Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 118

Search results for: SPARK

118 A Second Spark Ignition Timing for the High Power Aircraft Radial Engine Using a CFD Transient Modeling

Authors: Tytus Tulwin, Adam Majczak


In aviation most important systems that impact the aircraft flight safety are duplicated. The ASz-62IR aircraft radial engine consists of two spark plugs powered by two separate magnetos. The relative difference in spark timing has an influence on the combustion process. The retardation of the second spark relative to the first spark was analyzed. The CFD simulation was developed as a multicycle transient model. Two independent spark sources imitate two flame fronts after an ignition period. It makes the combustion process shorter but only for certain range of second spark retardation. The model was validated by the in-cylinder pressure comparison. Combustion parameters were analyzed for different second spark retardation values. It was found that the most advantageous ignition timing in means of performance is simultaneous ignition. Nevertheless, for this engine the ignition time of the second spark plug is greatly retarded eliminating the advantageous performance influence. The reason behind this is maintaining high ignition certainty for all engine running conditions and for whole operating rpm range. In aviation the engine reliability is more important than its performance. Introducing electronic ignition system can yield from simultaneous ignition timing by increasing the engine performance and providing good reliability for all flight conditions. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, ignition, simulation, timing

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
117 The Effects of Spark Plasma on Infectious Wound Healing

Authors: Erfan Ghasemi, Mohammadreza Khani, Hamidreza Mahmoudi, Mohammad Ali Nilforoushzadeh, Babak Shokri, Pouria Akbartehrani


Given the global significance of treating infectious wounds, the goal of this study is to use spark plasma as a new treatment for infectious wounds. To generate spark plasma, a high-voltage (7 kV) and high-frequency (75 kHz) source was used. Infectious wounds in the peritoneum of mice were divided into control and plasma-treated groups at random. The plasma-treated animals received plasma radiation every 4 days for 12 days, for 60 seconds each time. On the 15th day after the first session, the wound in the plasma-treated group had completely healed. The spectra of spark plasma emission and tissue properties were studied. The mechanical resistance of the wound healed in the plasma treatment group was considerably higher than in the control group (p<0.05), according to the findings. Furthermore, histological evidence suggests that wound re-epithelialization is faster in comparison to controls. Angiogenesis and fibrosis (collagen production) were also dramatically boosted in the plasma-treated group, whereas the stage of wound healing inflammation was significantly reduced. Plasma therapy accelerated wound healing by causing considerable wound constriction. The results of this investigation show that spark plasma has an influence on the treatment of infectious wounds.

Keywords: infectious wounds, mice, spark plasma, treatment

Procedia PDF Downloads 127
116 Mechanical Properties of Spark Plasma Sintered 2024 AA Reinforced with TiB₂ and Nano Yttrium

Authors: Suresh Vidyasagar Chevuri, D. B. Karunakar Chevuri


The main advantages of 'Metal Matrix Nano Composites (MMNCs)' include excellent mechanical performance, good wear resistance, low creep rate, etc. The method of fabrication of MMNCs is quite a challenge, which includes processing techniques like Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS), etc. The objective of the present work is to fabricate aluminum based MMNCs with the addition of small amounts of yttrium using Spark Plasma Sintering and to evaluate their mechanical and microstructure properties. Samples of 2024 AA with yttrium ranging from 0.1% to 0.5 wt% keeping 1 wt% TiB2 constant are fabricated by Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS). The mechanical property like hardness is determined using Vickers hardness testing machine. The metallurgical characterization of the samples is evaluated by Optical Microscopy (OM), Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD). Unreinforced 2024 AA sample is also fabricated as a benchmark to compare its properties with that of the composite developed. It is found that the yttrium addition increases the above-mentioned properties to some extent and then decreases gradually when yttrium wt% increases beyond a point between 0.3 and 0.4 wt%. High density is achieved in the samples fabricated by spark plasma sintering when compared to any other fabrication route, and uniform distribution of yttrium is observed.

Keywords: spark plasma sintering, 2024 AA, yttrium addition, microstructure characterization, mechanical properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
115 Flame Kernel Growth and Related Effects of Spark Plug Electrodes: Fluid Motion Interaction in an Optically Accessible DISI Engine

Authors: A. Schirru, A. Irimescu, S. Merola, A. d’Adamo, S. Fontanesi


One of the aspects that are usually neglected during the design phase of an engine is the effect of the spark plug on the flow field inside the combustion chamber. Because of the difficulties in the experimental investigation of the mutual interaction between flow alteration and early flame kernel convection effect inside the engine combustion chamber, CFD-3D simulation is usually exploited in such cases. Experimentally speaking, a particular type of engine has to be used in order to directly observe the flame propagation process. In this study, a double electrode spark plug was fitted into an optically accessible engine and a high-speed camera was used to capture the initial stages of the combustion process. Both the arc and the kernel phases were observed. Then, a morphologic analysis was carried out and the position of the center of mass of the flame, relative to the spark plug position, was calculated. The crossflow orientation was chosen for the spark plug and the kernel growth process was observed for different air-fuel ratios. It was observed that during a normal cycle the flow field between the electrodes tends to transport the arc deforming it. Because of that, the kernel growth phase takes place away from the electrodes and the flame propagates with a preferential direction dictated by the flow field.

