Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 214

Search results for: Tau Chuan Ling

214 The Nursing Experience for an Intestinal Perforation Elderly with a Temporary Enterostomy

Authors: Hsiu-Chuan Hsueh, Kuei-Feng Shen Jr., Chia-Ling Chao, Hui-Chuan Pan

Abstract:

This article described a 75 years old woman who has suffered from intestinal perforation and accepted surgery with temporary enterostomy, the operation makes her depressed, refused relatives and friend's care, facing low willingness to participate in various activities due to fear of changing body appearance caused by surgery and leave enterostomy. The author collected information through observation talks, physical evaluation, and medical records during the period of care from November 14 to November 30, 2016, we used the four aspects of physiology, psychology, society and spirituality as a whole sexual assessment to establish the nursing problems of patient, included of acute pain, disturbance of body image,coping ineffective individual. For patient care issues, to encouraged case to express their inner feelings and take part in self-care programs through providing good therapeutic interpersonal relationships with their families. However, it provided clear information about the disease and follow-up treatment plan, give compliments in a timely manner, enhanced self-confidence of individual cases and their motivation to participate in self-care of stoma, further face the disease in a positive manner. At the same time, cross-section team care model and individual care measures were developed to enhance the care skills after returning home and at the same time assist the individual in facing the psychological impact caused by stoma. Hope to provide this experience, as a reference for the future care of the disease.

Keywords: enterostomy, intestinal perforation, nursing experience, ostomy

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213 Kinematical Analysis of Tai Chi Chuan Players during Gait and Balance Test and Implication in Rehabilitation Exercise

Authors: Bijad Alqahtani, Graham Arnold, Weijie Wang

Abstract:

Background—Tai Chi Chuan (TCC) is a type of traditional Chinese martial art and is considered a benefiting physical fitness. Advanced techniques of motion analysis have been routinely used in the clinical assessment. However, so far, little research has been done on the biomechanical assessment of TCC players in terms of gait and balance using motion analysis. Objectives—The aim of this study was to investigate whether TCC improves the lower limb conditions and balance ability using the state of the art motion analysis technologies, i.e. motion capture system, electromyography and force platform. Methods—Twenty TCC (9 male, 11 female) with age between (42-77) years old and weight (56.2-119 Kg), and eighteen Non-TCC participants (7 male, 11 female), weight (50-110 Kg) with age (43- 78) years old at the matched age as a control group were recruited in this study. Their gait and balance were collected using Vicon Nexus® to obtain the gait parameters, and kinematic parameters of hip, knee, and ankle joints in three planes of both limbs. Participants stood on force platforms to perform a single leg balance test. Then, they were asked to walk along a 10 m walkway at their comfortable speed. Participants performed 5 trials of single-leg balance for the dominant side. Also, the participants performed 3 trials of four square step balance and 10 trials of walking. From the recorded trials, three good ones were analyzed using the Vicon Plug-in-Gait model to obtain gait parameters, e.g. walking speed, cadence, stride length, and joint parameters, e.g. joint angle, force, moments, etc. Result— The temporal-spatial variables of TCC subjects were compared with the Non-TCC subjects, it was found that there was a significant difference (p < 0.05) between the groups. Moreover, it was observed that participants of TCC have significant differences in ankle, hip, and knee joints’ kinematics in the sagittal, coronal, and transverse planes such as ankle angle (19.90±19.54 deg) for TCC while (15.34±6.50 deg) for Non-TCC, and knee angle (14.96±6.40 deg) for TCC while (17.63±5.79 deg) for Non-TCC in the transverse plane. Also, the result showed that there was a significant difference between groups in the single-leg balance test, e.g. maintaining single leg stance time in the TCC participants showed longer duration (20.85±10.53 s) in compared to Non-TCC people group (13.39±8.78 s). While the result showed that there was no significant difference between groups in the four square step balance. Conclusion—Our result showed that there are significant differences between Tai Chi Chuan and Non-Tai Chi Chuan participants in the various aspects of gait analysis and balance test, as a consequence of these findings some of biomechanical parameters such as joints kinematics, gait parameters and single leg stance balance test, the Tai Chi Chuan could improve the lower limb conditions and could reduce a risk of fall for the elderly with ageing.

Keywords: gait analysis, kinematics, single leg stance, Tai Chi Chuan

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212 Effective Solvents for Proteins Recovery from Microalgae

Authors: Win Nee Phong, Tau Chuan Ling, Pau Loke Show

Abstract:

From an industrial perspective, the exploitation of microalgae for protein source is of great economical and commercial interest due to numerous attractive characteristics. Nonetheless, the release of protein from microalgae is limited by the multiple layers of the rigid thick cell wall that generally contain a large proportion of cellulose. Thus an efficient cell disruption process is required to rupture the cell wall. The conventional downstream processing methods which typically involve several unit operational steps such as disruption, isolation, extraction, concentration and purification are energy-intensive and costly. To reduce the overall cost and establish a feasible technology for the success of the large-scale production, microalgal industry today demands a more cost-effective and eco-friendly technique in downstream processing. One of the main challenges to extract the proteins from microalgae is the presence of rigid cell wall. This study aims to provide some guidance on the selection of the efficient solvent to facilitate the proteins released during the cell disruption process. The effects of solvent types such as methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and water in rupturing the microalgae cell wall were studied. It is interesting to know that water is the most effective solvent to recover proteins from microalgae and the cost is cheapest among all other solvents.

