & Clarke’s (2006) six phase thematic analysis guidelines. Inter-rater coding was validated using Cohen’s Kappa value and was calculated at (ϰ = 0.84), indicating a very strong level of agreement between raters. The final thematic structure yielded four major themes: understanding of sexual interaction, unique challenges, scripted role, and universal consent. Respondents spoke to their understanding of sexual interaction, believing GBM sexual consent negotiation to be faster and more immediate. This was linked to perceptions of emotional attachment and the idea that sexual interaction and emotional involvement were distinct and separate processes in GBM sexual consent negotiation, not believed to be the case in heterosexual interactions. Unique challenges such as different protection concerns, role declaration, and sexualization of spaces were understood to hold differing levels of consideration for heterosexual men and GBM. The perception of a clearly defined sexual script for GBM was suggested as a factor that may create ambiguity surrounding sexual consent negotiation, which in turn holds significant implications on unwanted sexual experiences for GBM. Broadening the scope of the current understanding of sexual consent negotiation by focusing on heterosexual and GBM population, the current study has revealed variations in perception of sexual consent negotiation between these two populations. These differences may be understood within the context of sexual scripting theory and masculinity gender role theory. We suggest that sexual consent negotiation is a health risk factor for GBM that has not yet been adequately understood and addressed. Awareness of the perceptions that surround the sexual consent negotiation of both GBM and heterosexual men holds implications on public knowledge, which in turn can better inform policy making, education, future research, and clinical treatment.

Keywords: sexual consent, negotiation, heterosexual men, GBM, sexual script

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1 Empirical Study of Innovative Development of Shenzhen Creative Industries Based on Triple Helix Theory

Authors: Yi Wang, Greg Hearn, Terry Flew

Abstract:

In order to understand how cultural innovation occurs, this paper explores the interaction in Shenzhen of China between universities, creative industries, and government in creative economic using the Triple Helix framework. During the past two decades, Triple Helix has been recognized as a new theory of innovation to inform and guide policy-making in national and regional development. Universities and governments around the world, especially in developing countries, have taken actions to strengthen connections with creative industries to develop regional economies. To date research based on the Triple Helix model has focused primarily on Science and Technology collaborations, largely ignoring other fields. Hence, there is an opportunity for work to be done in seeking to better understand how the Triple Helix framework might apply in the field of creative industries and what knowledge might be gleaned from such an undertaking. Since the late 1990s, the concept of ‘creative industries’ has been introduced as policy and academic discourse. The development of creative industries policy by city agencies has improved city wealth creation and economic capital. It claims to generate a ‘new economy’ of enterprise dynamics and activities for urban renewal through the arts and digital media, via knowledge transfer in knowledge-based economies. Creative industries also involve commercial inputs to the creative economy, to dynamically reshape the city into an innovative culture. In particular, this paper will concentrate on creative spaces (incubators, digital tech parks, maker spaces, art hubs) where academic, industry and government interact. China has sought to enhance the brand of their manufacturing industry in cultural policy. It aims to transfer the image of ‘Made in China’ to ‘Created in China’ as well as to give Chinese brands more international competitiveness in a global economy. Shenzhen is a notable example in China as an international knowledge-based city following this path. In 2009, the Shenzhen Municipal Government proposed the city slogan ‘Build a Leading Cultural City”’ to show the ambition of government’s strong will to develop Shenzhen’s cultural capacity and creativity. The vision of Shenzhen is to become a cultural innovation center, a regional cultural center and an international cultural city. However, there has been a lack of attention to the triple helix interactions in the creative industries in China. In particular, there is limited knowledge about how interactions in creative spaces co-location within triple helix networks significantly influence city based innovation. That is, the roles of participating institutions need to be better understood. Thus, this paper discusses the interplay between university, creative industries and government in Shenzhen. Secondary analysis and documentary analysis will be used as methods in an effort to practically ground and illustrate this theoretical framework. Furthermore, this paper explores how are creative spaces being used to implement Triple Helix in creative industries. In particular, the new combination of resources generated from the synthesized consolidation and interactions through the institutions. This study will thus provide an innovative lens to understand the components, relationships and functions that exist within creative spaces by applying Triple Helix framework to the creative industries.

Keywords: cultural policy, creative industries, creative city, triple Helix

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