Keywords: Combustion, Optically Accessible Engine, Spark-Ignition Engine, Sparl Orientation, Kernel Growth

Procedia PDF Downloads 55
114 Self Tuning Controller for Reducing Cycle to Cycle Variations in SI Engine

Authors: Alirıza Kaleli, M. Akif Ceviz, Erdoğan Güner, Köksal Erentürk


The cyclic variations in spark ignition engines occurring especially under specific engine operating conditions make the maximum pressure variable for successive in-cylinder pressure cycles. Minimization of cyclic variations has a great importance in effectively operating near to lean limit, or at low speed and load. The cyclic variations may reduce the power output of the engine, lead to operational instabilities, and result in undesirable engine vibrations and noise. In this study, spark timing is controlled in order to reduce the cyclic variations in spark ignition engines. Firstly, an ARMAX model has developed between spark timing and maximum pressure using system identification techniques. By using this model, the maximum pressure of the next cycle has been predicted. Then, self-tuning minimum variance controller has been designed to change the spark timing for consecutive cycles of the first cylinder of test engine to regulate the in-cylinder maximum pressure. The performance of the proposed controller is illustrated in real time and experimental results show that the controller has a reliable effect on cycle to cycle variations of maximum cylinder pressure when the engine works under low speed conditions.

Keywords: cyclic variations, cylinder pressure, SI engines, self tuning controller

Procedia PDF Downloads 395
113 Modeling and Optimization of Performance of Four Stroke Spark Ignition Injector Engine

Authors: A. A. Okafor, C. H. Achebe, J. L. Chukwuneke, C. G. Ozoegwu


The performance of an engine whose basic design parameters are known can be predicted with the assistance of simulation programs into the less time, cost and near value of actual. This paper presents a comprehensive mathematical model of the performance parameters of four stroke spark ignition engine. The essence of this research work is to develop a mathematical model for the analysis of engine performance parameters of four stroke spark ignition engine before embarking on full scale construction, this will ensure that only optimal parameters are in the design and development of an engine and also allow to check and develop the design of the engine and it’s operation alternatives in an inexpensive way and less time, instead of using experimental method which requires costly research test beds. To achieve this, equations were derived which describe the performance parameters (sfc, thermal efficiency, mep and A/F). The equations were used to simulate and optimize the engine performance of the model for various engine speeds. The optimal values obtained for the developed bivariate mathematical models are: sfc is 0.2833kg/kwh, efficiency is 28.77% and a/f is 20.75.

Keywords: bivariate models, engine performance, injector engine, optimization, performance parameters, simulation, spark ignition

Procedia PDF Downloads 225
112 Comparative Parametric and Emission Characteristics of Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine Using Gasoline, Ethanol, and H₂O as Micro Emulsion Fuels

Authors: Ufaith Qadri, M Marouf Wani


In this paper, the performance and emission characteristics of a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition engine have been investigated. The research is based on micro emulsion application as fuel in a gasoline engine. We have analyzed many micro emulsion compositions in various proportions, for predicting the performance of the Spark Ignition engine. This new technology of fuel modifications is emerging very rapidly as lot of research is going on in the field of micro emulsion fuels in Compression Ignition engines, but the micro emulsion fuel used in a Gasoline engine is very rare. The use of micro emulsion as fuel in a Spark Ignition engine is virtually unexplored. So, our main goal is to see the performance and emission characteristics of micro emulsions as fuel, in Spark Ignition engines, and finding which composition is more efficient. In this research, we have used various micro emulsion fuels whose composition varies for all the three blends, and their performance and emission characteristic were predicted in AVL Boost software. Conventional Gasoline fuel 90%, 80% and 85% were blended with co-surfactant Ethanol in different compositions, and water was used as an additive for making it crystal clear transparent micro emulsion fuel, which is thermodynamically stable. By comparing the performances of engines, the power has shown similarity for micro emulsion fuel and conventional Gasoline fuel. On the other hand, Torque and BMEP shows increase for all the micro emulsion fuels. Micro emulsion fuel shows higher thermal efficiency and lower Specific Fuel Consumption for all the compositions as compared to the Gasoline fuel. Carbon monoxide and Hydro carbon emissions were also measured. The result shows that emissions decrease for all the composition of micro emulsion fuels, and proved to be the most efficient fuel both in terms of performance and emission characteristics.

