Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 10

Search results for: Win Nee Phong

10 Distribution and Taxonomy of Marine Fungi in Nha Trang Bay and Van Phong Bay, Vietnam

Authors: Thu Thuy Pham, Thi Chau Loan Tran, Van Duy Nguyen

Abstract:

Marine fungi play an important role in the marine ecosystems. Marine fungi also supply biomass and metabolic products of industrial value. Currently, the biodiversity of marine fungi along the coastal areas of Vietnam has not yet been studied fully. The objective of this study is to assess the spatial and temporal diversity of planktonic fungi from the coastal waters of Nha Trang Bay and Van Phong Bay in Central Vietnam using culture-dependent and independent approach. Using culture-dependent approach, filamentous fungi and yeasts were isolated on selective media and then classified by phenotype and genotype based on the sequencing of ITS (internal transcribed spacers) regions of rDNA with two primer pairs (ITS1F_KYO2 and ITS4; NS1 and NS8). Using culture-independent approach, environmental DNA samples were isolated and amplified using fungal-specific ITS primer pairs. A total of over 160 strains were isolated from 10 seawater sampling stations at 50 cm depth. They were classified into diverse genera and species of both yeast and mold. At least 5 strains could be potentially novel species. Our results also revealed that planktonic fungi were molecularly diverse with hundreds of phylotypes recovered across these two bays. The results of the study provide data about the distribution and taxonomy of mycoplankton in this area, thereby allowing assessment of their positive role in the biogeochemical cycle of coastal ecosystems and the development of new bioactive compounds for industrial applications.

Keywords: biodiversity, ITS, marine fungi, Nha Trang Bay, Van Phong Bay

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9 Sexual Behaviors and Condom Attitude among Injecting Drug Users in Hai Phong, Vietnam: Qualitative Findings

Authors: Tanvir Ahmed, Thanh N. Long, Phan T. Huong, Donald E. Stewart

Abstract:

This paper presents views on condom use and the contexts of safe and unsafe sexual practices with different sexual partners and their relationships among Injecting Drug Users (IDUs) in Hai Phong, Vietnam. Fifteen IDUs participated and two local interviewers conducted qualitative semi-structured face-to-face interviews in September-October, 2012 in Vietnamese language. Data were analyzed thematically. Non-protective condom attitudes include negotiate or convince Female Sex Workers (FSW); not realizing risk, importance or necessity; partner doesn’t like, and having extra money/drug from clients. On the other hand, self-awareness, family-consciousness, suspicion of STI presence, fear of getting HIV, and client negotiation sometimes resulted in a safe-sex practice. A thematic diagram was developed to present the relationship (strong/weak) between condom attitude and sexual practice (safe/unsafe) by partner types. The experiences and views reflected in the qualitative information emphasize the heightened need for safe-sex education especially among young IDUs (male/female) highlighting sexual transmission risk.

Keywords: AIDS, HIV, injecting drug user, risk behaviors, Vietnam

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8 A Compact Quasi-Zero Stiffness Vibration Isolator Using Flexure-Based Spring Mechanisms Capable of Tunable Stiffness

Authors: Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang

Abstract:

This study presents a quasi-zero stiffness (QZS) vibration isolator using flexure-based spring mechanisms which afford both negative and positive stiffness elements, which enable self-adjustment. The QZS property of the isolator is achieved at the equilibrium position. A nonlinear mathematical model is then developed, based on the pre-compression of the flexure-based spring mechanisms. The dynamics are further analyzed using the Harmonic Balance method. The vibration attention efficiency is illustrated using displacement transmissibility, which is then compared with the corresponding linear isolator. The effects of parameters on performance are also investigated by numerical solutions. The flexure-based spring mechanisms are subsequently designed using the concept of compliant mechanisms, with evaluation by ANSYS software, and simulations of the QZS isolator.

Keywords: vibration isolator, quasi-zero stiffness, flexure-based spring mechanisms, compliant mechanism

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7 A Novel Search Pattern for Motion Estimation in High Efficiency Video Coding

Authors: Phong Nguyen, Phap Nguyen, Thang Nguyen

Abstract:

High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) or H.265 Standard fulfills the demand of high resolution video storage and transmission since it achieves high compression ratio. However, it requires a huge amount of calculation. Since Motion Estimation (ME) block composes about 80 % of calculation load of HEVC, there are a lot of researches to reduce the computation cost. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm to lower the number of Motion Estimation’s searching points. The number of computing points in search pattern is down from 77 for Diamond Pattern and 81 for Square Pattern to only 31. Meanwhile, the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR) and bit rate are almost equal to those of conventional patterns. The motion estimation time of new algorithm reduces by at 68.23%, 65.83%compared to the recommended search pattern of diamond pattern, square pattern, respectively.

