Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 747

Search results for: upwind and downwind turbine. Hot wire anemometry

747 Experimental Study of Near Wake of Wind Turbines

Authors: Ramin Rezaei, Terry Ng, Abdollah Afjeh

Abstract:

Near wake development of a wind turbine affects the aerodynamic loads on the tower and the wind turbine. Design considerations of both isolated wind turbines and wind farms must include unsteady wake flow conditions under which the turbines must operate. The consequent aerodynamic loads could lead to over design of wind turbines and adversely affect the cost of wind turbines and, in turn, the cost of energy produced by wind turbines. Reducing the weight of turbine rotors is particularly desirable since larger wind turbine rotors can be utilized without significantly increasing the cost of the supporting structure. Larger rotor diameters produce larger swept areas and consequently greater energy production from the wind thereby reducing the levelized cost of wind energy. To understand the development and structure of the near tower wake of a wind turbine, an experimental study was conducted to describe the flow field of the near wake for both upwind and downwind turbines. The study was conducted under controlled environment of a wind tunnel using a scaled model of a turbine. The NREL 5 MW reference wind turbine was used as a baseline design and was modified as necessary to design and build upwind and downwind scaled wind turbine models. This paper presents the results of the wind tunnel study using turbine models to quantify the near wake of upwind and downwind wind turbine configurations for various lengths of tower-to-turbine spacing. The variations of mean velocity and turbulence are measured using a computer-controlled, traversing hot wire probe. Additionally, smoke flow visualizations were conducted to qualitatively study the wake. The results show a more rapid dissipation of the near wake for an upwind configuration. The results can readily be incorporated into low fidelity system level turbine simulation tools to more accurately account for the wake on the aerodynamic loads of a upwind and downwind turbines.

Keywords: hot wire anemometry, near wake, upwind and downwind turbine. Hot wire anemometry, near wake, upwind and downwind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 565
746 Development of Advanced Linear Calibration Technique for Air Flow Sensing by Using CTA-Based Hot Wire Anemometry

Authors: Ming-Jong Tsai, T. M. Wu, R. C. Chu

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to develop an Advanced linear calibration Technique for air flow sensing by using CTA-based Hot wire Anemometry. It contains a host PC with Human Machine Interface, a wind tunnel, a wind speed controller, an automatic data acquisition module, and nonlinear calibration model. To improve the fitting error by using single fitting polynomial, this study proposes a Multiple three-order Polynomial Fitting Method (MPFM) for fitting the non-linear output of a CTA-based Hot wire Anemometry. The CTA-based anemometer with built-in fitting parameters is installed in the wind tunnel, and the wind speed is controlled by the PC-based controller. The Hot-Wire anemometer's thermistor resistance change is converted into a voltage signal or temperature differences, and then sent to the PC through a DAQ card. After completion measurements of original signal, the Multiple polynomial mathematical coefficients can be automatically calculated, and then sent into the micro-processor in the Hot-Wire anemometer. Finally, the corrected Hot-Wire anemometer is verified for the linearity, the repeatability, error percentage, and the system outputs quality control reports.

Keywords: flow rate sensing, hot wire, constant temperature anemometry (CTA), linear calibration, multiple three-order polynomial fitting method (MPFM), temperature compensation

Procedia PDF Downloads 342
745 Performance Prediction of a SANDIA 17-m Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Using Improved Double Multiple Streamtube

Authors: Abolfazl Hosseinkhani, Sepehr Sanaye

Abstract:

Different approaches have been used to predict the performance of the vertical axis wind turbines (VAWT), such as experimental, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), and analytical methods. Analytical methods, such as momentum models that use streamtubes, have low computational cost and sufficient accuracy. The double multiple streamtube (DMST) is one of the most commonly used of momentum models, which divide the rotor plane of VAWT into upwind and downwind. In fact, results from the DMST method have shown some discrepancy compared with experiment results; that is because the Darrieus turbine is a complex and aerodynamically unsteady configuration. In this study, analytical-experimental-based corrections, including dynamic stall, streamtube expansion, and finite blade length correction are used to improve the DMST method. Results indicated that using these corrections for a SANDIA 17-m VAWT will lead to improving the results of DMST.

Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine, analytical, double multiple streamtube, streamtube expansion model, dynamic stall model, finite blade length correction

Procedia PDF Downloads 51
744 Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Airflow Inside Car Cabin

Authors: Mokhtar Djeddou, Amine Mehel, Georges Fokoua, Anne Tanière, Patrick Chevrier

Abstract:

Commuters' exposure to air pollution, particularly to particle matter, inside vehicles is a significant health issue. Assessing particles concentrations and characterizing their distribution is an important first step to understand and propose solutions to improve car cabin air quality. It is known that particles dynamics is intimately driven by particles-turbulence interactions. In order to analyze and model pollutants distribution inside the car the cabin, it is crucialto examine first the single-phase flow topology and turbulence characteristics. Within this context, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations were conducted to model airflow inside a full-scale car cabin using Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS)approach combined with the first order Realizable k- εmodel to close the RANS equations. To validate the numerical model, a campaign of velocity field measurements at different locations in the front and back of the car cabin has been carried out using hot-wire anemometry technique. Comparison between numerical and experimental results shows a good agreement of velocity profiles. Additionally, visualization of streamlines shows the formation of jet flow developing out of the dashboard air vents and the formation of large vortex structures, particularly in the back seats compartment. These vortex structures could play a key role in the accumulation and clustering of particles in a turbulent flow

Keywords: car cabin, CFD, hot wire anemometry, vortical flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 146
743 Discontinuous Galerkin Method for Higher-Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: Helmi Temimi

Abstract:

In this paper, we study the super-convergence properties of the discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method applied to one-dimensional mth-order ordinary differential equations without introducing auxiliary variables. We found that nth−derivative of the DG solution exhibits an optimal O (hp+1−n) convergence rates in the L2-norm when p-degree piecewise polynomials with p≥1 are used. We further found that the odd-derivatives and the even derivatives are super convergent, respectively, at the upwind and downwind endpoints.

Keywords: discontinuous, galerkin, superconvergence, higherorder, error, estimates

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
742 Annealing Process Study at Galvanizing Line: Characterization and Implication Inherent to Lead Entrainment

Authors: Marcelo Franzkowiak Stahlschmidt

Abstract:

This paper discusses the experiments carried out based on the wire drawing process analysis and later annealing on lead furnace on a galvanizing line. Using Design of Experiments methodology, the aim of this work is to understand the occurrence of lead entrainment originating from the annealed wires in order to decrease this problem. Wire samples were collected from wire drawing machines and galvanizing line and submitted to surface roughness analysis and its implications on lead drag out based on wire speed, wire diameter, lead bath temperature, thermal capacity of the lead kettle, wire surface condition, wire roughness and wire superficial cleanliness. Proposals to decrease lead drag out were made in order to increase wire drawing machines and galvanizing line performance.

Keywords: wire drawing process, galvanizing, heat treatment, lead

Procedia PDF Downloads 525
741 Wood Dust and Nanoparticle Exposure among Workers during a New Building Construction

Authors: Atin Adhikari, Aniruddha Mitra, Abbas Rashidi, Imaobong Ekpo, Jefferson Doehling, Alexis Pawlak, Shane Lewis, Jacob Schwartz

Abstract:

Building constructions in the US involve numerous wooden structures. Woods are routinely used in walls, framing floors, framing stairs, and making of landings in building constructions. Cross-laminated timbers are currently being used as construction materials for tall buildings. Numerous workers are involved in these timber based constructions, and wood dust is one of the most common occupational exposures for them. Wood dust is a complex substance composed of cellulose, polyoses and other substances. According to US OSHA, exposure to wood dust is associated with a variety of adverse health effects among workers, including dermatitis, allergic respiratory effects, mucosal and nonallergic respiratory effects, and cancers. The amount and size of particles released as wood dust differ according to the operations performed on woods. For example, shattering of wood during sanding operations produces finer particles than does chipping in sawing and milling industries. To our knowledge, how shattering, cutting and sanding of woods and wood slabs during new building construction release fine particles and nanoparticles are largely unknown. General belief is that the dust generated during timber cutting and sanding tasks are mostly large particles. Consequently, little attention has been given to the generated submicron ultrafine and nanoparticles and their exposure levels. These data are, however, critically important because recent laboratory studies have demonstrated cytotoxicity of nanoparticles on lung epithelial cells. The above-described knowledge gaps were addressed in this study by a novel newly developed nanoparticle monitor and conventional particle counters. This study was conducted in a large new building construction site in southern Georgia primarily during the framing of wooden side walls, inner partition walls, and landings. Exposure levels of nanoparticles (n = 10) were measured by a newly developed nanoparticle counter (TSI NanoScan SMPS Model 3910) at four different distances (5, 10, 15, and 30 m) from the work location. Other airborne particles (number of particles/m3) including PM2.5 and PM10 were monitored using a 6-channel (0.3, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10 µm) particle counter at 15 m, 30 m, and 75 m distances at both upwind and downwind directions. Mass concentration of PM2.5 and PM10 (µg/m³) were measured by using a DustTrak Aerosol Monitor. Temperature and relative humidity levels were recorded. Wind velocity was measured by a hot wire anemometer. Concentration ranges of nanoparticles of 13 particle sizes were: 11.5 nm: 221 – 816/cm³; 15.4 nm: 696 – 1735/cm³; 20.5 nm: 879 – 1957/cm³; 27.4 nm: 1164 – 2903/cm³; 36.5 nm: 1138 – 2640/cm³; 48.7 nm: 938 – 1650/cm³; 64.9 nm: 759 – 1284/cm³; 86.6 nm: 705 – 1019/cm³; 115.5 nm: 494 – 1031/cm³; 154 nm: 417 – 806/cm³; 205.4 nm: 240 – 471/cm³; 273.8 nm: 45 – 92/cm³; and 365.2 nm: Keywords: wood dust, industrial hygiene, aerosol, occupational exposure

