Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8280

Search results for: water vapor transmission

8280 Barrier Properties of Starch-Ethylene Vinyl Alcohol Nanocomposites

Authors: Farid Amidi Fazli

Abstract:

Replacement of plastics used in the food industry seems to be a serious issue to overcome mainly the environmental problems in recent years. This study investigates the hydrophilicity and permeability properties of starch biopolymer which ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) (0-10%) and nanocrystalline cellulose (NCC) (1 -15%) were used to enhance its properties. Starch -EVOH nanocomposites were prepared by casting method in different formulations. NCC production by acid hydrolysis was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. Solubility, water vapor permeability, water vapor transmission rate and moisture absorbance were measured on each of the nanocomposites. The results were analyzed by SAS software. The lowest moisture absorbance was measured in pure starch nanocomposite containing 8% NCC. The lowest permeability to water vapor belongs to starch nanocomposite containing 8% NCC and the sample containing 7.8% EVOH and 13% NCC. Also, the lowest solubility was observed in the composite contains the highest amount of EVOH. Applied Process resulted in production of bio films which have good resistance to water vapor permeability and solubility in water. The use of NCC and EVOH leads to reduced moisture absorbance property of the biofilms.

Keywords: starch, EVOH, nanocrystalline cellulose, hydrophilicity

Procedia PDF Downloads 295
8279 Analysis of Vapor-Phase Diffusion of Benzene from Contaminated Soil

Authors: Asma A. Parlin, K. Nakamura, N. Watanabe, T. Komai

Abstract:

Understanding the effective diffusion of benzene vapor in the soil-atmosphere interface is important as an intrusion of benzene into the atmosphere from the soil is largely driven by diffusion. To analyze the vertical one dimensional effective diffusion of benzene vapor in porous medium with high water content, diffusion experiments were conducted in soil columns using Andosol soil and Toyoura silica sand with different water content; for soil water content was from 0 to 30 wt.% and for sand it was from 0.06 to 10 wt.%. In soil, a linear relation was found between water content and effective diffusion coefficient while the effective diffusion coefficient didn’t change in the sand with increasing water. A numerical transport model following unsteady-state approaches based on Fick’s second law was used to match the required time for a steady state of the gas phase concentration profile of benzene to the experimentally measured concentration profile gas phase in the column. The result highlighted that both the water content and porosity might increase vertical diffusion of benzene vapor in soil.

Keywords: benzene vapor-phase, effective diffusion, subsurface soil medium, unsteady state

Procedia PDF Downloads 26
8278 Thermal Properties and Water Vapor Permeability for Cellulose-Based Materials

Authors: Stanislavs Gendelis, Maris Sinka, Andris Jakovics

Abstract:

Insulation materials made from natural sources have become more popular for the ecologisation of buildings, meaning wide use of such renewable materials. Such natural materials replace synthetic products which consume a large quantity of energy. The most common and the cheapest natural materials in Latvia are cellulose-based (wood and agricultural plants). The ecological aspects of such materials are well known, but experimental data about physical properties remains lacking. In this study, six different samples of wood wool panels and a mixture of hemp shives and lime (hempcrete) are analysed. Thermal conductivity and heat capacity measurements were carried out for wood wool and cement panels using the calibrated hot plate device. Water vapor permeability was tested for hempcrete material by using the gravimetric dry cup method. Studied wood wool panels are eco-friendly and harmless material, which is widely used in the interior design of public and residential buildings, where noise absorption and sound insulation is of importance. They are also suitable for high humidity facilities (e.g., swimming pools). The difference in panels was the width of used wood wool, which is linked to their density. The results of measured thermal conductivity are in a wide range, showing the worsening of properties with the increasing of the wool width (for the least dense 0.066, for the densest 0.091 W/(m·K)). Comparison with mineral insulation materials shows that thermal conductivity for such materials are 2-3 times higher and are comparable to plywood and fibreboard. Measured heat capacity was in a narrower range; here, the dependence on the wool width was not so strong due to the fact that heat capacity value is related to mass, not volume. The resulting heat capacity is a combination of two main components. A comparison of results for different panels allows to select the most suitable sample for a specific application because the dependencies of the thermal insulation and heat capacity properties on the wool width are not the same. Hempcrete is a much denser material compared to conventional thermal insulating materials. Therefore, its use helps to reinforce the structural capacity of the constructional framework, at the same time, it is lightweight. By altering the proportions of the ingredients, hempcrete can be produced as a structural, thermal, or moisture absorbent component. The water absorption and water vapor permeability are the most important properties of these materials. Information about absorption can be found in the literature, but there are no data about water vapor transmission properties. Water vapor permeability was tested for a sample of locally made hempcrete using different air humidity values to evaluate the possible difference. The results show only the slight influence of the air humidity on the water vapor permeability value. The absolute ‘sd value’ measured is similar to mineral wool and wood fiberboard, meaning that due to very low resistance, water vapor passes easily through the material. At the same time, other properties – structural and thermal of the hempcrete is totally different. As a result, an experimentally-based knowledge of thermal and water vapor transmission properties for cellulose-based materials was significantly improved.