Keywords: motion estimation, wide diamond, search pattern, H.265, test zone search, HM software

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6 Design and Analysis of Flexible Slider Crank Mechanism

Authors: Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang

Abstract:

This study presents the optimal design and formulation of a kinematic model of a flexible slider crank mechanism. The objective of the proposed innovative design is to take extra advantage of the compliant mechanism and maximize the fatigue life by applying the Taguchi method. A formulated kinematic model is developed using a Pseudo-Rigid-Body Model (PRBM). By means of mathematic models, the kinematic behaviors of the flexible slider crank mechanism are captured using MATLAB software. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is used to show the stress distribution. The results show that the optimal shape of the flexible hinge includes a force of 8.5N, a width of 9mm and a thickness of 1.1mm. Analysis of variance shows that the thickness of the proposed hinge is the most significant parameter, with an F test of 15.5. Finally, a prototype is manufactured to prepare for testing the kinematic and dynamic behaviors.

Keywords: kinematic behavior, fatigue life, pseudo-rigid-body model, flexible slider crank mechanism

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5 Effective Solvents for Proteins Recovery from Microalgae

Authors: Win Nee Phong, Tau Chuan Ling, Pau Loke Show

Abstract:

From an industrial perspective, the exploitation of microalgae for protein source is of great economical and commercial interest due to numerous attractive characteristics. Nonetheless, the release of protein from microalgae is limited by the multiple layers of the rigid thick cell wall that generally contain a large proportion of cellulose. Thus an efficient cell disruption process is required to rupture the cell wall. The conventional downstream processing methods which typically involve several unit operational steps such as disruption, isolation, extraction, concentration and purification are energy-intensive and costly. To reduce the overall cost and establish a feasible technology for the success of the large-scale production, microalgal industry today demands a more cost-effective and eco-friendly technique in downstream processing. One of the main challenges to extract the proteins from microalgae is the presence of rigid cell wall. This study aims to provide some guidance on the selection of the efficient solvent to facilitate the proteins released during the cell disruption process. The effects of solvent types such as methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol and water in rupturing the microalgae cell wall were studied. It is interesting to know that water is the most effective solvent to recover proteins from microalgae and the cost is cheapest among all other solvents.

Keywords: green, microalgae, protein, solvents

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4 Design and Optimization for a Compliant Gripper with Force Regulation Mechanism

Authors: Nhat Linh Ho, Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang, Hieu Giang Le

Abstract:

This paper presents a design and optimization for a compliant gripper. The gripper is constructed based on the concept of compliant mechanism with flexure hinge. A passive force regulation mechanism is presented to control the grasping force a micro-sized object instead of using a sensor force. The force regulation mechanism is designed using the planar springs. The gripper is expected to obtain a large range of displacement to handle various sized objects. First of all, the statics and dynamics of the gripper are investigated by using the finite element analysis in ANSYS software. And then, the design parameters of the gripper are optimized via Taguchi method. An orthogonal array L9 is used to establish an experimental matrix. Subsequently, the signal to noise ratio is analyzed to find the optimal solution. Finally, the response surface methodology is employed to model the relationship between the design parameters and the output displacement of the gripper. The design of experiment method is then used to analyze the sensitivity so as to determine the effect of each parameter on the displacement. The results showed that the compliant gripper can move with a large displacement of 213.51 mm and the force regulation mechanism is expected to be used for high precision positioning systems.

Keywords: flexure hinge, compliant mechanism, compliant gripper, force regulation mechanism, Taguchi method, response surface methodology, design of experiment

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3 Modeling and Simulation of Pad Surface Topography by Diamond Dressing in Chemical-Mechanical Polishing Process

Authors: A.Chen Chao-Chang, Phong Pham-Quoc

Abstract:

Chemical-mechanical polishing (CMP) process has been widely applied on fabricating integrated circuits (IC) with a soft polishing pad combined with slurry composed of micron or nano-scaled abrasives for generating chemical reaction to remove substrate or film materials from wafer. During CMP process, pad uniformity usually works as a datum surface of wafer planarization and pad asperities can dominate the microscopic pad-slurry-wafer interaction. However, pad topography can be changed by related mechanism factors of CMP and it needs to be re-conditioned or dressed by a diamond dresser of well-distributed diamond grits on a disc surface. It is still very complicated to analyze and understand kinematic of diamond dressing process under the effects of input variables including oscillatory of diamond dresser and rotation speed ratio between the pad and the diamond dresser. This paper has developed a generic geometric model to clarify the kinematic modeling of diamond dressing processes such as dresser/pad motion, pad cutting locus, the relative velocity of the diamond abrasive grits on pad surface, and overlap of cutting for prediction of pad surface topography. Simulation results focus on comparing and analysis kinematics of the diamond dressing on certain CMP tools. Results have shown the significant parameters for diamond dressing process and also discussed. Future study can apply on diamond dresser design and experimental verification of pad dressing process.