Procedia PDF Downloads 122
740 Wind Turbine Scaling for the Investigation of Vortex Shedding and Wake Interactions

Authors: Sarah Fitzpatrick, Hossein Zare-Behtash, Konstantinos Kontis

Abstract:

Traditionally, the focus of horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) blade aerodynamic optimisation studies has been the outer working region of the blade. However, recent works seek to better understand, and thus improve upon, the performance of the inboard blade region to enhance power production, maximise load reduction and better control the wake behaviour. This paper presents the design considerations and characterisation of a wind turbine wind tunnel model devised to further the understanding and fundamental definition of horizontal axis wind turbine root vortex shedding and interactions. Additionally, the application of passive and active flow control mechanisms – vortex generators and plasma actuators – to allow for the manipulation and mitigation of unsteady aerodynamic behaviour at the blade inboard section is investigated. A static, modular blade wind turbine model has been developed for use in the University of Glasgow’s de Havilland closed return, low-speed wind tunnel. The model components - which comprise of a half span blade, hub, nacelle and tower - are scaled using the equivalent full span radius, R, for appropriate Mach and Strouhal numbers, and to achieve a Reynolds number in the range of 1.7x105 to 5.1x105 for operational speeds up to 55m/s. The half blade is constructed to be modular and fully dielectric, allowing for the integration of flow control mechanisms with a focus on plasma actuators. Investigations of root vortex shedding and the subsequent wake characteristics using qualitative – smoke visualisation, tufts and china clay flow – and quantitative methods – including particle image velocimetry (PIV), hot wire anemometry (HWA), and laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) – were conducted over a range of blade pitch angles 0 to 15 degrees, and Reynolds numbers. This allowed for the identification of shed vortical structures from the maximum chord position, the transitional region where the blade aerofoil blends into a cylindrical joint, and the blade nacelle connection. Analysis of the trailing vorticity interactions between the wake core and freestream shows the vortex meander and diffusion is notably affected by the Reynold’s number. It is hypothesized that the shed vorticity from the blade root region directly influences and exacerbates the nacelle wake expansion in the downstream direction. As the design of inboard blade region form is, by necessity, driven by function rather than aerodynamic optimisation, a study is undertaken for the application of flow control mechanisms to manipulate the observed vortex phenomenon. The designed model allows for the effective investigation of shed vorticity and wake interactions with a focus on the accurate geometry of a root region which is representative of small to medium power commercial HAWTs. The studies undertaken allow for an enhanced understanding of the interplay of shed vortices and their subsequent effect in the near and far wake. This highlights areas of interest within the inboard blade area for the potential use of passive and active flow control devices which contrive to produce a more desirable wake quality in this region.

Keywords: vortex shedding, wake interactions, wind tunnel model, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 156
739 Dynamic Analysis of Turbine Foundation

Authors: Mogens Saberi

Abstract:

This paper presents different design approaches for the design of turbine foundations. In the design process, several unknown factors must be considered such as the soil stiffness at the site. The main static and dynamic loads are presented and the results of a dynamic simulation are presented for a turbine foundation that is currently being built. A turbine foundation is an important part of a power plant since a non-optimal behavior of the foundation can damage the turbine itself and thereby stop the power production with large consequences.