Keywords: AVL Boost, emissions, microemulsions, performance, Spark Ignition (SI) engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 167
111 Spark Plasma Sintering of Aluminum-Based Composites Reinforced by Nanocrystalline Carbon-Coated Intermetallic Particles

Authors: B. Z. Manuel, H. D. Esmeralda, H. S. Felipe, D. R. Héctor, D. de la Torre Sebastián, R. L. Diego


Aluminum Matrix Composites reinforced with nanocrystalline Ni3Al carbon-coated intermetallic particles, were synthesized by powder metallurgy. Powder mixture of aluminum with 0.5-volume fraction of reinforcement particles was compacted by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique and the compared with conventional sintering process. The better results for SPS technique were obtained in 520ºC-5kN-3min.The hardness (70.5±8 HV) and the elastic modulus (95 GPa) were evaluated in function of sintering conditions for SPS technique; it was found that the incorporation of these kind of reinforcement particles in aluminum matrix improve its mechanical properties. The densities were about 94% and 97% of the theoretical density. The carbon coating avoided the interfacial reaction between matrix-particle at high temperature (520°C) without show composition change either intermetallic dissolution.

Keywords: aluminum matrix composites, intermetallics, spark plasma sintering, nanocrystalline

Procedia PDF Downloads 345
110 Novel Ti/Al-Cr-Fe Metal Matrix Composites Prepared by Spark Plasma Sintering with Excellent Wear Properties

Authors: Ruitao Li, Zhili Dong, Nay Win Khun, Khiam Aik Khor


In this study, microstructure and sintering mechanism as well as wear resistance properties of Ti/Al-Cr-Fe metal matrix composites (MMCs) fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS) with Ti as matrix and Al-Cr-Fe as reinforcement were investigated. Phases and microstructure of the sintered samples were analyzed using X-ray diffractometry (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Wear resistance properties were tested by ball-on-disk method. An Al3Ti ring forms around each Al-Cr-Fe particle as the bonding layer between Ti and Al-Cr-Fe particles. The Al content in Al-Cr-Fe particles experiences a decrease from 70 at.% to 60 at.% in the sintering process. And these particles consist of quasicrystalline icosahedral AlCrFe and quasicrystal approximants γ-brass Al8(Cr,Fe)5 and Al9(Cr,Fe)4 in the sintered compact. The addition of Al-Cr-Fe particles into the Ti matrix can improve the microhardness by about 40% and the wear resistance is improved by more than 50% due to the increase in the microhardness and the change of wear mechanism.

Keywords: metal matrix composites, spark plasma sintering, phase transformation, wear

Procedia PDF Downloads 330
109 A Dual Spark Ignition Timing Influence for the High Power Aircraft Radial Engine Using a CFD Transient Modeling

Authors: Tytus Tulwin, Ksenia Siadkowska, Rafał Sochaczewski


A high power radial reciprocating engine is characterized by a large displacement volume of a combustion chamber. Choosing the right moment for ignition is important for a high performance or high reliability and ignition certainty. This work shows methods of simulating ignition process and its impact on engine parameters. For given conditions a flame speed is limited when a deflagration combustion takes place. Therefore, a larger length scale of the combustion chamber compared to a standard size automotive engine makes combustion take longer time to propagate. In order to speed up the mixture burn-up time the second spark is introduced. The transient Computational Fluid Dynamics model capable of simulating multicycle engine processes was developed. The CFD model consists of ECFM-3Z combustion and species transport models. A relative ignition timing difference for the both spark sources is constant. The temperature distribution on engine walls was calculated in the separate conjugate heat transfer simulation. The in-cylinder pressure validation was performed for take-off power flight conditions. The influence of ignition timing on parameters like in-cylinder temperature or rate of heat release was analyzed. The most advantageous spark timing for the highest power output was chosen. The conditions around the spark plug locations for the pre-ignition period were analyzed. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: CFD, combustion, ignition, simulation, timing

Procedia PDF Downloads 208
108 Genodata: The Human Genome Variation Using BigData

Authors: Surabhi Maiti, Prajakta Tamhankar, Prachi Uttam Mehta


Since the accomplishment of the Human Genome Project, there has been an unparalled escalation in the sequencing of genomic data. This project has been the first major vault in the field of medical research, especially in genomics. This project won accolades by using a concept called Bigdata which was earlier, extensively used to gain value for business. Bigdata makes use of data sets which are generally in the form of files of size terabytes, petabytes, or exabytes and these data sets were traditionally used and managed using excel sheets and RDBMS. The voluminous data made the process tedious and time consuming and hence a stronger framework called Hadoop was introduced in the field of genetic sciences to make data processing faster and efficient. This paper focuses on using SPARK which is gaining momentum with the advancement of BigData technologies. Cloud Storage is an effective medium for storage of large data sets which is generated from the genetic research and the resultant sets produced from SPARK analysis.