Keywords: heat capacity, hemp concrete, thermal conductivity, water vapor transmission, wood wool

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8277 Coating of Cotton with Blend of Natural Rubber and Chloroprene Containing Ammonium Acetate for Producing Moisture Vapour Permeable Waterproof Fabric

Authors: Debasish Das, Mainak Mitra, A.Chaudhuri

Abstract:

For the purpose of producing moisture vapor permeable waterproof cotton fabric to be used for protective apparel against rain, cotton fabric was coated with the blend of natural rubber and chloroprene rubber containing ammonium acetate as the water-soluble salt, employing a calendar coating technique. Rubber formulations also contained filler, homogenizer, and a typical sulphur curing system. Natural rubber and chloroprene blend in the blend ratio of 30: 70, containing 25 parts of sodium acetate per hundred parts of rubber was coated on the fabric. The coated fabric was vulcanized thereafter at 140oC for 3 h. Coated and vulcanized fabric was subsequently dipped in water for 45 min, followed by drying in air. Such set of treatments produced optimum results. Coated, vulcanized, washed and dried cotton fabric showed optimum developments in the property profiles in respect of waterproofness, breathability as revealed by moisture vapor transmission rate, coating adhesion, tensile properties, abrasion resistance, flex endurance and fire retardancy. Incorporation of highly water-soluble ammonium acetate salt in the coating formulation and their subsequent removal from vulcanized coated layer affected by post washing in consequent to dipping in the water-bath produced holes of only a few microns in the coating matrix of the fabric. Such microporous membrane formed on the cotton fabric allowed only transportation of moisture vapor through them, giving a moisture vapor transmission rate of 3734 g/m2/24h, while acting as a barrier for large liquid water droplet resisting 120cm of the water column in the hydrostatic water-head tester, rendering the coated cotton fabric waterproof. Examination of surface morphology of vulcanized coating by scanning electron microscopy supported the mechanism proposed for development of breathable waterproof layer on cotton fabric by the process employed above. Such process provides an easy and cost-effective route for achieving moisture vapor permeable waterproof cotton.

Keywords: moisture vapour permeability, waterproofness, chloroprene, calendar coating, coating adhesion, fire retardancy

Procedia PDF Downloads 153
8276 The Effect of Nanofiber Web on Thermal Conductivity, Air and Water Vapor Permeability

Authors: Ilkay Ozsev Yuksek, Nuray Ucar, Zeynep Esma Soygur, Yasemin Kucuk

Abstract:

In this study, composite fabrics with polyacrylonitrile electrospun nanofiber deposited onto quilted polyester fabric have been produced in order to control the isolation properties such as water vapor permeability, air permeability and thermal conductivity. Different nanofiber webs were manufactured by changing polymer concentration from 10% to 16% and by changing the deposition time from 1 to 3 hours. Presence of nanofiber layer on the quilted fabric results to an increase of an isolation, i.e., a decrease of the moisture vapor transport rates at 20%, decrease of thermal conductivity at 15% and a decrease of air permeability values at 50%.

Keywords: nanofiber/fabric composites, electrospinning, isolation, thermal conductivity, moisture vapor transport, air permeability

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
8275 Global Navigation Satellite System and Precise Point Positioning as Remote Sensing Tools for Monitoring Tropospheric Water Vapor

Authors: Panupong Makvichian

Abstract:

Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) is nowadays a common technology that improves navigation functions in our life. Additionally, GNSS is also being employed on behalf of an accurate atmospheric sensor these times. Meteorology is a practical application of GNSS, which is unnoticeable in the background of people’s life. GNSS Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a positioning method that requires data from a single dual-frequency receiver and precise information about satellite positions and satellite clocks. In addition, careful attention to mitigate various error sources is required. All the above data are combined in a sophisticated mathematical algorithm. At this point, the research is going to demonstrate how GNSS and PPP method is capable to provide high-precision estimates, such as 3D positions or Zenith tropospheric delays (ZTDs). ZTDs combined with pressure and temperature information allows us to estimate the water vapor in the atmosphere as precipitable water vapor (PWV). If the process is replicated for a network of GNSS sensors, we can create thematic maps that allow extract water content information in any location within the network area. All of the above are possible thanks to the advances in GNSS data processing. Therefore, we are able to use GNSS data for climatic trend analysis and acquisition of the further knowledge about the atmospheric water content.

Keywords: GNSS, precise point positioning, Zenith tropospheric delays, precipitable water vapor

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8274 The shaping of Metal-Organic Frameworks for Water Vapor Adsorption

Authors: Tsung-Lin Hsieh, Jiun-Jen Chen, Yuhao Kang

Abstract:

Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have drawn scientists’ attention for decades due to its high specific surface area, tunable pore size, and relatively low temperature for regeneration. Bearing with those mentioned properties, MOFs has been widely used in various applications, such as adsorption/separation and catalysis. However, the current challenge for practical use of MOFs is to effectively shape these crystalline powder material into controllable forms such as pellets, granules, and monoliths with sufficient mechanical and chemical stability, while maintaining the excellent properties of MOFs powders. Herein, we have successfully synthesized an Al-based MOF powder which exhibits a high water capacity at relatively low humidity conditions and relatively low temperature for regeneration. Then the synthesized Al-MOF was shaped into granules with particle size of 2-4 mm by (1) tumbling granulation, (2) High shear mixing granulation, and (3) Extrusion techniques. Finally, the water vapor adsorption rate and crush strength of Al-MOF granules by different shaping techniques were measured and compared.