Keywords: dynamic turbine design, harmonic response analysis, practical turbine design experience, concrete foundation

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
738 Experimental Investigation of Tip-Speed-Ratio Effects on Wake Dynamics of Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Paul Bayron, Richard Kelso, Rey Chin

Abstract:

Wind tunnel experiments were performed in the KC closed-circuit wind tunnel in the University of Adelaide to study the influence of tip-speed-ratio (

Keywords: hotwire anemometry, wake dynamics, wind tunnel, wind turbines

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
737 Bending Test Characteristics for Splicing of Thermoplastic Polymer Using Hot Gas Welding

Authors: Prantasi Harmi Tjahjanti, Iswanto Iswanto, Edi Widodo, Sholeh Pamuji

Abstract:

Materials of the thermoplastic polymer when they break is usually thrown away, or is recycled which requires a long process. The purpose of this study is to splice the broken thermoplastic polymer using hot gas welding with different variations of welding wire/electrodes. Materials of thermoplastic polymer used are Polyethylene (PE), Polypropylene (PP), and Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) by using welding wire like the three materials. The method is carried out by using hot gas welding; there are two materials that cannot be connected, namely PE with PVC welding wire, and PP with PVC welding wire. The permeable liquid penetrant test is PP with PE welding wire, and PVC with PE welding wire. The best bending test result with the longest elongation is PE with PE welding wire with a bending test value of 179.03 kgf/mm². The microstructure was all described in Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) observations.

Keywords: thermoplastic polymers, bending test, polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), hot gas welding, bending test

Procedia PDF Downloads 71
736 Analysis of Roll-Forming for High-Density Wire of Reed

Authors: Yujeong Shin, Seong Jin Cho, Jin Ho Kim

Abstract:

In the textile-weaving machine, the reed is the core component to separate thousands of strands of yarn and to produce the fabric in a continuous high-speed movement. In addition, the reed affects the quality of the fiber. Therefore, the wire forming analysis of the main raw materials of the reed needs to be considered. Roll-forming is a key technology among the manufacturing process of reed wire using textile machine. A simulation of roll-forming line in accordance with the reduction rate is performed using LS-DYNA. The upper roller, fixed roller and reed wire are modeled by finite element. The roller is set to be rigid body and the wire of SUS430 is set to be flexible body. We predict the variation of the cross-sectional shape of the wire depending on the reduction ratio.

Keywords: textile machine, reed, rolling, reduction ratio, wire

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
735 Review of Modern Gas turbine Blade Cooling Technologies used in Aircraft

Authors: Arun Prasath Subramanian

Abstract:

The turbine Inlet Temperature is an important parameter which determines the efficiency of a gas turbine engine. The increase in this parameter is limited by material constraints of the turbine blade.The modern Gas turbine blade has undergone a drastic change from a simple solid blade to a modern multi-pass blade with internal and external cooling techniques. This paper aims to introduce the reader the concept of turbine blade cooling, the classification of techniques and further explain some of the important internal cooling technologies used in a modern gas turbine blade along with the various factors that affect the cooling effectiveness.

Keywords: gas turbine blade, cooling technologies, internal cooling, pin-fin cooling, jet impingement cooling, rib turbulated cooling, metallic foam cooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 187
734 Power Generation from Sewage by a Micro-Hydraulic Turbine

Authors: Tomomi Uchiyama, Tomoko Okayama, Yukio Ide

Abstract:

This study is concerned with the development of a micro-hydraulic turbine for power generation installed in sewer pipes. The runner has a circular hollow around the central (rotating) axis so that solid materials included in water can be easily flow through the runner without blocking the turbine. The laboratory experiments are also conducted. The hollow is very effective to make polyester fibers pass through the turbine. The guide vane is useful to heighten the turbine performance. But it is easily blocked by the fibers, making the turbine lose the function.