Keywords: human genome project, Bigdata, genomic data, SPARK, cloud storage, Hadoop

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
107 The Analysis of Exhaust Emission from Single Cylinder Non-Mobile Spark Ignition Engine Using Ethanol-Gasoline Blend as Fuel

Authors: Iyiola Olusola Oluwaleye, Ogbevire Umukoro


In view of the prevailing pollution problems and its consequences on the environment, efforts are being made to lower the concentration of toxic components in combustion products and decreasing fossil fuel consumption by using renewable alternative fuels. In this work, the impact of ethanol-gasoline blend on the exhaust emission of a single cylinder non-mobile spark ignition engine was investigated. Gasoline was blended with 5 – 20% of ethanol sourced from the open market (bought off the shelf) in an interval of 5%. The results of the emission characteristics of the exhaust gas from the combustion of the ethanol-gasoline blends showed that increasing the percentage of ethanol in the blend decreased CO emission by between 2.12% and 52.29% and HC emissions by between12.14% and 53.24%, but increased CO2 and NOx emissions by between 25% to 56% and 59% to 60% respectively. E15 blend is preferred above other blends at no-load and across all the load variations. However its NOx emission was the highest when compared with other samples. This will negatively affect human health and the environment but this drawback can be remedied by adequate treatment with appropriate additives.

Keywords: blends, emission, ethanol, gasoline, spark ignition engine

Procedia PDF Downloads 105
106 The Verification Study of Computational Fluid Dynamics Model of the Aircraft Piston Engine

Authors: Lukasz Grabowski, Konrad Pietrykowski, Michal Bialy


This paper presents the results of the research to verify the combustion in aircraft piston engine Asz62-IR. This engine was modernized and a type of ignition system was developed. Due to the high costs of experiments of a nine-cylinder 1,000 hp aircraft engine, a simulation technique should be applied. Therefore, computational fluid dynamics to simulate the combustion process is a reasonable solution. Accordingly, the tests for varied ignition advance angles were carried out and the optimal value to be tested on a real engine was specified. The CFD model was created with the AVL Fire software. The engine in the research had two spark plugs for each cylinder and ignition advance angles had to be set up separately for each spark. The results of the simulation were verified by comparing the pressure in the cylinder. The courses of the indicated pressure of the engine mounted on a test stand were compared. The real course of pressure was measured with an optical sensor, mounted in a specially drilled hole between the valves. It was the OPTRAND pressure sensor, which was designed especially to engine combustion process research. The indicated pressure was measured in cylinder no 3. The engine was running at take-off power. The engine was loaded by a propeller at a special test bench. The verification of the CFD simulation results was based on the results of the test bench studies. The course of the simulated pressure obtained is within the measurement error of the optical sensor. This error is 1% and reflects the hysteresis and nonlinearity of the sensor. The real indicated pressure measured in the cylinder and the pressure taken from the simulation were compared. It can be claimed that the verification of CFD simulations based on the pressure is a success. The next step was to research on the impact of changing the ignition advance timing of spark plugs 1 and 2 on a combustion process. Moving ignition timing between 1 and 2 spark plug results in a longer and uneven firing of a mixture. The most optimal point in terms of indicated power occurs when ignition is simultaneous for both spark plugs, but so severely separated ignitions are assured that ignition will occur at all speeds and loads of engine. It should be confirmed by a bench experiment of the engine. However, this simulation research enabled us to determine the optimal ignition advance angle to be implemented into the ignition control system. This knowledge allows us to set up the ignition point with two spark plugs to achieve as large power as possible.

Keywords: CFD model, combustion, engine, simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
105 High Temperature Oxidation Resistance of NiCrAl Bond Coat Produced by Spark Plasma Sintering as Thermal Barrier Coatings

Authors: Folorunso Omoniyi, Peter Olubambi, Rotimi Sadiku


Thermal barrier coating (TBC) system is used in both aero engines and other gas turbines to offer oxidation protection to superalloy substrate component. In the present work, it shows the ability of a new fabrication technique to develop rapidly new coating composition and microstructure. The compact powders were prepared by Powder Metallurgy method involving powder mixing and the bond coat was synthesized through the application of Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) at 10500C to produce a fully dense (97%) NiCrAl bulk samples. The influence of sintering temperature on the hardness of NiCrAl, done by Micro Vickers hardness tester, was investigated. And Oxidation test was carried out at 1100oC for 20h, 40h, and 100h. The resulting coat was characterized with optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray analysis (EDAX) and x-ray diffraction (XRD). Micro XRD analysis after the oxidation test revealed the formation of protective oxides and non-protective oxides.

Keywords: high-temperature oxidation, powder metallurgy, spark plasma sintering, thermal barrier coating

Procedia PDF Downloads 425
104 Fabrication of Miniature Gear of Hastelloy X by WEDM Process

Authors: Bhupinder Singh, Joy Prakash Misra


This article provides the information regarding machining of hastelloy-X on wire electro spark machining (WEDM). Experimental investigation has been carried out by varying pulse-on time (TON), pulse-off time (TOFF), peak current (IP) and spark gap voltage (SV). Effect of these parameters is studied on material removal rate (MRR). Experiments are designed as per box-behnken design (BBD) technique of response surface methodology (RSM). Analysis of variance (ANOVA) results indicates that TON, TOFF, IP, SV, TON x IP are significant parameters that influenced the MRR, and it is depicted that value of MRR is more at high discharge energy (HDE) and less at low discharge energy (LDE). Furthermore, miniature impeller and miniature gear (OD≤10MM) is fabricated by WEDM at optimized condition.