Keywords: granulation, granules, metal-organic frameworks, water vapor adsorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 35
8273 Preparation and Analysis of Chitosan-Honey Films for Wound Dressing Application

Authors: L. Sasikala, Bhaarathi Dhurai

Abstract:

Increase in antibiotic resistance bacteria leads to the development of active wound dressings, which absorb any bodily fluid, evaporation of moisture at a certain rate and can be easily removed after healing. Natural materials like chitosan, herbs, and honey have number of active materials present in them to accelerate wound healing and to arrest wound in infections. Hence with the advantages of biomaterials, a film was prepared using chitosan and honey. There are a lot of practical considerations with respect to honey. Honey exerts many beneficial actions on the wound surface only when it remains. The attempts to hold honey on the surface of the wound remain a question because honey becomes a very runny liquid when it comes to body temperature. Hence, this research was focused on development of a new form of wound dressing, by holding honey on the wound surface in different form and also which has a combined effect of manuka (Leptospermum scoparium) honey and chitosan. Chitosan-honey film was prepared using casting technique. Films were prepared in different variations; with acetic acid and with lactic acid; with and without honey. In summary, the film produced from 2% chitosan- 1% lactic acid as a solvent, with 10% honey shows optimum inclined values in all the tests, like thickness, folding endurance, weight, water vapor transmission, tensile strength, swelling ratio and antimicrobial activity, with specific reference to wound dressings. The film has water vapor transmission of 1680 g/m²/day, water absorption of 225%, tensile strength of 39.1N/mm² and elongation of 50.3%. There is a notable inhibition zone of 29 mm against S. aureus and 24 mm against E. coli in the case of chitosan-lactic acid-honey film. The film also arrests, microbes transmitting from the outside environment to wound bed, which can be used as an effective wound dressing material.

Keywords: casting technique, chitosan, honey, film, wound dressings

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
8272 Surge Analysis of Water Transmission Mains in Una, Himachal Pradesh, India

Authors: Baldev Setia, Raj Rajeshwari, Maneesh Kumar

Abstract:

Present paper is an analysis of water transmission mains failed due to surge analysis by using basic software known as Surge Analysis Program (SAP). It is a real time failure case study of a pipe laid in Una, Himachal Pradesh. The transmission main is a 13 kilometer long pipe with 7.9 kilometers as pumping main and 5.1 kilometers as gravitational main. The analysis deals with mainly pumping mains. The results are available in two text files. Besides, several files are prepared with specific view to obtain results in a graphical form. These results help to observe the pressure difference and surge occurrence at different locations along the pipe profile, which help to redesign the transmission main with different but suitable safety measures against possible surge. A technically viable and economically feasible design has been provided as per the relevant manual and standard code of practice.

Keywords: surge, water hammer, transmission mains, SAP 2000

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
8271 Enhanced Water Vapor Flow in Silica Microtubes Explained by Maxwell’s Tangential Momentum Accommodation and Langmuir’s Adsorption

Authors: Wenwen Lei, David R. Mckenzie

Abstract:

Recent findings of anomalously high gas flow rates in carbon nanotubes show smooth hydrophobic walls can increase specular reflection of molecules and reduce the tangential momentum accommodation coefficient (TMAC). Here we report the first measurements of water vapor flows in microtubes over a wide humidity range and show that for hydrophobic silica there is a range of humidity over which an adsorbed water layer reduces TMAC and accelerates flow. Our results show that this association between hydrophobicity and accelerated moisture flow occurs in readily available materials. We develop a hierarchical theory that unifies Maxwell’s ideas on TMAC with Langmuir’s ideas on adsorption. We fit the TMAC data as a function of humidity with the hierarchical theory based on two stages of Langmuir adsorption and derive total adsorption isotherms for water on hydrophobic silica that agree with direct observations. We propose structures for each stage of the water adsorption, the first reducing TMAC by a passivation of adsorptive patches and a smoothing of the surface, the second resembling bulk water with large TMAC. We find that leak testing of moisture barriers with an ideal gas such as helium may not be accurate enough for critical applications and that direct measurements of the water leak rate should be made.

Keywords: water vapor flows, silica microtubes, TMAC, enhanced flow rates

Procedia PDF Downloads 176
8270 Surge Analysis of Water Transmission Mains in Una, Himachal Pradesh (India)

Authors: Baldev Setia, Raj Rajeshwari, Maneesh Kumar

Abstract:

Present paper is an analysis of water transmission mains failed due to surge analysis by using basic software known as Surge Analysis Program (SAP). It is a real time failure case study of a pipe laid in Una, Himachal Pradesh. The transmission main is a 13 kilometres long pipe with 7.9 kilometres as pumping main and 5.1 kilometres as gravitational main. The analysis deals with mainly pumping mains. The results are available in two text files. Besides, several files are prepared with specific view to obtain results in a graphical form. These results help to observe the pressure difference and surge occurrence at different locations along the pipe profile, which help to redesign the transmission main with different but suitable safety measures against possible surge. A technically viable and economically feasible design has been provided as per the relevant manual and standard code of practice.