Keywords: green, microalgae, protein, solvents

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211 The Mechanism of Parabacteroides goldsteinii on Immune Modulation and Anti-Obsogenicity

Authors: Yu-Ling Tsai, Chih-Jung Chang, Chia-Chen Lu, Eric Wu, Chuan-Sheng Lin, Tzu-Lung Lin, Hsin-Chih Lai

Abstract:

It is urgent that novel anti-obesity measures that are safe, effective and widely available are developed for counteracting the rapidly growing obesity epidemics. In the present study, we show that a probiotic bacterium Parabacteroides goldsteinii screened through culture under the high molecular weight polysaccharides prepared from two iconic medicinal fungi, the Ganoderma lucidum and the Hirsutella sinensis, reduced body weight by ca. 20% in high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. The bacterium also decreased intestinal permeability, metabolic endotoxemia, inflammation and insulin resistance. Notably, oral administration of live, but not high temperature-killed, P. goldsteinii to HFD fed mice considerably reduces weight gain and obesity-associated metabolic disorders. A three months feeding of the mice with P. goldsteinii did not show any aberrant side effects, indicating the safety of this bacterium. Transcriptome analysis indicated that P. goldsteinii enhances immunity in resting dendritic cells, but reduces inflammation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced dendritic cells. On top, Naïve T-cells were skewed towards regulatory T-cells after encountering with dendritic cells (DCs) pretreated with P. goldsteinii. These results indicated P. goldsteinii showed anti-inflammatory effects and can work as a potential probiotic ameliorating obesogenicity and related metabolic syndromes.

Keywords: Parabacteroides goldsteinii, gut microbiome, obesity, immune modulation

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210 Communication Competence or Language Proficiency for Employability: An Investigation on Malaysian Polytechnics ESL Engineering Students

Authors: Chong Ling Ling

Abstract:

In the Malaysian polytechnic, there are concerns about language proficiency, communicative competence, and employability among Malaysian polytechnic ESL engineering students. This study examined the relationships between communicative competence, language proficiency, and employability using descriptive analysis and inferential statistics. Next, Pearson’s Correlation determines the correlation between communication competence, language proficiency, and employability skills of Malaysian Polytechnic ESL engineering students. The total number of participants was 81 final-year engineering students. The findings revealed high positive correlations between the communicative competence -'I can talk with a friend in English.' and employability skill (r = 0.854, p = .031), also, language proficiency -'I can understand the English songs I listen to' and employability skill (r = 0.887, p = .038). The result is consistent with the theories. The result revealed that for the 81 students, communication competence and language proficiency, and employability skills are firmly and significantly correlated. Thus, it concluded that both communicative competence and language proficiency equally essential to ensure a higher employability rate among Malaysian polytechnic ESL engineering students.

Keywords: communicative competence, employability, language proficiency, Malaysian polytechnic

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209 The Planning Strategies of Public Sports Facilities Based on the Field Investigation: Case Study of Songyuan, China

Authors: Li Hua Li, Ling Ling Li

Abstract:

With the National Fitness Program being established as a national strategy by the Chinese government, Chinese old planning strategies of sports facilities which are based on the purpose for hosting high-level sports events have been failed to meet the rapid growth of Chinese residents’ healthy needs. As the most important carrier for promoting the health of citizens in China, public sports facilities may have further conflicts when they are planned without considering the characteristics of the city itself and the fitness needs of the urban residents. With the planning practice in Songyuan in northeastern China, this paper explores the key planning strategies of public sports facilities through the field investigation to obtain the current situation of public sports facilities in Songyuan and the questionnaire to get the date of Songyuan residents’ fitness characteristics and needs. Findings from this investigation suggest that the planning of public sports facilities in Songyuan should first increase the quantities of public sports facilities at the community level, which could match the fitness population and meet the fitness needs in Songyuan. Secondly, the planning should combine with other available resources, such as urban parks, squares and other places where Songyuan residents often choose to do physical activities to enhance the vitality of public sports facilities. Finally, the planning should also link the urban transportation system in Songyuan to improve the accessibility and efficiency of public sports facilities. All these planning strategies could provide essential information for updating the urban and regional design of Songyuan.