Keywords: advanced manufacturing, WEDM, super alloy, gear

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
103 Microstructures and Mechanical Property of ti6al4v - a Comparison between Selective Laser Melting, Electron Beam Melting and Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Javad Karimi, Prashanth Konda Gokuldoss


Microstructural inhomogeneity in additively manufactured materials affects the material properties. The present study aims in minimizing such microstructural inhomogeneity in Ti6Al4V alloy fabricated using selective laser melting (SLM) from the gas atomized powder. A detailed and systematic study of the effect of remelting on the microstructure and mechanical properties of Ti6Al4V manufactured by SLM was compared with electron beam melting and spark plasma sintering.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, selective laser melting, Ti6Al4V, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
102 Effect of Nano/Micro Alumina Matrix on Alumina-Cubic Boron Nitride Composites Consolidated by Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: A. S. Hakeem, B. Ahmed, M. Ehsan, A. Ibrahim, H. M. Irshad, T. Laoui


Alumina (Al2O3) - cubic boron nitride (cBN) ceramic composites were sintered by spark plasma sintering (SPS) using α-Al2O3 particle sizes; 150 µm, 150 nm and cBN particle size of 42 µm. Alumina-cBN composites containing 10, 20 and 30wt% cBN with and without Ni coated were sintering at an elevated temperature of 1400°C at a constant uniaxial pressure of 50 MPa. The effect of matrix particle size, cBN and Ni content on mechanical properties and thermal properties, i.e., thermal conductivity, diffusivity, expansion, densification, phase transformation, microstructure, hardness and toughness of the Al2O3-cBN/(Ni) composites under specific sintering conditions were investigated. The highest relative densification of 150 nm-Al2O3 containing 30wt% cBN (Ni coated) composite was 99% at TSPS = 1400°C. In case of 150 µm- Al2O3 compositions, the phase transformation of cBN to hBN were observed, and the relative densification decreased. Thermal conductivity depicts maximum value in case of 150 nm- Al2O3-30wt% cBN-Ni composition. The Vickers hardness of this composition at TSPS = 1400°C also showed the highest value of 29 GPa.

Keywords: alumina composite, cubic boron nitride, mechanical properties, phase transformation, Spark plasma sintering

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
101 RA-Apriori: An Efficient and Faster MapReduce-Based Algorithm for Frequent Itemset Mining on Apache Flink

Authors: Sanjay Rathee, Arti Kashyap


Extraction of useful information from large datasets is one of the most important research problems. Association rule mining is one of the best methods for this purpose. Finding possible associations between items in large transaction based datasets (finding frequent patterns) is most important part of the association rule mining. There exist many algorithms to find frequent patterns but Apriori algorithm always remains a preferred choice due to its ease of implementation and natural tendency to be parallelized. Many single-machine based Apriori variants exist but massive amount of data available these days is above capacity of a single machine. Therefore, to meet the demands of this ever-growing huge data, there is a need of multiple machines based Apriori algorithm. For these types of distributed applications, MapReduce is a popular fault-tolerant framework. Hadoop is one of the best open-source software frameworks with MapReduce approach for distributed storage and distributed processing of huge datasets using clusters built from commodity hardware. However, heavy disk I/O operation at each iteration of a highly iterative algorithm like Apriori makes Hadoop inefficient. A number of MapReduce-based platforms are being developed for parallel computing in recent years. Among them, two platforms, namely, Spark and Flink have attracted a lot of attention because of their inbuilt support to distributed computations. Earlier we proposed a reduced- Apriori algorithm on Spark platform which outperforms parallel Apriori, one because of use of Spark and secondly because of the improvement we proposed in standard Apriori. Therefore, this work is a natural sequel of our work and targets on implementing, testing and benchmarking Apriori and Reduced-Apriori and our new algorithm ReducedAll-Apriori on Apache Flink and compares it with Spark implementation. Flink, a streaming dataflow engine, overcomes disk I/O bottlenecks in MapReduce, providing an ideal platform for distributed Apriori. Flink's pipelining based structure allows starting a next iteration as soon as partial results of earlier iteration are available. Therefore, there is no need to wait for all reducers result to start a next iteration. We conduct in-depth experiments to gain insight into the effectiveness, efficiency and scalability of the Apriori and RA-Apriori algorithm on Flink.