Keywords: surge, water hammer, transmission mains, SAP 2000

Procedia PDF Downloads 300
8269 Characteristics of Smoked Edible Film Made from Myofibril, Collagen and Carrageenan

Authors: Roike Iwan Montolalu, Henny Adeleida Dien, Feny Mentang, Kristhina P. Rahael, Tomy Moga, Ayub Meko, Siegfried Berhimpon

Abstract:

In the last 20 years, packaging materials derived from petrochemicals polymers were widely used as packaging materials. This due to various advantages such as flexible, strong, transparent, and the price is relatively cheap. However, the plastic polymer also has various disadvantages, such as the transmission monomer contamination into the material to be packed, and waste is non-biodegradable. Edible film (EF) is an up to date materials, generated after the biodegradable packaging materials. The advantages of the EF materials, is the materials can be eat together with food, and the materials can be applied as a coating materials for a widely kind of foods especially snack foods. The aims of this research are to produce and to analyze the characteristics of smoked EF made from carrageenan, myofibril and collagen of Black Marlin (Makaira indica) industrial waste. Smoked EF made with an addition of 0.8 % smoke liquid. Three biopolymers i.e. carrageenan, myofibril, and collagen were used as treatments, and homogenate for 1 hours at speed of 1500 rpm. The analysis carried out on the pH and physical properties i.e. thickness, solubility, tensile strength, % elongation, and water vapor transmission rate (WVTR), as well as on the sensory characteristics of texture i.e. wateriness, firmness, elasticity, hardness, and juiciness of the coated products. The result shown that the higher the concentration the higher the thickness of EF, where as for myofibril proteins appeared higher than carrageenan and collagen. Both of collagen and myofibril shown that concentration of 6% was most soluble, while for carrageenan were in concentration of 2 to 2.5%. For tensile strength, carrageenan was significantly higher than myofibril and collagen; while for elongation, collagen film more elastic than carragenan and myofibril protein. Water vapor transmission rate, shown that myofibril protein film lower than carrageenan and collagen film. From sensory assessment of texture, carrageenan has a high elasticity and juiciness, while collagen and myofibril have a high in firmness and hardness.

Keywords: edible film, collagen, myofibril, carrageenan

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
8268 Effects of a Cooler on the Sampling Process in a Continuous Emission Monitoring System

Authors: J. W. Ahn, I. Y. Choi, T. V. Dinh, J. C. Kim

Abstract:

A cooler has been widely employed in the extractive system of the continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) to remove water vapor in the gas stream. The effect of the cooler on analytical target gases was investigated in this research. A commercial cooler for the CEMS operated at 4 C was used. Several gases emitted from a coal power plant (i.e. CO2, SO2, NO, NO2 and CO) were mixed with humid air, and then introduced into the cooler to observe its effect. Concentrations of SO2, NO, NO2 and CO were made as 200 ppm. The CO2 concentration was 8%. The inlet absolute humidity was produced as 12.5% at 100 C using a bubbling method. It was found that the reduction rate of SO2 was the highest (~21%), followed by NO2 (~17%), CO2 (~11%) and CO (~10%). In contrast, the cooler was not affected by NO gas. The result indicated that the cooler caused a significant effect on the water soluble gases due to condensate water in the cooler. To overcome this problem, a correction factor may be applied. However, water vapor might be different, and emissions of target gases are also various. Therefore, the correction factor is not only a solution, but also a better available method should be employed.

Keywords: cooler, CEMS, monitoring, reproductive, sampling

Procedia PDF Downloads 256
8267 Functionalization of Single-Walled Nanotubes by Synthesied Pigments

Authors: Shahab Zomorodbakhsh, Hayron Nesa Motevasel

Abstract:

Water soluble compoundes were attached to single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to form water-soluble nano pigments. functionalized SWNTs were then characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy, UV analysis, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)and defunctionalization test and Representative results concerning the solubility. The product can be dissolved in water and High-resolution transmission electron microscope images showed that the SWNTs were efficiently functionalized, thus the p-stacking interaction between aromatic rings and COOH of SWNTs was considered responsible for the high solubility and High transmission electron in singlewall nanotubes.

Keywords: functionalized CNTs, singlewalled carbon nanotubes, water soluble compoundes, nano pigments

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
8266 Thermodynamic Analysis of Ammonia-Water Based Regenerative Rankine Cycle with Partial Evaporation

Authors: Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

A thermodynamic analysis of a partial evaporating Rankine cycle with regeneration using zeotropic ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid is presented in this paper. The thermodynamic laws were applied to evaluate the system performance. Based on the thermodynamic model, the effects of the vapor quality and the ammonia mass fraction on the system performance were extensively investigated. The results showed that thermal efficiency has a peak value with respect to the vapor quality as well as the ammonia mass fraction. The partial evaporating ammonia based Rankine cycle has a potential to improve recovery of low-grade finite heat source.