Keywords: kinematic modeling, diamond dresser, pad cutting locus, CMP

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2 Payments for Forest Environmental Services: Advantages and Disadvantages in the Different Mechanisms in Vietnam North Central Area

Authors: Huong Nguyen Thi Thanh, Van Mai Thi Khanh

Abstract:

For around the world, payments for environmental services have been implemented since the late 1970s in Europe and North America; then, it was spread to Latin America, Asia, Africa, and finally Oceania in 2008. In Vietnam, payments for environmental services are an interesting issue recently with the forest as the main focus and therefore known as the program on payment for forest environmental services (PFES). PFES was piloted in Lam Dong and Son La in 2008 and has been widely applied in many provinces after 2010. PFES is in the orientation for the socialization of national forest protection in Vietnam and has made great strides in the last decade. By using the primary data and secondary data simultaneously, the paper clarifies two cases of implementing PFES in the Vietnam North Central area with the different mechanisms of payment. In the first case at Phu Loc district (Thua Thien Hue province), PFES is an indirect method by a water supply company via the Forest Protection and Development Fund. In the second one at Phong Nha – Ke Bang National Park (Quang Binh Province), tourism companies are the direct payers to forest owners. The paper describes the PFES implementation process at each site, clarifies the payment mechanism, and models the relationship between stakeholders in PFES implementation. Based on the current status of PFES sites, the paper compares and analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the two payment methods. Finally, the paper proposes recommendations to improve the existing shortcomings in each payment mechanism.

Keywords: advantages and disadvantages, forest environmental services, forest protection, payment mechanism

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1 Transformations of River Zones in Hanoi, Vietnam: Problems of Urban Drainage and Environmental Pollution

Authors: Phong Le Ha

Abstract:

In many cities the entire world, the relationship between cities and rivers is always considered as a fundament of urban history research because of their profound interactions. This kind of relationship makes the river zones become extremely sensitive in many aspects. One of the most important aspect is their roles in the drainage of cities. In this paper we will examine an extraordinary case of Hanoi, the capital of Vietnam and Red river zones. This river has contradictory impacts to this city: It is considered as a source of life of the inhabitants who live along its two banks, however, the risk of inundation caused by the complicated hydrology system of this river is always a real threat to the cities that it flows through. Morphologically, Red river was connected to the inner rivers system that made Hanoi a complete form of a river city. This structure combined with the topography of Hanoi helps this city to assure a stable drainage system in which the river zones in the north of Hanoi play some extreme important roles. Nevertheless, in the late 20 years, Hanoi's strong urbanization and the instability of Red river's complicated hydrology make the very remarkable transformations in the relationship river-city and in the river zones: The connection between the river and the city declines; the system of inner lakes are progressively replaced by habitat land; in the river zones, the infrastructure system can't adapt to the transformations of the new quarters which have the origin of the agricultural villages. These changes bring out many chances for the urban development, but also many risks and problems, particularly in the environment and technical sides. Among these, pluvial and used water evacuation is one of the most severe problems. The disappear of inner-city lakes, the high dike and the topographical changes of Hanoi blow up the risk of inundation of this city. In consequences, the riverine zones, particularly in the north of Hanoi, where the two most important water evacuation rivers of Hanoi meet each other, are burdened with the drainage pressure. The unique water treatment plant in this zone seems to be overcharged in receiving each day about 40000m3 of used water (not include pluvial water). This kind of problem leads also to another risk related to the environmental pollution (water pollution and air pollution). So, in order to better understand the situation and to propose the solutions to resolve the problems, an interdisciplinary research covering many different fields such urban planning, architecture, geography, and especially drainage and environment has been carried out. In general, this paper will analyze an important part of the research : the process of urban transformation of Hanoi (changes in urban morphology, infrastructure system, evolution of the dike system, ...) and the hydrological changes of Red river which cause the drainage and environmental problems. The conclusions of these analyses will be the solid base of the following researches focusing on the solutions of a sustainable development.

Keywords: drainage, environment, Hanoi, infrastructure, red rivers, urbanization

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