Keywords: apriori, apache flink, Mapreduce, spark, Hadoop, R-Apriori, frequent itemset mining

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
100 Gradient Boosted Trees on Spark Platform for Supervised Learning in Health Care Big Data

Authors: Gayathri Nagarajan, L. D. Dhinesh Babu


Health care is one of the prominent industries that generate voluminous data thereby finding the need of machine learning techniques with big data solutions for efficient processing and prediction. Missing data, incomplete data, real time streaming data, sensitive data, privacy, heterogeneity are few of the common challenges to be addressed for efficient processing and mining of health care data. In comparison with other applications, accuracy and fast processing are of higher importance for health care applications as they are related to the human life directly. Though there are many machine learning techniques and big data solutions used for efficient processing and prediction in health care data, different techniques and different frameworks are proved to be effective for different applications largely depending on the characteristics of the datasets. In this paper, we present a framework that uses ensemble machine learning technique gradient boosted trees for data classification in health care big data. The framework is built on Spark platform which is fast in comparison with other traditional frameworks. Unlike other works that focus on a single technique, our work presents a comparison of six different machine learning techniques along with gradient boosted trees on datasets of different characteristics. Five benchmark health care datasets are considered for experimentation, and the results of different machine learning techniques are discussed in comparison with gradient boosted trees. The metric chosen for comparison is misclassification error rate and the run time of the algorithms. The goal of this paper is to i) Compare the performance of gradient boosted trees with other machine learning techniques in Spark platform specifically for health care big data and ii) Discuss the results from the experiments conducted on datasets of different characteristics thereby drawing inference and conclusion. The experimental results show that the accuracy is largely dependent on the characteristics of the datasets for other machine learning techniques whereas gradient boosting trees yields reasonably stable results in terms of accuracy without largely depending on the dataset characteristics.

Keywords: big data analytics, ensemble machine learning, gradient boosted trees, Spark platform

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
99 Individual Cylinder Ignition Advance Control Algorithms of the Aircraft Piston Engine

Authors: G. Barański, P. Kacejko, M. Wendeker


The impact of the ignition advance control algorithms of the ASz-62IR-16X aircraft piston engine on a combustion process has been presented in this paper. This aircraft engine is a nine-cylinder 1000 hp engine with a special electronic control ignition system. This engine has two spark plugs per cylinder with an ignition advance angle dependent on load and the rotational speed of the crankshaft. Accordingly, in most cases, these angles are not optimal for power generated. The scope of this paper is focused on developing algorithms to control the ignition advance angle in an electronic ignition control system of an engine. For this type of engine, i.e. radial engine, an ignition advance angle should be controlled independently for each cylinder because of the design of such an engine and its crankshaft system. The ignition advance angle is controlled in an open-loop way, which means that the control signal (i.e. ignition advance angle) is determined according to the previously developed maps, i.e. recorded tables of the correlation between the ignition advance angle and engine speed and load. Load can be measured by engine crankshaft speed or intake manifold pressure. Due to a limited memory of a controller, the impact of other independent variables (such as cylinder head temperature or knock) on the ignition advance angle is given as a series of one-dimensional arrays known as corrective characteristics. The value of the ignition advance angle specified combines the value calculated from the primary characteristics and several correction factors calculated from correction characteristics. Individual cylinder control can proceed in line with certain indicators determined from pressure registered in a combustion chamber. Control is assumed to be based on the following indicators: maximum pressure, maximum pressure angle, indicated mean effective pressure. Additionally, a knocking combustion indicator was defined. Individual control can be applied to a single set of spark plugs only, which results from two fundamental ideas behind designing a control system. Independent operation of two ignition control systems – if two control systems operate simultaneously. It is assumed that the entire individual control should be performed for a front spark plug only and a rear spark plug shall be controlled with a fixed (or specific) offset relative to the front one or from a reference map. The developed algorithms will be verified by simulation and engine test sand experiments. This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development, INNOLOT, under Grant Agreement No. INNOLOT/I/1/NCBR/2013.

Keywords: algorithm, combustion process, radial engine, spark plug

Procedia PDF Downloads 213
98 Time and Cost Prediction Models for Language Classification Over a Large Corpus on Spark

Authors: Jairson Barbosa Rodrigues, Paulo Romero Martins Maciel, Germano Crispim Vasconcelos


This paper presents an investigation of the performance impacts regarding the variation of five factors (input data size, node number, cores, memory, and disks) when applying a distributed implementation of Naïve Bayes for text classification of a large Corpus on the Spark big data processing framework. Problem: The algorithm's performance depends on multiple factors, and knowing before-hand the effects of each factor becomes especially critical as hardware is priced by time slice in cloud environments. Objectives: To explain the functional relationship between factors and performance and to develop linear predictor models for time and cost. Methods: the solid statistical principles of Design of Experiments (DoE), particularly the randomized two-level fractional factorial design with replications. This research involved 48 real clusters with different hardware arrangements. The metrics were analyzed using linear models for screening, ranking, and measurement of each factor's impact. Results: Our findings include prediction models and show some non-intuitive results about the small influence of cores and the neutrality of memory and disks on total execution time, and the non-significant impact of data input scale on costs, although notably impacts the execution time.

