Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 452

Search results for: pore formers

452 Development and Characterization of Controlled Release Photo Cross-Linked Implants for Ocular Delivery of Triamcinolone Acetonide

Authors: Ravi Sheshala, Annie Lee, Ai Lin Ong, Ling Ling Cheu, Thiagarajan Madheswaran, Thankur R. R. Singh

Abstract:

The objectives of the present research work were to develop and characterize biodegradable controlled release photo cross-linked implants of Triamcinolone Acetonide (TA) for the treatment of chronic ocular diseases. The photo cross-linked implants were prepared using film casting technique by mixing TA (2.5%) polyethylene glycol diacrylate (PEGDA 700), pore formers (mannitol, maltose, and gelatin) and the photoinitiator (Irgacure 2959). The resulting mixture was injected into moulds using 21 G and subjected to photocrosslinking at 365 nm. Scanning electron microscopy results demonstrated that more pores were formed in the films with the increase in the concentration of pore formers from 2%-10%. The maximum force required to break the films containing 2-10% of pore formers were determined in both dry and wet conditions using texture analyzer and found that films in a dry condition required a higher force to break compared to wet condition and blank films. In vitro drug release from photo cross-linked films were determined by incubating samples in 50 ml PBS pH 7.4 at 37 C and the samples were analyzed for drug release by HPLC. The films demonstrated a biphasic release profile i.e. an initial burst release (<20%) on the first day followed by a constant and continuous drug release in a controlled manner for 42 days. The drug release from all formulations followed the first-order release pattern and the combination of diffusion and erosion release mechanism. In conclusion, the developed formulations were able to provide controlled drug delivery to treat the chronic ocular diseases.

Keywords: controlled release, ophthalmic, PEGDA, photocrosslinking, pore formers

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451 The Occurrence of Sporeformers in Processed Milk from Household Refrigerators and The Effect of Heat Treatment on Bacillus Spores Activation

Authors: Sarisha Devnath, Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi

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In recent years milk contamination has become a major problem in households; due to the likely occurrence of bacteria, even after the milk has been processed. One such genus of bacteria causing unwanted growth is Bacillus. This research project looks at the presence of spore formers in processed milk from household refrigerators and the effect of pasteurization and high temperature on Bacillus spores activation. 24 samples each of UHT milk and pasteurised milk from 24 households were sampled for the presence of spore formers. While anaerobic spore formers were not found in any of the samples, the average aerobic spore formers in UHT milk and pasteurized milk however were 5.77 cfu/ml and 5.88 cfu/ml respectively. After sequencing, it was detected that the mixed culture contained Bacillus cereus, for both pasteurised and UHT milk samples. For the activation study, raw milk samples were collected and subjected to four different temperatures; 65˚C, 72˚C, 80˚C, 100˚C respectively. Samples were stored for 7 days at 5˚C and 10˚C and analysed daily. The average aerobic spore formers in raw milk for samples stored at 5˚C range between 4.67-6.00 cfu/ml while it ranges between 4.84-6.00 cfu/ml at 10˚C, signifying that the high temperatures could have resulted in germination of dominant spores. Statistical analysis conducted on these results indicated a significant difference between the numbers of colonies present at the different treatment temperatures the bacterium was exposed to. This work showed that household milk may constitute public health risk furthermore; pasteurization and higher temperatures may not be effective to remove aerobic spore formers because of Bacillus spores activation.

Keywords: sporeformers, bacillus, spores, activation, milk

Procedia PDF Downloads 363
450 Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) Simulations for Studying Flow Behaviors in Dipping Tank in Continuous Latex Gloves Production Lines

Authors: Worrapol Koranuntachai, Tonkid Chantrasmi, Udomkiat Nontakaew

Abstract:

Medical latex gloves are made from the latex compound in production lines. Latex dipping is considered one of the most important processes that directly affect the final product quality. In a continuous production line, a chain conveyor carries the formers through the process and partially submerges them into an open channel flow in a latex dipping tank. In general, the conveyor speed is determined by the desired production capacity, and the latex-dipping tank can then be designed accordingly. It is important to understand the flow behavior in the dipping tank in order to achieve high quality in the process. In this work, Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was used to simulate the flow past an array of formers in a simplified latex dipping process. The computational results showed both the flow structure and the vortex generation between two formers. The maximum shear stress over the surface of the formers was used as the quality metric of the latex-dipping process when adjusting operation parameters.