Keywords: field investigation, healthy needs, public sports facilities, planning strategies, questionnaire

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208 Measuring Banking Systemic Risk Conditional Value-At-Risk and Conditional Coherent Expected Shortfall in Taiwan Using Vector Quantile GARCH Model

Authors: Ender Su, Kai Wen Wong, I-Ling Ju, Ya-Ling Wang

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In this study, the systemic risk change of Taiwan’s banking sector is analyzed during the financial crisis. The risk expose of each financial institutions to the whole Taiwan banking systemic risk or vice versa under financial distress are measured by conditional Value-at-Risk (CoVaR) and conditional coherent expected shortfall (CoES). The CoVaR and CoES are estimated by using vector quantile autoregression (MVMQ-CaViaR) with the daily stock returns of each banks included domestic and foreign banks in Taiwan. The daily in-sample data covered the period from 05/20/2002 to 07/31/2007 and the out-of-sample period until 12/31/2013 spanning the 2008 U.S. subprime crisis, 2010 Greek debt crisis, and post risk duration. All banks in Taiwan are categorised into several groups according to their size of market capital, leverage and domestic/foreign to find out what the extent of changes of the systemic risk as the risk changes between the individuals in the bank groups and vice versa. The final results can provide a guidance to financial supervisory commission of Taiwan to gauge the downside risk in the system of financial institutions and determine the minimum capital requirement hold by financial institutions due to the sensibility changes in CoVaR and CoES of each banks.

Keywords: bank financial distress, vector quantile autoregression, CoVaR, CoES

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207 Development and Characterization of Controlled Release Photo Cross-Linked Implants for Ocular Delivery of Triamcinolone Acetonide

Authors: Ravi Sheshala, Annie Lee, Ai Lin Ong, Ling Ling Cheu, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Thankur R. R. Singh

Abstract:

The objectives of the present research work were to develop and characterize biodegradable controlled release photo cross-linked implants of Triamcinolone Acetonide (TA) for the treatment of chronic ocular diseases. The photo cross-linked implants were prepared using film casting technique by mixing TA (2.5%) polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA 700), pore formers (mannitol, maltose, and gelatin) and the photoinitiator (Irgacure 2959). The resulting mixture was injected into moulds using 21 G and subjected to photocrosslinking at 365 nm. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that more pores were formed in the films with the increase in the concentration of pore formers from 2%-10%. The maximum force required to break the films containing 2-10% of pore formers were determined in both dry and wet conditions using texture analyzer and found that films in a dry condition required a higher force to break compared to wet condition and blank films. In vitro drug release from photo cross-linked films were determined by incubating samples in 50 ml PBS pH 7.4 at 37 C and the samples were analyzed for drug release by HPLC. The films demonstrated a biphasic release profile i.e. an initial burst release (<20%) on the first day followed by a constant and continuous drug release in a controlled manner for 42 days. The drug release from all formulations followed the first-order release pattern and the combination of diffusion and erosion release mechanism. In conclusion, the developed formulations were able to provide controlled drug delivery to treat the chronic ocular diseases.

Keywords: controlled release, ophthalmic, PEGDA, photocrosslinking, pore formers

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206 Effect of Tai-Chi and Cyclic Meditation on Hemodynamic Responses of the Prefrontal Cortex: A Functional near Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Singh Deepeshwar, N. K. Manjunath, M. Avinash

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Meditation is a self-regulated conscious process associated with improved awareness, perception, attention and overall performance. Different traditional origin of meditation technique may have different effects on autonomic activity and brain functions. Based on this quest, the present study evaluated the effect of Tai-Chi Chuan (TCC, a Chines movement based meditation technique) and Cyclic Meditation (CM, an Indian traditional based stimulation and relaxation meditation technique) on the hemodynamic responses of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and autonomic functions (such as R-R interval of heart rate variability and respiration). These two meditation practices were compared with simple walking. Employing 64 channel near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), we measured hemoglobin concentration change (i.e., Oxyhemoglobin [ΔHbO], Deoxyhemoglobin [ΔHbR] and Total hemoglobin change [ΔTHC]) in the bilateral PFC before and after TCC, CM and Walking in young college students (n=25; average mean age ± SD; 23.4 ± 3.1 years). We observed the left PFC activity predominantly modulates sympathetic activity effects during the Tai-Chi whereas CM showed changes on right PFC with vagal dominance. However, the changes in oxyhemoglobin and total blood volume change after Tai-Chi was significant higher (p < 0.05, spam t-maps) on the left hemisphere, whereas after CM, there was a significant increase in oxyhemoglobin (p < 0.01) with a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (p < 0.05) on right PFC. The normal walking showed decrease in Oxyhemoglobin with an increase in deoxyhemoglobin on left PFC. The autonomic functions result showed a significant increase in RR- interval (p < 0.05) along with significant reductions in HR (p < 0.05) in CM, whereas Tai-chi session showed significant increase in HR (p < 0.05) when compared to walking session. Within a group analysis showed a significant reduction in RR-I and significant increase in HR both in Tai-chi and walking sessions. The CM showed there were a significant improvement in the RR - interval of HRV (p < 0.01) with the reduction of heart rate and breath rate (p < 0.05). The result suggested that Tai-Chi and CM both have a positive effect on left and right prefrontal cortex and increase sympathovagal balance (alertful rest) in autonomic nervous system activity.