Keywords: big data, design of experiments, distributed machine learning, natural language processing, spark

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
97 A High-Level Co-Evolutionary Hybrid Algorithm for the Multi-Objective Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Aydin Teymourifar, Gurkan Ozturk


In this paper, a hybrid distributed algorithm has been suggested for the multi-objective job shop scheduling problem. Many new approaches are used at design steps of the distributed algorithm. Co-evolutionary structure of the algorithm and competition between different communicated hybrid algorithms, which are executed simultaneously, causes to efficient search. Using several machines for distributing the algorithms, at the iteration and solution levels, increases computational speed. The proposed algorithm is able to find the Pareto solutions of the big problems in shorter time than other algorithm in the literature. Apache Spark and Hadoop platforms have been used for the distribution of the algorithm. The suggested algorithm and implementations have been compared with results of the successful algorithms in the literature. Results prove the efficiency and high speed of the algorithm.

Keywords: distributed algorithms, Apache Spark, Hadoop, job shop scheduling, multi-objective optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
96 A Hybrid Distributed Algorithm for Solving Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Aydin Teymourifar, Gurkan Ozturk


In this paper, a distributed hybrid algorithm is proposed for solving the job shop scheduling problem. The suggested method executes different artificial neural networks, heuristics and meta-heuristics simultaneously on more than one machine. The neural networks are used to control the constraints of the problem while the meta-heuristics search the global space and the heuristics are used to prevent the premature convergence. To attain an efficient distributed intelligent method for solving big and distributed job shop scheduling problems, Apache Spark and Hadoop frameworks are used. In the algorithm implementation and design steps, new approaches are applied. Comparison between the proposed algorithm and other efficient algorithms from the literature shows its efficiency, which is able to solve large size problems in short time.

Keywords: distributed algorithms, Apache Spark, Hadoop, job shop scheduling, neural network

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95 A Hybrid Distributed Algorithm for Multi-Objective Dynamic Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problem

Authors: Aydin Teymourifar, Gurkan Ozturk


In this paper, a hybrid distributed algorithm has been suggested for multi-objective dynamic flexible job shop scheduling problem. The proposed algorithm is high level, in which several algorithms search the space on different machines simultaneously also it is a hybrid algorithm that takes advantages of the artificial intelligence, evolutionary and optimization methods. Distribution is done at different levels and new approaches are used for design of the algorithm. Apache spark and Hadoop frameworks have been used for the distribution of the algorithm. The Pareto optimality approach is used for solving the multi-objective benchmarks. The suggested algorithm that is able to solve large-size problems in short times has been compared with the successful algorithms of the literature. The results prove high speed and efficiency of the algorithm.

Keywords: distributed algorithms, apache-spark, Hadoop, flexible dynamic job shop scheduling, multi-objective optimization

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94 Effect of External Radiative Heat Flux on Combustion Characteristics of Rigid Polyurethane Foam under Piloted-Ignition and Radiative Auto-Ignition Modes

Authors: Jia-Jia He, Lin Jiang, Jin-Hua Sun


Rigid polyurethane foam (RPU) has been extensively applied in building insulation system, yet with high flammability for being easily ignited by high temperature spark or radiative heat flux from other flaming materials or surrounding building facade. Using a cone calorimeter by Fire Testing Technology and thermal couple tree, this study systematically investigated the effect of radiative heat flux on the ignition time and characteristic temperature distribution during RPU combustion under different heat fluxes gradient (12, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, and 50 kW/m²) with spark ignition/ignition by radiation. The ignition time decreases proportionally with increase of external heat flux, meanwhile increasing the external heat flux raises the peak heat release rate and impresses on the vertical temperature distribution greatly. The critical ignition heat flux is found to be 15 and 25 kW/m² for spark ignition and radiative ignition, respectively. Based on previous experienced ignition formula, a methodology to predict ignition times in both modes has been developed theoretically. By analyzing the heat transfer mechanism around the sample surroundings, both radiation from cone calorimeter and convection flow are considered and calculated theoretically. The experimental ignition times agree well with the theoretical ones in both radiative and convective conditions; however, the observed critical ignition heat flux is higher than the calculated one under piloted-ignition mode because the heat loss process, especially in lower heat flux radiation, is not considered in this developed methodology.

Keywords: rigid polyurethane foam, cone calorimeter, ignition time, external heat flux

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93 Porous Alumina-Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposite Membranes Processed via Spark Plasma Sintering for Heavy Metal Removal from Contaminated Water

Authors: H. K. Shahzad, M. A. Hussein, F. Patel, N. Al-Aqeeli, T. Laoui


The purpose of the present study was to use the adsorption mechanism with microfiltration synergistically for efficient heavy metal removal from contaminated water. Alumina (Al2O3) is commonly used for ceramic membranes development while recently carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been considered among the best adsorbent materials for heavy metals. In this work, we combined both of these materials to prepare porous Al2O3-CNTs nanocomposite membranes via Spark Plasma Sintering (SPS) technique. Alumina was used as a base matrix while CNTs were added as filler. The SPS process parameters i.e. applied pressure, temperature, heating rate, and holding time were varied to obtain the best combination of porosity (64%, measured according to ASTM c373-14a) and strength (3.2 MPa, measured by diametrical compression test) of the developed membranes. The prepared membranes were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), field emission secondary electron microscopy (FE-SEM), contact angle and porosity measurements. The results showed that properties of the synthesized membranes were highly influenced by the SPS process parameters. FE-SEM images revealed that CNTs were reasonably dispersed in the alumina matrix. The porous membranes were evaluated for their water flux transport as well as their capacity to adsorb heavy metals ions. Selected membranes were able to remove about 97% cadmium from contaminated water. Further work is underway to enhance the removal efficiency of the developed membranes as well as to remove other heavy metals such as arsenic and mercury.