Keywords: ammonia-water, Rankine cycle, partial evaporating, thermodynamic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
8265 Development of Vacuum Planar Membrane Dehumidifier for Air-Conditioning

Authors: Chun-Han Li, Tien-Fu Yang, Chen-Yu Chen, Wei-Mon Yan

Abstract:

The conventional dehumidification method in air-conditioning system mostly utilizes a cooling coil to remove the moisture in the air via cooling the supply air down below its dew point temperature. During the process, it needs to reheat the supply air to meet the set indoor condition that consumes a considerable amount of energy and affect the coefficient of performance of the system. If the processes of dehumidification and cooling are separated and operated respectively, the indoor conditions will be more efficiently controlled. Therefore, decoupling the dehumidification and cooling processes in heating, ventilation and air conditioning system is one of the key technologies as membrane dehumidification processes for the next generation. The membrane dehumidification method has the advantages of low cost, low energy consumption, etc. It utilizes the pore size and hydrophilicity of the membrane to transfer water vapor by mass transfer effect. The moisture in the supply air is removed by the potential energy and driving force across the membrane. The process can save the latent load used to condense water, which makes more efficient energy use because it does not involve heat transfer effect. In this work, the performance measurements including the permeability and selectivity of water vapor and air with the composite and commercial membranes were conducted. According to measured data, we can choose the suitable dehumidification membrane for designing the flow channel length and components of the planar dehumidifier. The vacuum membrane dehumidification system was set up to examine the effects of temperature, humidity, vacuum pressure, flow rate, the coefficient of performance and other parameters on the dehumidification efficiency. The results showed that the commercial Nafion membrane has better water vapor permeability and selectivity. They are suitable for filtration with water vapor and air. Meanwhile, Nafion membrane has promising potential in the dehumidification process.

Keywords: vacuum membrane dehumidification, planar membrane dehumidifier, water vapour and air permeability, air conditioning

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8264 Entropy Generation Analysis of Heat Recovery Vapor Generator for Ammonia-Water Mixture

Authors: Chul Ho Han, Kyoung Hoon Kim

Abstract:

This paper carries out a performance analysis based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics for heat recovery vapor generator (HRVG) of ammonia-water mixture when the heat source is low-temperature energy in the form of sensible heat. In the analysis, effects of the ammonia mass concentration and mass flow ratio of the binary mixture are investigated on the system performance including the effectiveness of heat transfer, entropy generation, and exergy efficiency. The results show that the ammonia concentration and the mass flow ratio of the mixture have significant effects on the system performance of HRVG.

Keywords: entropy, exergy, ammonia-water mixture, heat exchanger

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8263 Next Generation Membrane for Water Desalination: Facile Fabrication of Patterned Graphene Membrane

Authors: Jae-Kyung Choi, Soon-Yong Kwon, Hyung Duk Yun, Hyun-Sang Chung, Seongho Seo, Kukjin Bae

Abstract:

Recently, there were several attempts to utilize a graphene layer as a water desalination membrane. In order to use a graphene layer as a water desalination membrane, fabrication of crack-free suspension of graphene on a porous membrane, having hydrophobic surface, and generation of a uniform holes on a graphene are very important. In here, we showed a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method to create a patterned graphene membrane on a patterned platinum film. After CVD growth process of patterned graphene layer/patterned Pt on SiO2 substrates, the patterned graphene layer can be successfully transferred onto arbitrary substrates via thermal-assisted transfer method. In this result, the transferred patterned graphene membrane has so hydrophobic surface which will certainly impact on the naturally and speed pass way for fresh water. In addition to this, we observed that overlapping of patterned graphene membranes reported previously by our group may generate different size of holes.

Keywords: chemical vapor deposition (CVD), hydrophobic surface, membrane desalination, porous graphene

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8262 Effect of 3-Dimensional Knitted Spacer Fabrics Characteristics on Its Thermal and Compression Properties

Authors: Veerakumar Arumugam, Rajesh Mishra, Jiri Militky, Jana Salacova

Abstract:

The thermo-physiological comfort and compression properties of knitted spacer fabrics have been evaluated by varying the different spacer fabric parameters. Air permeability and water vapor transmission of the fabrics were measured using the Textest FX-3300 air permeability tester and PERMETEST. Then thermal behavior of fabrics was obtained by Thermal conductivity analyzer and overall moisture management capacity was evaluated by moisture management tester. Spacer Fabrics compression properties were also tested using Kawabata Evaluation System (KES-FB3). In the KES testing, the compression resilience, work of compression, linearity of compression and other parameters were calculated from the pressure-thickness curves. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was performed using new statistical software named QC expert trilobite and Darwin in order to compare the influence of different fabric parameters on thermo-physiological and compression behavior of samples. This study established that the raw materials, type of spacer yarn, density, thickness and tightness of surface layer have significant influence on both thermal conductivity and work of compression in spacer fabrics. The parameter which mainly influence on the water vapor permeability of these fabrics is the properties of raw material i.e. the wetting and wicking properties of fibers. The Pearson correlation between moisture capacity of the fabrics and water vapour permeability was found using statistical software named QC expert trilobite and Darwin. These findings are important requirements for the further designing of clothing for extreme environmental conditions.