Keywords: brain, hemodynamic responses, yoga, meditation, Tai-Chi Chuan (TCC), walking, heart rate variability (HRV)

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205 Synergistic Cytotoxicity of Cisplatin and Taxol in Overcoming Taxol Resistance through the Inhibition of LDHA in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

Authors: Lin Feng, Ling-Ling E., Hong-Chen Liu

Abstract:

The development of chemoresistance in patients represents a major challenge in cancer treatment. Lactate dehydrogenase‑A (LDHA) is one of the principle isoforms of LDH that is expressed in breast tissue, controlling the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and also playing a significant role in the metabolism of glucose. The aim of this study was to identify whether LDHA was involved in oral cancer cell resistance to Taxol and whether the downregulation of LDHA, as a result of cisplatin treatment, may overcome Taxol resistance in human oral squamous cells. The OECM‑1 oral epidermal carcinoma cell line was used, which has been widely used as a model of oral cancer in previous studies. The role of LDHA in Taxol and cisplatin resistance was investigated and the synergistic cytotoxicity of cisplatin and/or Taxol in oral squamous cells was analyzed. Cell viability was analyzed by MTT assay, LDHA expression was analyzed by western blot analysis and siRNA transfection was performed to knock down LDHA expression. The present study results showed that decreased levels of LDHA were responsible for the resistance of oral cancer cells to cisplatin (CDDP). CDDP treatments downregulated LDHA expression and lower levels of LDHA were detected in the CDDP‑resistant oral cancer cells compared with the CDDP‑sensitive cells. By contrast, the Taxol‑resistant cancer cells showed elevated LDHA expression levels. In addition, small interfering RNA‑knockdown of LDHA sensitized the cells to Taxol but desensitized them to CDDP treatment while exogenous expression of LDHA sensitized the cells to CDDP, but desensitized them to Taxol. The present study also revealed the synergistic cytotoxicity of CDDP and Taxol for killing oral cancer cells through the inhibition of LDHA. This study highlights LDHA as a novel therapeutic target for overcoming Taxol resistance in oral cancer patients using the combined treatments of Taxol and CDDP.

Keywords: cisplatin, Taxol, carcinoma, oral squamous cells

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204 Can Career Advancement and Job Security Act as Collaterals for Commitment? Evidence from the Hotel Industry of Malaysia

Authors: Aizzat Md. Nasurdin, Noor Hazlina Ahmad, Cheng Ling Tan

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This study aims to examine the role of career advancement and job security as predictors of employee commitment to their organization. Data was collected from 580 frontline employees attached to two departments of 29 luxury hotels in Peninsular Malaysia. Statistical results using Partial Least Squares technique provided support for the proposed hypotheses. In view of the findings, theoretical and practical implications are discussed.

Keywords: organizational commitment, career advancement, job security, frontline employees, luxury hotels, Malaysia

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203 Uni-Mode Uniqueness Conditions for Candecomp/Parafac of N-Way Arrays with Linearly Dependent Loadings

Authors: Ling Zhang, Weikai Li

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Recently three sufficient conditions for the three-way Candecomp/Parafac (CP) model which ensure uniqueness in one of the three modes(“uni-mode uniqueness”) are given. In this paper, we generalize these uniqueness conditions to n ≤ 3 and give a sufficient conditions for the n-way Candecomp/Parafac (CP) model, which ensure uniqueness in one of the n modes.

Keywords: uni-mode uniqueness, candecomp/parafac, n-way arrays, decomposition, tensor

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202 Sleep Scheduling Schemes Integrating Relay Node and User Equipment in LTE-A

Authors: Chun-Chuan Yang, Jeng-Yueng Chen, Yi-Ting Mai, Hsieh-Hua Liu

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By introduction of Relay Nodes (RNs), LTE-Advanced can provide enhanced coverage and capacity at cell edges and hot-spot areas. The authors have been researching the issue of power saving in mobile communications technology such as WiMax and LTE for some years. Based on the idea of Load-Based Power Saving (LBPS), three efficient power saving schemes for the user equipment (UE) were proposed in the authors’ previous work. In this paper, three revised schemes of the previous work in order to integrate RN and UE in power saving are proposed. Simulation study shows the proposed schemes can achieve significantly better power saving efficiency than the standard based scheme at the cost of moderately increased delay.

Keywords: DRX, LTE-A, power saving, RN

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201 The Association of Excessive Work Stress with Job Satisfaction and Turnover Intention in Operating Room Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study in a Metropolitan Teaching Hospital in Southern Taiwan

Authors: Chia Yu Chen, Shu Fen Wu, Chen-Fuh Lam, I-Ling Tsai, Shu Jiuan Chen, Yen Ling Liu

Abstract:

Aim: It remains undetermined that whether increased work stress may affect the job satisfaction and career loyalty among nursing staffs in the operating room. The long-term goal of this study is to lengthen the professional life of operating room nurses by attenuating the work stress and enhancing their contentment in work. Method: This was a cross-sectional, descriptive study performed in a metropolitan teaching hospital in the southern Taiwan between May 2017 to July 2017. A structured self-administered questionnaire, modified from the Occupational Stress Indicator-2 (OSI-2) and Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) manual was collected from the operating room nurses. Chi-square test was used to analyze the categorical data and Pearson correlation was used to analyze the association between two numerical datasets (SPSS version 20.0). Results: The response rate was 80% (80/100) and a total of 73 (73%) completed forms were eventually proceeded for analysis. The average scores for work stress and job satisfaction of the operating room nurses were 145.96±32.91 and 47.38±6.07, respectively. The correlation coefficients of work stress versus job satisfaction and organizational identity were (r=-0.338, p=0.003 and r=-0.354, p=0.002), respectively. There were more nurses who took rotating shift quitted works from the operating room than those who took only dayshift (2=5.176, p<0.05). Nurses who reported of having lower job satisfaction were associated with significantly higher turnover intention (t=3.714, p< 0.01). Following multivariate regression analysis, rotating shift and low job satisfaction were identified as the two independent predictors of intention to quit from working in the operating room. Conclusion: Our study clearly demonstrates that increased work stress significantly attenuates job satisfaction and organizational identity. Rotating shift is associated with higher work stress, lower job satisfaction, and higher turnover intention, which is consistent with the previous surveys carried out in the department of medical technology. Therefore, improvement of working quality in the operating rooms is essential to increase the retain intention of the well-trained nursing staffs. Further investigation into types of work shifts and other strategies of attenuating stress in workplace is currently undertaken in order to improve the job satisfaction and to decrease turnover intention in the operating room.

Keywords: rotating shift, work stress, job satisfaction, turnover intention

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200 What are Parents of Teacher Candidates’ Belief Towards Teaching as a Profession?

Authors: Chua Lee Chuan

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This study was conducted to explore parents’ beliefs towards the teaching profession. This survey was conducted on 51 parents of teacher candidates in a teacher training institute. A research instrument, using questionnaires, adapted from FIT-Choice scale developed by Richardson and Watt (2006) was used to collect data from the population. The findings showed that parents, in general, have positive attitudes towards the teaching profession. They perceived teaching as a career highly valued by the society. Though the teaching job was viewed as difficult and requiring high expertise, the salary received commensurate their hard work and heavy workload. In terms of gender, male and female parents did not differ in their beliefs about the teaching profession. However, results indicated that educational attainment and income level had significant effect on parents’ beliefs on teaching as a profession. Implications and recommendations in relation to the findings are also included.

Keywords: beliefs, teaching profession, parents, teacher candidates

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199 New High Order Group Iterative Schemes in the Solution of Poisson Equation

Authors: Sam Teek Ling, Norhashidah Hj. Mohd. Ali

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We investigate the formulation and implementation of new explicit group iterative methods in solving the two-dimensional Poisson equation with Dirichlet boundary conditions. The methods are derived from a fourth order compact nine point finite difference discretization. The methods are compared with the existing second order standard five point formula to show the dramatic improvement in computed accuracy. Numerical experiments are presented to illustrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

Keywords: explicit group iterative method, finite difference, fourth order compact, Poisson equation

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198 The Investigation of Work Stress and Burnout in Nurse Anesthetists: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Yen Ling Liu, Shu-Fen Wu, Chen-Fuh Lam, I-Ling Tsai, Chia-Yu Chen

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Purpose: Nurse anesthetists are confronting extraordinarily high job stress in their daily practice, deriving from the fast-track anesthesia care, risk of perioperative complications, routine rotating shifts, teaching programs and interactions with the surgical team in the operating room. This study investigated the influence of work stress on the burnout and turnover intention of nurse anesthetists in a regional general hospital in Southern Taiwan. Methods: This was a descriptive correlational study carried out in 66 full-time nurse anesthetists. Data was collected from March 2017 to June 2017 by in-person interview, and a self-administered structured questionnaire was completed by the interviewee. Outcome measurements included the Practice Environment Scale of the Nursing Work Index (PES-NWI), Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and nursing staff turnover intention. Numerical data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, independent t test, or one-way ANOVA. Categorical data were compared using the chi-square test (x²). Datasets were computed with Pearson product-moment correlation and linear regression. Data were analyzed by using SPSS 20.0 software. Results: The average score for job burnout was 68.7916.67 (out of 100). The three major components of burnout, including emotional depletion (mean score of 26.32), depersonalization (mean score of 13.65), and personal(mean score of 24.48). These average scores suggested that these nurse anesthetists were at high risk of burnout and inversely correlated with turnover intention (t = -4.048, P < 0.05). Using linear regression model, emotional exhaustion and depersonalization were the two independent factors that predicted turnover intention in the nurse anesthetists (19.1% in total variance). Conclusion/Implications for Practice: The study identifies that the high risk of job burnout in the nurse anesthetists is not simply derived from physical overload, but most likely resulted from the additional emotional and psychological stress. The occurrence of job burnout may affect the quality of nursing work, and also influence family harmony, in turn, may increase the turnover rate. Multimodal approach is warranted to reduce work stress and job burnout in nurse anesthetists to enhance their willingness to contribute in anesthesia care.