Keywords: heavy metal removal, inorganic membrane, nanocomposite, spark plasma sintering

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92 Influence of Sintering Temperature on Microhardness and Tribological Properties of Equi-Atomic Ti-Al-Mo-Si-W Multicomponent Alloy

Authors: Rudolf L. Kanyane, Nicolaus Malatji, Patritia A. Popoola


Tribological failure of materials during application can lead to catastrophic events which also carry economic penalties. High entropy alloys (HEAs) have shown outstanding tribological properties in applications such as mechanical parts were moving parts under high friction are required. This work aims to investigate the effect of sintering temperature on microhardness properties and tribological properties of novel equiatomic TiAlMoSiW HEAs fabricated via spark plasma sintering. The effect of Spark plasma sintering temperature on morphological evolution and phase formation was also investigated. The microstructure and the phases formed for the developed HEAs were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD) respectively. The microhardness and tribological properties were studied using a diamond base microhardness tester Rtec tribometer. The developed HEAs showed improved mechanical properties as the sintering temperature increases.

Keywords: sintering, high entropy alloy, microhardness, tribology

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91 Numerical Investigation of Oxy-Fuel Combustion in Gasoline Engine for Carbon Capture and Storage

Authors: Zhijun Peng, Xiang Li, Dayou Li, Raouf Mobasheri, Abdel Aitouche


To implement carbon capture and storage (CCS) for eliminating carbon dioxide (CO₂) emissions, this paper describes a study on oxy-fuel combustion (OFC) with an ethanol-gasoline dual-fuel spark ignition (DFSI) engine under economical oxygen consumption at low and mid-high loads which was performed by 1D simulation. It is demonstrated that under OFC mode without other optimisation, brake mean effective pressure (BMEP) can meet the requirement at mid-high load, but it has a considerable decline at low load compared to conventional air combustion (CAC) mode. Moreover, there is a considerable deterioration in brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) compared to that of CAC mode. A practical method is proposed to optimise the DFSI engine performance under OFC mode by changing intake charge components and utilising appropriate water injection (WI) strategies.

Keywords: oxy-fuel combustion, dual-fuel spark ignition engine, ethanol, gasoline, computer simulation

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90 Impact of Iron Doping on Induction Heating during Spark Plasma Sintering

Authors: Hua Tan, David Salamon


In this study, γ-Al2O3 powders doped with various amounts of iron were sintered via SPS process. Two heating modes – auto and manual mode were applied to observe the role of electrical induction on heating. Temperature, electric current, and pulse pattern were experimented with grade iron γ-Al2O3 powders. Phase transformation of γ to α -Al2O3 serves as a direct indicator of internal temperature, independently on measured outside temperature. That pulsing in SPS is also able to induce internal heating due to its strong electromagnetic field when dopants are conductive metals (e.g., iron) is proofed during SPS. Density and microstructure were investigated to explain the mechanism of induction heating. In addition, the role of electric pulsing and strong electromagnetic field on internal heating (induction heating) were compared and discussed. Internal heating by iron doping within electrically nonconductive samples is able to decrease sintering temperature and save energy, furthermore it is one explanation for unique features of this material fabrication technology.

Keywords: spark plasma sintering, induction heating, alumina, microstructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
89 An Investigation on Material Removal Rate of EDM Process: A Response Surface Methodology Approach

Authors: Azhar Equbal, Anoop Kumar Sood, M. Asif Equbal, M. Israr Equbal


In the present work response surface methodology (RSM) based central composite design (CCD) is used for analyzing the electrical discharge machining (EDM) process. For experimentation, mild steel is selected as work piece and copper is used as electrode. Three machining parameters namely current (I), spark on time (Ton) and spark off time (Toff) are selected as the input variables. The output or response chosen is material removal rate (MRR) which is to be maximized. To reduce the number of runs face centered central composite design (FCCCD) was used. ANOVA was used to determine the significance of parameter and interactions. The suitability of model is tested using Anderson darling (AD) plot. The results conclude that different parameters considered i.e. current, pulse on and pulse off time; all have dominant effect on the MRR. At last, the optimized parameter setting for maximizing MRR is found through main effect plot analysis.

Keywords: EDM, electrode, MRR, RSM, ANOVA

Procedia PDF Downloads 211