Keywords: micro-hydraulic turbine, power generation, sewage, sewer pipe

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
733 Experimental and CFD of Desgined Small Wind Turbine

Authors: Tarek A. Mekail, Walid M. A. Elmagid

Abstract:

Many researches have concentrated on improving the aerodynamic performance of wind turbine blade through testing and theoretical studies. A small wind turbine blade is designed, fabricated and tested. The power performance of small horizontal axis wind turbines is simulated in details using Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD). The three-dimensional CFD models are presented using ANSYS-CFX v13 software for predicting the performance of a small horizontal axis wind turbine. The simulation results are compared with the experimental data measured from a small wind turbine model, which designed according to a vehicle-based test system. The analysis of wake effect and aerodynamic of the blade can be carried out when the rotational effect was simulated. Finally, comparison between experimental, numerical and analytical performance has been done. The comparison is fairly good.

Keywords: small wind turbine, CFD of wind turbine, CFD, performance of wind turbine, test of small wind turbine, wind turbine aerodynamic, 3D model

Procedia PDF Downloads 440
732 Evaluation of Mechanical Behavior of Gas Turbine Blade at High Temperature

Authors: Sung-Uk Wee, Chang-Sung Seok, Jae-Mean Koo, Jeong-Min Lee

Abstract:

Gas turbine blade is important part of power plant, so it is necessary to evaluate gas turbine reliability. For better heat efficiency, inlet temperature of gas turbine has been elevated more and more so gas turbine blade is exposed to high-temperature environment. Then, higher inlet temperature affects mechanical behavior of the gas turbine blade, so it is necessary that evaluation of mechanical property of gas turbine blade at high-temperature environment. In this study, tensile test and fatigue test were performed at various high temperature, and fatigue life was predicted by Coffin-Manson equation at each temperature. The experimental results showed that gas turbine blade has a lower elastic modulus and shorter fatigue life at higher temperature.

Keywords: gas turbine blade, tensile test, fatigue life, stress-strain

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
731 Measurements of Flow Mixing Behaviors Using a Wire-Mesh Sensor in a Wire-Wrapped 37-Pin Rod Assembly

Authors: Hyungmo Kim, Hwang Bae, Seok-Kyu Chang, Dong Won Lee, Yung Joo Ko, Sun Rock Choi, Hae Seob Choi, Hyeon Seok Woo, Dong-Jin Euh, Hyeong-Yeon Lee

Abstract:

Flow mixing characteristics in the wire-wrapped 37-pin rod bundle were measured by using a wire-mesh sensing system for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR). The subchannel flow mixing in SFR core subchannels was an essential characteristic for verification of a core thermal design and safety analysis. A dedicated test facility including the wire-mesh sensor system and tracing liquid injection system was developed, and the conductivity fields at the end of 37-pin rod bundle were visualized in several different flow conditions. These experimental results represented the reasonable agreements with the results of CFD, and the uncertainty of the mixing experiments has been conducted to evaluate the experimental results.

Keywords: core thermal design, flow mixing, a wire-mesh sensor, a wire-wrap effect

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
730 Joining of Aluminum and Steel in Car Body Manufacturing

Authors: Mohammad Mahdi Mohammadi

Abstract:

Zinc-coated steel sheets have been joined with aluminum samples in an overlapping as well as in a butt-joint configuration. A bi-metal-wire composed from aluminum and steel was used for additional welding experiments. An advantage of the laser-assisted bi-metal-wire welding is that the welding process is simplified since the primary joint between aluminium and steel exists already and laser welding occurs only between similar materials. FEM-simulations of the process were chosen to determine the ideal dimensions with respect to the formability of the bi-metal-wire. A prototype demonstrated the feasibility of the process.

Keywords: car body, steel sheets, formability of bi-metal-wire, laser-assisted bi-metal-wire

Procedia PDF Downloads 401
729 Thermomagnetic Convection of a Ferrofluid in a Non-Uniform Magnetic Field Induced a Current Carrying Wire

Authors: Ashkan Vatani, Peter Woodfield, Nam-Trung Nguyen, Dzung Dao

Abstract:

Thermomagnetic convection of a ferrofluid flow induced by the non-uniform magnetic field around a current-carrying wire was theoretically analyzed and experimentally tested. To show this phenomenon, the temperature rise of a hot wire, immersed in DIW and Ferrofluid, as a result of joule heating has been measured using a transient hot-wire technique. When current is applied to the wire, a temperature gradient is imposed on the magnetic fluid resulting in non-uniform magnetic susceptibility of the ferrofluid that results in a non-uniform magnetic body force which makes the ferrofluid flow as a bulk suspension. For the case of the wire immersed in DIW, free convection is the only means of cooling, while for the case of ferrofluid a combination of both free convection and thermomagnetic convection is expected to enhance the heat transfer from the wire beyond that of DIW. Experimental results at different temperatures and for a range of constant currents applied to the wire show that thermomagnetic convection becomes effective for the currents higher than 1.5A at all temperatures. It is observed that the onset of thermomagnetic convection is directly proportional to the current applied to the wire and that the thermomagnetic convection happens much faster than the free convection. Calculations show that a 35% enhancement in heat transfer can be expected for the ferrofluid compared to DIW, for a 3A current applied to the wire.