Keywords: anesthesia nurses, burnout, job, turnover intention

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197 Amorphous Silicon-Based PINIP Structure for Human-Like Photosensor

Authors: Sheng-Chuan Hsu

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Because the existing structure of ambient light sensor is most silicon photodiode device, it is extremely sensitive in the red and infrared regions. Even though the IR-Cut filter had added, it still cannot completely eliminate the influence of infrared light, and the spectral response of infrared light was stronger than that of the human eyes. Therefore, it is not able to present the vision spectrum of the human eye reacts with the ambient light. Then it needs to consider that the human eye feels the spectra that show significant differences between light and dark place. Consequently, in practical applications, we must create and develop advanced device of human-like photosensor which can solve these problems of ambient light sensor and let cognitive lighting system to provide suitable light to achieve the goals of vision spectrum of human eye and save energy.

Keywords: ambient light sensor, vision spectrum, cognitive lighting system, human eye

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196 Integrated Power Saving for Multiple Relays and UEs in LTE-TDD

Authors: Chun-Chuan Yang, Jeng-Yueng Chen, Yi-Ting Mai, Chen-Ming Yang

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In this paper, the design of integrated sleep scheduling for relay nodes and user equipments under a Donor eNB (DeNB) in the mode of Time Division Duplex (TDD) in LTE-A is presented. The idea of virtual time is proposed to deal with the discontinuous pattern of the available radio resource in TDD, and based on the estimation of the traffic load, three power saving schemes in the top-down strategy are presented. Associated mechanisms in each scheme including calculation of the virtual subframe capacity, the algorithm of integrated sleep scheduling, and the mapping mechanisms for the backhaul link and the access link are presented in the paper. Simulation study shows the advantage of the proposed schemes in energy saving over the standard DRX scheme.

Keywords: LTE-A, relay, TDD, power saving

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195 A 5-V to 30-V Current-Mode Boost Converter with Integrated Current Sensor and Power-on Protection

Authors: Jun Yu, Yat-Hei Lam, Boris Grinberg, Kevin Chai Tshun Chuan

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This paper presents a 5-V to 30-V current-mode boost converter for powering the drive circuit of a micro-electro-mechanical sensor. The design of a transconductance amplifier and an integrated current sensing circuit are presented. In addition, essential building blocks for power-on protection such as a soft-start and clamp block and supply and clock ready block are discussed in details. The chip is fabricated in a 0.18-μm CMOS process. Measurement results show that the soft-start and clamp block can effectively limit the inrush current during startup and protect the boost converter from startup failure.

Keywords: boost converter, current sensing, power-on protection, step-up converter, soft-start

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194 Simulation Data Summarization Based on Spatial Histograms

Authors: Jing Zhao, Yoshiharu Ishikawa, Chuan Xiao, Kento Sugiura

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In order to analyze large-scale scientific data, research on data exploration and visualization has gained popularity. In this paper, we focus on the exploration and visualization of scientific simulation data, and define a spatial V-Optimal histogram for data summarization. We propose histogram construction algorithms based on a general binary hierarchical partitioning as well as a more specific one, the l-grid partitioning. For effective data summarization and efficient data visualization in scientific data analysis, we propose an optimal algorithm as well as a heuristic algorithm for histogram construction. To verify the effectiveness and efficiency of the proposed methods, we conduct experiments on the massive evacuation simulation data.

Keywords: simulation data, data summarization, spatial histograms, exploration, visualization

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193 Oxidation Activity of Platinum-Ruthenium-Tin Ternary Alloy Catalyst on Bio-Alcohol

Authors: An-Ya Lo, Yi-Chen Chung, Yun-Chi Hsu, Chuan-Ming Tseng, Chiu-Yue Lin

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In this study, the ternary alloy catalyst Pt20RuxSny (where 20, x, y represent mass fractions of Pt, Ru, and Sn, respectively) was optimized for the preliminary study of bio-ethanol fuel cells (BAFC). The morphology, microstructure, composition, phase-structures, and electrochemical properties of Pt20RuxSny catalyst were examined by SEM, TEM, EDS-mapping, XRD, and potentiostat. The effect of Sn content on electrochemical active surface (EAS) and oxidation activity were discussed. As a result, the additional Sn greatly improves the efficiency of Pt20RuxSny, either x=0 or 10. Through discussing the difference between ethanol and glycol oxidations, the mechanism of tolerance against poisoning has been proved. Overall speaking, the catalytic activity are in the order of Pt20RuxSny > Pt20Rux > Pt20Sny in both ethanol and glycol systems. Finally, Pt20Ru10Sn15 catalyst was successfully applied to demonstrate the feasibility of using bio-alcohol.