Keywords: 3D spacer fabrics, thermal conductivity, moisture management, work of compression (WC), resilience of compression (RC)

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8261 A Feasibility Study of Replacing High Pressure Mercury Vapor and Sodium Vapor Lamp Street Lighting Bulbs with LEDs in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus

Authors: Olusola Olorunfemi Bamisile, Mustafa Dagbasi, Serkan Abbasoglu

Abstract:

Feasibility of an Energy Audit program is the main aim of this paper. LEDs are used to replace Sodium Vapor lamps and High Pressured Mercury Vapor lamps that are currently used for the street lighting system in Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus. 44% of the fossil fuels imported into Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus are used for electricity generation which makes the reduction in the consumption of electricity very important. This project will save as much as 40,206,210 kWh on site annually and 121,837,000 kWh can be saved from source. The economic environmental and fossil fuels saving of this project is also evaluated.

Keywords: energy conservation management, LEDs, sodium vapor, high pressure mercury vapor, life cycle costing

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8260 Carboxymethyl Cellulose Coating onto Polypropylene Film Using Cold Atmospheric Plasma Treatment as Food Packaging

Authors: Z. Honarvar, M. Farhoodi, M. R. Khani, S. Shojaee-Aliabadi

Abstract:

Recently, edible films and coating have attracted much attention in food industry due to their environmentally friendly nature and safety in direct contact with food. However edible films have relatively weak mechanical properties and high water vapor permeability. Therefore, the aim of the study was to develop bilayer carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) coated polypropylene (PP) films to increase mechanical properties and water vapor resistance of each pure CMC or PP films. To modify the surface properties of PE for better attachment of CMC coating layer to PP the atmospheric cold plasma treatment was used. Then the PP surface changes were evaluated by contact angle, AFM, and ATR-FTIR. Furthermore, the physical, mechanical, optical and microstructure characteristics of plasma-treated and untreated films were analyzed. ATR-FTIR results showed that plasma treatment created oxygen-containing groups on PP surface leading to an increase in hydrophilic properties of PP surface. Moreover, a decrease in water contact angle (from 88.92° to 52.15°) and an increase of roughness were observed on PP film surface indicating good adhesion between hydrophilic CMC and hydrophobic PP. Furthermore, plasma pre-treatment improved the tensile strength of CMC coated-PP films from 58.19 to 61.82. Water vapor permeability of plasma treated bilayer film was lower in comparison with untreated film. Therefore, cold plasma treatment has potential to improve attachment of CMC coating to PP layer, leading to enhanced water barrier and mechanical properties of CMC coated polypropylene as food packaging in which also CMC is in contact with food.

Keywords: carboxymethyl cellulose film, cold plasma, Polypropylene, surface properties

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
8259 A Method for Calculating Dew Point Temperature in the Humidity Test

Authors: Wu Sa, Zhang Qian, Li Qi, Wang Ye

Abstract:

Currently in humidity tests having not put the Dew point temperature as a control parameter, this paper selects wet and dry bulb thermometer to measure the vapor pressure, and introduces several the saturation vapor pressure formulas easily calculated on the controller. Then establish the Dew point temperature calculation model to obtain the relationship between the Dew point temperature and vapor pressure. Finally check through the 100 groups of sample in the range of 0-100 ℃ from "Psychrometric handbook", find that the average error is small. This formula can be applied to calculate the Dew point temperature in the humidity test.

Keywords: dew point temperature, psychrometric handbook, saturation vapor pressure, wet and dry bulb thermometer

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
8258 The Effect of Gamma-Aminobutyric Acid on Mechanical Properties, Water Vapor Permeability and Solubility of Pectin Films

Authors: Jitrawadee Meerasri, Rungsinee Sothornvit

Abstract:

Pectin is a structural polysaccharide from plant cell walls and can be used as a stabilizer, gelling and film-forming agents to improve many food products. Moreover, pectin film as a natural biopolymer can be a carrier of several active ingredients such as antioxidant and antimicrobial to provide an active or functional film. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a well-known agent to reduce neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system and it is interesting to investigate the GABA effect as a substitute of normal plasticizer (glycerol) on edible film properties. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the effect of GABA concentrations (5-15% of pectin) on film mechanical properties, moisture content, water vapor permeability, and solubility compared with those from glycerol (10% of pectin) plasticized pectin film including a control film (pectin film without any plasticizer). It was found that an increase in GABA concentrations decreased film tensile strength, modulus, solubility and water vapor permeability, but elongation was increased without a change in the moisture content. The smaller amount of GABA showed the equivalent film properties as using a higher amount of glycerol. Consequently, GABA can act as an alternative plasticizer substitute of glycerol at the lower amount used. Moreover, GABA provides the nutritional high value in the food products when the edible packaging material is consumed with products.