Keywords: cooling, ferrofluid, thermomagnetic convection, magnetic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 182
728 Exergy Analysis of Regenerative Organic Rankine Cycle Using Turbine Bleeding

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

This work presents an exergetical performance analysis of regenerative organic Rankine cycle (ORC) using turbine bleeding based on the second law of thermodynamics for recovery of finite thermal energy. Effects of system parameters such as turbine bleeding pressure and turbine bleeding fraction are theoretically investigated on the exergy destructions (anergies) at various components of the system as well as the exergy and the second-law efficiencies. Under the conditions of the critical fraction of turbine bleeding, the simulation results show that the exergy efficiency decreases monotonically with respect to the bleeding pressure, however, the second-law efficiency has a peak with respect to the turbine bleeding pressure.

Keywords: organic Rankine cycle, ORC, regeneration, turbine bleeding, exergy, second-law efficiency

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
727 Stress Analysis of Turbine Blades of Turbocharger Using Structural Steel

Authors: Roman Kalvin, Anam Nadeem, Saba Arif

Abstract:

Turbocharger is a device that is driven by the turbine and increases efficiency and power output of the engine by forcing external air into the combustion chamber. This study focused on the distribution of stress on the turbine blades and total deformation that may occur during its working along with turbocharger to carry out its static structural analysis of turbine blades. Structural steel was selected as the material for turbocharger. Assembly of turbocharger and turbine blades was designed on PRO ENGINEER. Furthermore, the structural analysis is performed by using ANSYS. This research concluded that by using structural steel, the efficiency of engine is improved and by increasing number of turbine blades, more waste heat from combustion chamber is emitted.

Keywords: turbocharger, turbine blades, structural steel, ANSYS

Procedia PDF Downloads 118
726 Effect of Thickness and Solidity on the Performance of Straight Type Vertical Axis Wind Turbine

Authors: Jianyang Zhu, Lin Jiang, Tixian Tian

Abstract:

Inspired by the increasing interesting on the wind power associated with production of clear electric power, a numerical experiment is applied to investigate the aerodynamic performance of straight type vertical axis wind turbine with different thickness and solidity, where the incompressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations coupled with dynamic mesh technique is solved. By analyzing the flow field, as well as energy coefficient of different thickness and solidity turbine, it is found that the thickness and solidity can significantly influence the performance of vertical axis wind turbine. For the turbine under low tip speed, the mean energy coefficient increase with the increasing of thickness and solidity, which may improve the self starting performance of the turbine. However for the turbine under high tip speed, the appropriate thickness and smaller solidity turbine possesses better performance. In addition, delay stall and no interaction of the blade and previous separated vortex are observed around appropriate thickness and solidity turbine, therefore lead better performance characteristics.

Keywords: vertical axis wind turbine, N-S equations, dynamic mesh technique, thickness, solidity

Procedia PDF Downloads 152
725 Wire Localization Procedures in Non-Palpable Breast Cancers: An Audit Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Waqas Ahmad, Eisha Tahir, Shahper Aqeel, Imran Khalid Niazi, Amjad Iqbal

Abstract:

Background: Breast conservation surgery applies a number of techniques for accurate localization of lesions. Wire localization remains the method of choice in non-palpable breast cancers post-neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Objective: The aim of our study was to determine the accuracy of wire localization procedures in our department and compare it with internationally set protocols as per the Royal College of Radiologists. Post wire mammography, as well as the margin status of the postoperative specimen, assessed the accuracy of the procedure. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the data of 225 patients who presented to our department from May 2014 to June 2015 post neoadjuvant chemotherapy with non-palpable cancers. These patients are candidates for wire localized lumpectomies either under ultrasound or stereotactic guidance. Metallic marker was placed in all the patients at the time of biopsy. Post wire mammogram was performed in all the patients and the distance of the wire tip from the marker was calculated. The presence or absence of the metallic clip in the postoperative specimen, as well as the marginal status of the postoperative specimen, was noted. Results: 157 sonographic and 68 stereotactic wire localization procedures were performed. 95% of the wire tips were within 1 cm of the metallic marker. Marginal status was negative in 94% of the patients in histopathological specimen. Conclusion: Our audit report declares more than 95% accuracy of image guided wire localization in successful excision of non-palpable breast lesions.