Keywords: Pt-Sn alloy catalyst, Pt-Ru-Sn alloy catalyst, fuel cell, ethanol, ethylene glycol

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192 Effects of Nanoencapsulated Echinacea purpurea Ethanol Extract on the Male Reproductive Function in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats

Authors: Jia-Ling Ho, Xiu-Ru Zhang, Zwe-Ling Kong

Abstract:

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a major health problem that affects patients’ life quality throughout the world due to its many complications. It characterized by chronic hyperglycemia with oxidative stress, which impaired male reproductive function. Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a metabolic regulator that is required for normal spermatogenesis and protects against diabetes-induced germ cell apoptosis. Echinacea purpurea ethanol extract (EE), which contain phenolic acid and isobutylamide, had been proven to have antidiabetic property. Silica-chitosan nanoparticles (Nano-CS) has drug delivery and controlled release properties. This study aims to investigate whether silica-chitosan nanoparticles encapsulated EE (Nano-EE) had more ameliorating male infertility by analyzing the effect of testicular FGF21. The Nano-EE was characterized before used to treatment the diabetic rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were obtained and divided into seven groups. A group was no induced Streptozotocin (STZ), marked as normal group. Diabetic rats were induced into diabetes by STZ (33 mg/kg). A diabetic group was no treatment with sample (diabetic control group), and other groups were treatment by Nano-CS (465 mg/kg), Nano-EE (93, 279, 465 mg/kg), and metformin (Met) (200 mg/kg) used as reference drug for 7 weeks. Our results indicated that the average nanoparticle size and zeta potential of Nano-EE were 2630 nm and -21.3 mV, respectively. The encapsulation ratio of Nano-EE was about 70%. It also confirmed the antioxidative activity was unchanged by comparing the DPPH and ABTS scavenging of Nano-EE and EE. In vivo test, Nano-EE can improve the STZ induced hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and plasma FGF21 levels. Nano-EE has increased sperm motility, mitochondria membrane potential (MMP), plasma testosterone level, and reduction of abnormal sperm, nitric oxide (NO), superoxide production as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS). In addition, in plasma antioxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was increased whereas pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, and IL-1β were decreased. Further, in testis, protein content of FGF21, PGC-1α, and SIRT1 were improved. Nano-EE might improve diabetes-induced down-regulation of testicular FGF21 and SIRT1/PGC-1α signaling hence maintain spermatogenesis.

Keywords: diabetes mellitus, Echinacea purpurea, reproductive dysfunction, silica-chitosan nanoparticles

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191 An Application-Based Indoor Environmental Quality (IEQ) Calculator for Residential Buildings

Authors: Kwok W. Mui, Ling T. Wong, Chin T. Cheung, Ho C. Yu

Abstract:

Based on an indoor environmental quality (IEQ) index established by previous work that indicates the overall IEQ acceptance from the prospect of an occupant in residential buildings in terms of four IEQ factors - thermal comfort, indoor air quality, visual and aural comforts, this study develops a user-friendly IEQ calculator for iOS and Android users to calculate the occupant acceptance and compare the relative performance of IEQ in apartments. The calculator allows the prediction of the best IEQ scenario on a quantitative scale. Any indoor environments under the specific IEQ conditions can be benchmarked against the predicted IEQ acceptance range. This calculator can also suggest how to achieve the best IEQ acceptance among a group of residents.

Keywords: calculator, indoor environmental quality (IEQ), residential buildings, 5-star benchmarks

Procedia PDF Downloads 376
190 Color Image Enhancement Using Multiscale Retinex and Image Fusion Techniques

Authors: Chang-Hsing Lee, Cheng-Chang Lien, Chin-Chuan Han

Abstract:

In this paper, an edge-strength guided multiscale retinex (EGMSR) approach will be proposed for color image contrast enhancement. In EGMSR, the pixel-dependent weight associated with each pixel in the single scale retinex output image is computed according to the edge strength around this pixel in order to prevent from over-enhancing the noises contained in the smooth dark/bright regions. Further, by fusing together the enhanced results of EGMSR and adaptive multiscale retinex (AMSR), we can get a natural fused image having high contrast and proper tonal rendition. Experimental results on several low-contrast images have shown that our proposed approach can produce natural and appealing enhanced images.

Keywords: image enhancement, multiscale retinex, image fusion, EGMSR

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
189 Acrylic Microspheres-Based Microbial Bio-Optode for Nitrite Ion Detection

Authors: Siti Nur Syazni Mohd Zuki, Tan Ling Ling, Nina Suhaity Azmi, Chong Kwok Feng, Lee Yook Heng

Abstract:

Nitrite (NO2-) ion is used prevalently as a preservative in processed meat. Elevated levels of nitrite also found in edible bird’s nests (EBNs). Consumption of NO2- ion at levels above the health-based risk may cause cancer in humans. Spectrophotometric Griess test is the simplest established standard method for NO2- ion detection, however, it requires careful control of pH of each reaction step and susceptible to strong oxidants and dyeing interferences. Other traditional methods rely on the use of laboratory-scale instruments such as GC-MS, HPLC and ion chromatography, which cannot give real-time response. Therefore, it is of significant need for devices capable of measuring nitrite concentration in-situ, rapidly and without reagents, sample pretreatment or extraction step. Herein, we constructed a microspheres-based microbial optode for visual quantitation of NO2- ion. Raoutella planticola, the bacterium expressing NAD(P)H nitrite reductase (NiR) enzyme has been successfully extracted by microbial technique from EBN collected from local birdhouse. The whole cells and the lipophilic Nile Blue chromoionophore were physically absorbed on the photocurable poly(n-butyl acrylate-N-acryloxysuccinimide) [poly (nBA-NAS)] microspheres, whilst the reduced coenzyme NAD(P)H was covalently immobilized on the succinimide-functionalized acrylic microspheres to produce a reagentless biosensing system. Upon the NiR enzyme catalyzes the oxidation of NAD(P)H to NAD(P)+, NO2- ion is reduced to ammonium hydroxide, and that a colour change from blue to pink of the immobilized Nile Blue chromoionophore is perceived as a result of deprotonation reaction increasing the local pH in the microspheres membrane. The microspheres-based optosensor was optimized with a reflectance spectrophotometer at 639 nm and pH 8. The resulting microbial bio-optode membrane could quantify NO2- ion at 0.1 ppm and had a linear response up to 400 ppm. Due to the large surface area to mass ratio of the acrylic microspheres, it allows efficient solid state diffusional mass transfer of the substrate to the bio-recognition phase, and achieve the steady state response as fast as 5 min. The proposed optical microbial biosensor requires no sample pre-treatment step and possesses high stability as the whole cell biocatalyst provides protection to the enzymes from interfering substances, hence it is suitable for measurements in contaminated samples.

Keywords: acrylic microspheres, microbial bio-optode, nitrite ion, reflectometric

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188 Continuous Catalytic Hydrogenation and Purification for Synthesis Non-Phthalate

Authors: Chia-Ling Li

Abstract:

The scope of this article includes the production of 10,000 metric tons of non-phthalate per annum. The production process will include hydrogenation, separation, purification, and recycling of unprocessed feedstock. Based on experimental data, conversion and selectivity were chosen as reaction model parameters. The synthesis and separation processes of non-phthalate and phthalate were established by using Aspen Plus software. The article will be divided into six parts: estimation of physical properties, integration of production processes, purification case study, utility consumption, economic feasibility study and identification of bottlenecks. The purities of products was higher than 99.9 wt. %. Process parameters have important guiding significance to the commercialization of hydrogenation of phthalate.

Keywords: economic analysis, hydrogenation, non-phthalate, process simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 200
187 The Relation between Proactive Coping and Well-Being: An Example of Middle-Aged and Older Learners from Taiwan

Authors: Ya-Hui Lee, Ching-Yi Lu, Hui-Chuan Wei

Abstract:

The purpose of this research was to explore the relation between proactive coping and well-being of middle-aged adults. We conducted survey research that with t-test, one way ANOVA, Pearson correlation and stepwise multiple regression to analyze. This research drew on a sample of 395 participants from the senior learning centers of Taiwan. The results provided the following findings: 1.The participants from different residence areas associated significant difference with proactive coping, but not with well-being. 2. The participants’ perceived of financial level associated significant difference with both proactive coping and well-being. 3. There was significant difference between participants’ income and well-being. 4. The proactive coping was positively correlated with well-being. 5. From stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that two dimensions of proactive coping had positive predictability. Finally, these results of this study can be provided as references for designing older adult educational programs in Taiwan.

Keywords: middle-age and older adults, learners, proactive coping, well-being

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
186 Sliding Mode Position Control for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors Based on Passivity Approach

Authors: Jenn-Yih Chen, Bean-Yin Lee, Yuan-Chuan Hsu, Jui-Cheng Lin, Kuang-Chyi Lee

Abstract:

In this paper, a sliding mode control method based on the passivity approach is proposed to control the position of surface-mounted permanent magnet synchronous motors (PMSMs). Firstly, the dynamics of a PMSM was proved to be strictly passive. The position controller with an adaptive law was used to estimate the load torque to eliminate the chattering effects associated with the conventional sliding mode controller. The stability analysis of the overall position control system was carried out by adopting the passivity theorem instead of Lyapunov-type arguments. Finally, experimental results were provided to show that the good position tracking can be obtained, and exhibit robustness in the variations of the motor parameters and load torque disturbances.

Keywords: adaptive law, passivity theorem, permanent magnet synchronous motor, sliding mode control

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185 Analysis of Scattering Behavior in the Cavity of Phononic Crystals with Archimedean Tilings

Authors: Yi-Hua Chen, Hsiang-Wen Tang, I-Ling Chang, Lien-Wen Chen

Abstract:

The defect mode of two-dimensional phononic crystals with Archimedean tilings was explored in the present study. Finite element method and supercell method were used to obtain dispersion relation of phononic crystals. The simulations of the acoustic wave propagation within phononic crystals are demonstrated. Around the cavity which is created by removing several cylinders in the perfect Archimedean tilings, whispering-gallery mode (WGM) can be observed. The effects of the cavity geometry on the WGM modes are investigated. The WGM modes with high Q-factor and high cavity pressure can be obtained by phononic crystals with Archimedean tilings.

Keywords: defect mode, Archimedean tilings, phononic crystals, whispering-gallery modes

Procedia PDF Downloads 384