Keywords: gamma-aminobutyric acid, pectin, plasticizer, edible film

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8257 The LMPA/Epoxy Mixture Encapsulation of OLED on Polyimide Substrate

Authors: Chuyi Ye, Minsang Kim, Cheol-Hee Moon

Abstract:

The organic light emitting diode(OLED), is a potential organic optical functional materials which is considered as the next generation display technology with the advantages such as all-solid state, ultra-thin thickness, active luminous and flexibility. Due to the development of polymer-inorganic substrate, it becomes possible to achieve the flexible OLED display. However the organic light-emitting material is very sensitive to the oxygen and water vapor, and the encapsulation requires water vapor transmission rate(WVTR) and oxygen transmission rate(OTR) as lower as 10-6 g/(m2.d) and 10-5 cm3/(m2.d) respectively. In current situation, the rigorous WVTR and OTR have restricted the application of the OLED display. Traditional epoxy/getter or glass frit approaches, which have been widely applied on glass-substrate-based devices, are not suitable for transparent flexible organic devices, and mechanically flexible thin-film approaches are required. To ensure the OLED’s lifetime, the encapsulation material of the OLED package is very important. In this paper, a low melting point alloy(LMPA)-epoxy mixture in the encapsulation process is introduced. There will be a phase separation when the mixture is heated to the melting of LMPA and the formation of the double line structure between two substrates: the alloy barrier has extremely low WVTR and OTR and the epoxy fills the potential tiny cracks. In our experiment, the PI film is chosen as a flexible transparent substrate, and Mo and Cu are deposited on the PI film successively. Then the two metal layers are photolithographied to the sealing pattern line. The Mo is a transition layer between the PI film and Cu, at the same time, the Cu has a good wettability with the LMPA(Sn-58Bi). At last, pattern is printed with LMPA layer and applied voltage, the gathering Joule heat melt the LMPA and form the double line structure and the OLED package is sealed in the same time. In this research, the double-line encapsulating structure of LMPA and epoxy on the PI film is manufactured for the flexible OLED encapsulation, and in this process it is investigated whether the encapsulation satisfies the requirement of WVTR and OTR for the flexible OLED.

Keywords: encapsulation, flexible, low melting point alloy, OLED

Procedia PDF Downloads 497
8256 Performance Analysis of High Temperature Heat Pump Cycle for Industrial Process

Authors: Seon Tae Kim, Robert Hegner, Goksel Ozuylasi, Panagiotis Stathopoulos, Eberhard Nicke

Abstract:

High-temperature heat pumps (HTHP) that can supply heat at temperatures above 200°C can enhance the energy efficiency of industrial processes and reduce the CO₂ emissions connected with the heat supply of these processes. In the current work, the thermodynamic performance of 3 different vapor compression cycles, which use R-718 (water) as a working medium, have been evaluated by using a commercial process simulation tool (EBSILON Professional). All considered cycles use two-stage vapor compression with intercooling between stages. The main aim of the study is to compare different intercooling strategies and study possible heat recovery scenarios within the intercooling process. This comparison has been carried out by computing the coefficient of performance (COP), the heat supply temperature level, and the respective mass flow rate of water for all cycle architectures. With increasing temperature difference between the heat source and heat sink, ∆T, the COP values decreased as expected, and the highest COP value was found for the cycle configurations where both compressors have the same pressure ratio (PR). The investigation on the HTHP capacities with optimized PR and exergy analysis has also been carried out. The internal heat exchanger cycle with the inward direction of secondary flow (IHX-in) showed a higher temperature level and exergy efficiency compared to other cycles. Moreover, the available operating range was estimated by considering mechanical limitations.

Keywords: high temperature heat pump, industrial process, vapor compression cycle, R-718 (water), thermodynamic analysis

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8255 The Damage and Durability of a Sport Synthetic Resin Floor: A Case Study

Authors: C. Paglia, C. Mosca

Abstract:

Synthetic resin floorsare often used in sport infrastructure. These organic materials are often in contact with a bituminous substrate, which in turn is placed on the ground. In this work, the damage of a basket resin field surface was characterized by means of visual inspection, optical microscopy, resin thickness measurements, adhesion strength, water vapor transmission capacity, capillary water adsorption, granulometry of the bituminous conglomerate, the surface properties, and the water ground infiltration speed. The infiltration speed indicates water pemeability. This was due to its composition: clean sand mixed with gravel. Relatively good adhesion was present between the synthetic resin and the bituminous layer. The adhesion resistance of the bituminous layer was relatively low. According to the required bitumoniousasphalt-concrete mixes AC 11 S, the placed material was more porous. Insufficient constipation was present. The spaces values were above the standard limits, while the apparent densities were lower compared to the conventional AC 11 mixtures. The microstructure outlines the high permeability and porosity of the bituminous layer. The synthetic resin wasvapourproof and did not exhibit capillary adsorption. It exhibited a lower thickness as required, and no multiple placing steps were observed. Multiple cavities were detected along with the interface between the bituminous layer and the resin coating with no intermediate layers. The layer for the pore filling in the bituminous surface was not properly applied. The swelling bubbles on the synthetic pavement were caused by the humidity in the bituminous layer. Water or humidity were present prior to the application of the resin, and the effect was worsened by the upward movement of the water from the ground.