Keywords: breast, cancer, non-palpable, wire localization

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
724 Effect of Blade Shape on the Performance of Wells Turbine for Wave Energy Conversion

Authors: Katsuya Takasaki, Manabu Takao, Toshiaki Setoguchi

Abstract:

Effect of 3-dimensional (3D) blade on the turbine characteristics of Wells turbine for wave energy conversion has been investigated experimentally by model testing under steady flow conditions in the study, in order to improve the peak efficiency and the stall characteristics. The aim of the use of 3D blade is to prevent flow separation on the suction surface near the tip. The chord length is constant with radius and the blade profile changes gradually from mean radius to tip. The proposed blade profiles in the study are NACA0015 from hub to mean radius and NACA0025 at the tip. The performances of Wells turbine with 3D blades has been compared with those of the original Wells turbine, i.e. the turbine with 2-dimensional (2D) blades. As a result, it was concluded that although the peak efficiency of Wells turbine can be improved by the use of the proposed 3D blade, its blade does not overcome the weakness of stalling.

Keywords: fluid machinery, ocean engineering, stall, wave energy conversion, wells turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
723 Modeling Nanomechanical Behavior of ZnO Nanowires as a Function of Nano-Diameter

Authors: L. Achou, A. Doghmane

Abstract:

Elastic performances, as an essential property of nanowires (NWs), play a significant role in the design and fabrication of modern nanodevices. In this paper, our interest is focused on ZnO NWs to investigate wire diameter (Dwire ≤ 400 nm) effects on elastic properties. The plotted data reveal that a strong size dependence of the elastic constants exists when the wire diameter is smaller than ~ 100 nm. For larger diameters (Dwire > 100 nm), these ones approach their corresponding bulk values. To enrich this study, we make use of the scanning acoustic microscopy simulation technique. The calculation methodology consists of several steps: determination of longitudinal and transverse wave velocities, calculation of refection coefficients, calculation of acoustic signatures and Rayleigh velocity determination. Quantitatively, it was found that changes in ZnO diameters over the ranges 1 nm ≤ Dwire ≤ 100 nm lead to similar exponential variations, for all elastic parameters, of the from: A = a + b exp(-Dwire/c) where a, b, and c are characteristic constants of a given parameter. The developed relation can be used to predict elastic properties of such NW by just knowing its diameter and vice versa.

Keywords: elastic properties, nanowires, semiconductors, theoretical model, ZnO

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
722 Experimental Study to Determine the Effect of Wire Mesh Pore Size on Natural Draft Chimney Performance

Authors: Md. Mizanur Rahman, Chu Chi Ming, Mohd Suffian Bin Misaran

Abstract:

Chimney is an important part of the industries to remove waste heat from the processes side to the atmosphere. The increased demand of energy helps to restart to think about the efficiency of chimney as well as to find out a valid option to replace forced draft chimney system from industries. In this study natural draft chimney model is air flow rate; exit air temperature and pressure losses are studied through modification with wire mesh screen and compare the results with without wire mesh screen chimney model. The heat load is varies from 0.1 kW to 1kW and three different wire mesh screens that have pore size 0.15 mm2, 0.40 mm2 and 4.0 mm2 respectively are used. The experimental results show that natural draft chimney model with wire mesh screens significantly restored the flow losses compared to the system without wire mesh screen. The natural draft chimney model with 0.40 mm2 pore size wire mesh screen can minimize the draft losses better than others and able to enhance velocity about 54 % exit air temperature about 41% and pressure loss decreased by about 20%. Therefore, it can be decided that the wire mesh screens significantly minimize the draft losses in the natural draft chimney and 0.40 mm2 pore size screen will be a suitable option.

Keywords: natural draft dhimney, wire mesh screen, natural draft flow, mechanical engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 206
721 Topography Effects on Wind Turbines Wake Flow

Authors: H. Daaou Nedjari, O. Guerri, M. Saighi

Abstract:

A numerical study was conducted to optimize the positioning of wind turbines over complex terrains. Thus, a two-dimensional disk model was used to calculate the flow velocity deficit in wind farms for both flat and complex configurations. The wind turbine wake was assessed using the hybrid methods that combine CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) with the actuator disc model. The wind turbine rotor has been defined with a thrust force, coupled with the Navier-Stokes equations that were resolved by an open source computational code (Code_Saturne V3.0 developed by EDF) The simulations were conducted in atmospheric boundary layer condition considering a two-dimensional region located at the north of Algeria at 36.74°N longitude, 02.97°E latitude. The topography elevation values were collected according to a longitudinal direction of 1km downwind. The wind turbine sited over topography was simulated for different elevation variations. The main of this study is to determine the topography effect on the behavior of wind farm wake flow. For this, the wake model applied in complex terrain needs to selects the singularity effects of topography on the vertical wind flow without rotor disc first. This step allows to determine the existence of mixing scales and friction forces zone near the ground. So, according to the ground relief the wind flow waS disturbed by turbulence and a significant speed variation. Thus, the singularities of the velocity field were thoroughly collected and thrust coefficient Ct was calculated using the specific speed. In addition, to evaluate the land effect on the wake shape, the flow field was also simulated considering different rotor hub heights. Indeed, the distance between the ground and the hub height of turbine (Hhub) was tested in a flat terrain for different locations as Hhub=1.125D, Hhub = 1.5D and Hhub=2D (D is rotor diameter) considering a roughness value of z0=0.01m. This study has demonstrated that topographical farm induce a significant effect on wind turbines wakes, compared to that on flat terrain.

Keywords: CFD, wind turbine wake, k-epsilon model, turbulence, complex topography

Procedia PDF Downloads 488
720 Thermodynamic Analysis of GT Cycle with Naphtha or Natural Gas as the Fuel: A Thermodynamic Comparison

Authors: S. Arpit, P. K. Das, S. K. Dash

Abstract:

In this paper, a comparative study is done between two fuels, naphtha and natural gas (NG), for a gas turbine (GT) plant of 32.5 MW with the same thermodynamic configuration. From the energy analysis, it is confirmed that the turbine inlet temperature (TIT) of the gas turbine in the case of natural gas is higher as compared to naphtha, and hence the isentropic efficiency of the turbine is better. The result from the exergy analysis also confirms that due to high turbine inlet temperature in the case of natural gas, exergy destruction in combustion chamber is less. But comparing two fuels for overall analysis, naphtha has higher energy and exergetic efficiency as compared to natural gas.

Keywords: exergy analysis, gas turbine, naphtha, natural gas

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
719 Contribution to Experiments of a Free Surface Supercritical Flow over an Uneven Bottom

Authors: M. Bougamouza, M. Bouhadef, T. Zitoun

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to examine, through experimentation in the laboratory, the supercritical flow in the presence of an obstacle in a rectangular channel. The supercritical regime in the whole hydraulic channel is achieved by adding a convergent. We will observe the influence of the obstacle shape and dimension on the characteristics of the supercritical flow, mainly the free-surface elevation and the velocity profile. The velocity measurements have been conducted with the one dimension laser anemometry technique.

Keywords: experiments, free-surface flow, hydraulic channel, uneven bottom, laser anemometry, supercritical regime

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718 Testing of Gas Turbine KingTech with Biodiesel

Authors: Nicolas Lipchak, Franco Aiducic, Santiago Baieli

Abstract:

The present work is a part of the research project called ‘Testing of gas turbine KingTech with biodiesel’, carried out by the Department of Industrial Engineering of the National Technological University at Buenos Aires. The research group aims to experiment with biodiesel in a gas turbine Kingtech K-100 to verify the correct operation of it. In this sense, tests have been developed to obtain real data of parameters inherent to the work cycle, to be used later as parameters of comparison and performance analysis. In the first instance, the study consisted in testing the gas turbine with a mixture composition of 50% Biodiesel and 50% Diesel. The parameters arising from the measurements made were compared with the parameters of the gas turbine with a composition of 100% Diesel. In the second instance, the measured parameters were used to calculate the power generated and the thermal efficiency of the Kingtech K-100 turbine. The turbine was also inspected to verify the status of the internals due to the use of biofuels. The conclusions obtained allow empirically demonstrate that it is feasible to use biodiesel in this type of gas turbines, without the use of this fuel generates a loss of power or degradation of internals.

Keywords: biodiesel, efficiency, KingTech, turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 121