Keywords: resin, floor, damage, durability

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8254 Application of GPRS in Water Quality Monitoring System

Authors: V. Ayishwarya Bharathi, S. M. Hasker, J. Indhu, M. Mohamed Azarudeen, G. Gowthami, R. Vinoth Rajan, N. Vijayarangan

Abstract:

Identification of water quality conditions in a river system based on limited observations is an essential task for meeting the goals of environmental management. The traditional method of water quality testing is to collect samples manually and then send to laboratory for analysis. However, it has been unable to meet the demands of water quality monitoring today. So a set of automatic measurement and reporting system of water quality has been developed. In this project specifies Water quality parameters collected by multi-parameter water quality probe are transmitted to data processing and monitoring center through GPRS wireless communication network of mobile. The multi parameter sensor is directly placed above the water level. The monitoring center consists of GPRS and micro-controller which monitor the data. The collected data can be monitor at any instant of time. In the pollution control board they will monitor the water quality sensor data in computer using Visual Basic Software. The system collects, transmits and processes water quality parameters automatically, so production efficiency and economy benefit are improved greatly. GPRS technology can achieve well within the complex environment of poor water quality non-monitored, and more specifically applicable to the collection point, data transmission automatically generate the field of water analysis equipment data transmission and monitoring.

Keywords: multiparameter sensor, GPRS, visual basic software, RS232

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
8253 Effect of Superabsorbent for the Improvement of Car Seat's Thermal Comfort

Authors: Funda Buyuk Mazari, Adnan Mazari, Antonin Havelka, Jakub Wiener, Jawad Naeem

Abstract:

The use of super absorbent polymers (SAP) for moisture absorption and comfort is still unexplored. In this research the efficiency of different SAP fibrous webs are determined under different moisture percentage to examine the sorption and desorption efficiency. The SAP fibrous web with low thickness and high moisture absorption are tested with multilayer sandwich structure of car seat cover to determine the moisture absorption through cover material. Sweating guarded hot plate (SGHP) from company Atlas is used to determine the moisture permeability of different car seat cover with superabsorbent layer closed with impermeable polyurethane foam. It is observed that the SAP fibrous layers are very effective in absorbing and desorbing water vapor under extreme high and low moisture percentages respectively. In extreme humid condition (95 %RH) the 20g of SAP layer absorbs nearly 3g of water vapor per hour and reaches the maximum absorption capacity in 6 hours.

Keywords: car seat, comfort, SAF, superabsorbent

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
8252 Evaluation of the Efficacy of Surface Hydrophobisation and Properties of Composite Based on Lime Binder with Flax Fillers

Authors: Stanisław Fic, Danuta Barnat-Hunek, Przemysław Brzyski

Abstract:

The aim of the study was to evaluate the possibility of applying modified lime binder together with natural flax fibers and straw to the production of wall blocks to the usage in energy-efficient construction industry and the development of proposals for technological solutions. The following laboratory tests were performed: the analysis of the physical characteristics of the tested materials (bulk density, total porosity, and thermal conductivity), compressive strength, a water droplet absorption test, water absorption of samples, diffusion of water vapor, and analysis of the structure by using SEM. In addition, the process of surface hydrophobisation was analyzed. In the paper, there was examined the effectiveness of two formulations differing in the degree of hydrolytic polycondensation, viscosity and concentration, as these are the factors that determine the final impregnation effect. Four composites, differing in composition, were executed. Composites, as a result of the presence of flax straw and fibers showed low bulk density in the range from 0.44 to 1.29 kg/m3 and thermal conductivity between 0.13 W/mK and 0.22 W/mK. Compressive strength changed in the range from 0,45 MPa to 0,65 MPa. The analysis of results allowed observing the relationship between the formulas and the physical properties of the composites. The results of the effectiveness of hydrophobisation of composites after 2 days showed a decrease in water absorption. Depending on the formulation, after 2 days, the water absorption ratio WH of composites was from 15 to 92% (effectiveness of hydrophobization was suitably from 8 to 85%). In practice, preparations based on organic solvents often cause sealing of surface, hindering the diffusion of water vapor from materials but studies have shown good water vapor permeability by the hydrophobic silicone coating. The conducted pilot study demonstrated the possibility of applying flax composites. The article shows that the reduction of CO2 which is produced in the building process can be affected by using natural materials for the building components whose quality is not inferior as compared to the materials which are commonly used.

Keywords: ecological construction, flax fibers, hydrophobisation, lime

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
8251 A Simulation Model and Parametric Study of Triple-Effect Desalination Plant

Authors: Maha BenHamad, Ali Snoussi, Ammar Ben Brahim

Abstract:

A steady-state analysis of triple-effect thermal vapor compressor desalination unit was performed. A mathematical model based on mass, salinity and energy balances is developed. The purpose of this paper is to develop a connection between process simulator and process optimizer in order to study the influence of several operating variables on the performance and the produced water cost of the unit. A MATLAB program is used to solve the model equations, and Aspen HYSYS is used to model the plant. The model validity is examined against a commercial plant and showed a good agreement between industrial data and simulations results. Results show that the pressures of the last effect and the compressed vapor have an important influence on the produced cost, and the increase of the difference temperature in the condenser decreases the specific heat area about 22%.

Keywords: steady-state, triple effect, thermal vapor compressor, Matlab, Aspen Hysys

Procedia PDF Downloads 54