Keywords: medical latex gloves, latex dipping, dipping tank, computational fluid dynamics

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449 Effects of Pore-Water Pressure on the Motion of Debris Flow

Authors: Meng-Yu Lin, Wan-Ju Lee

Abstract:

Pore-water pressure, which mediates effective stress and shear strength at grain contacts, has a great influence on the motion of debris flow. The factors that control the diffusion of excess pore-water pressure play very important roles in the debris-flow motion. This research investigates these effects by solving the distribution of pore-water pressure numerically in an unsteady, surging motion of debris flow. The governing equations are the depth-averaged equations for the motion of debris-flow surges coupled with the one-dimensional diffusion equation for excess pore-water pressures. The pore-pressure diffusion equation is solved using a Fourier series, which may improve the accuracy of the solution. The motion of debris-flow surge is modelled using a Lagrangian particle method. From the computational results, the effects of pore-pressure diffusivities and the initial excess pore pressure on the formations of debris-flow surges are investigated. Computational results show that the presence of pore water can increase surge velocities and then changes the profiles of depth distribution. Due to the linear distribution of the vertical component of pore-water velocity, pore pressure dissipates rapidly near the bottom and forms a parabolic distribution in the vertical direction. Increases in the diffusivity of pore-water pressure cause the pore pressures decay more rapidly and then decrease the mobility of the surge.

Keywords: debris flow, diffusion, Lagrangian particle method, pore-pressure diffusivity, pore-water pressure

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448 Investigation and Analysis on Pore Pressure Variation by Sonic Impedance under Influence of Compressional, Shear, and Stonely Waves in High Pressure Zones

Authors: Nouri, K., Ghassem Alaskari, M., K., Amiri Hazaveh, A., Nabi Bidhendi, M.

Abstract:

Pore pressure is one on the key Petrophysical parameter in exploration discussion and survey on hydrocarbon reservoir. Determination of pore pressure in various levels of drilling and integrity of drilling mud and high pressure zones in order to restrict blow-out and following damages are significant. The pore pressure is obtained by seismic and well logging data. In this study the pore pressure and over burden pressure through the matrix stress and Tarzaqi equation and other related formulas are calculated. By making a comparison on variation of density log in over normal pressure zones with change of sonic impedance under influence of compressional, shear, and Stonely waves, the correlation level of sonic impedance with density log is studied. The level of correlation and variation trend is recorded in sonic impedance under influence Stonely wave with density log that key factor in recording of over burden pressure and pore pressure in Tarzaqi equation is high. The transition time is in divert relation with porosity and fluid type in the formation and as a consequence to the pore pressure. The density log is a key factor in determination of pore pressure therefore sonic impedance under Stonley wave is denotes well the identification of high pressure besides other used factors.

Keywords: pore pressure, stonely wave, density log, sonic impedance, high pressure zone

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447 Simulation Studies of High-Intensity, Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Induced Dynamic Membrane Electroporation

Authors: Jiahui Song

Abstract:

The application of an electric field can cause poration at cell membranes. This includes the outer plasma membrane, as well as the membranes of intracellular organelles. In order to analyze and predict such electroporation effects, it becomes necessary to first evaluate the electric fields and the transmembrane voltages. This information can then be used to assess changes in the pore formation energy that finally yields the pore distributions and their radii based on the Smolchowski equation. The dynamic pore model can be achieved by including a dynamic aspect and a dependence on the pore population density into the pore formation energy equation. These changes make the pore formation energy E(r) self-adjusting in response to pore formation without causing uncontrolled growth and expansion. By using dynamic membrane tension, membrane electroporation in response to a 180kV/cm trapezoidal pulse with a 10 ns on time and 1.5 ns rise- and fall-times is discussed. Poration is predicted to occur at times beyond the peak at around 9.2 ns. Modeling also yields time-dependent distributions of the membrane pore population after multiple pulses. It shows that the pore distribution shifts to larger values of the radius with multiple pulsing. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are also carried out for a fixed field of 0.5 V/nm to demonstrate nanopore formation from a microscopic point of view. The result shows that the pore is predicted to be about 0.9 nm in diameter and somewhat narrower at the central point.

Keywords: high-intensity, nanosecond, dynamics, electroporation

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446 Reactive Transport Modeling in Carbonate Rocks: A Single Pore Model

Authors: Priyanka Agrawal, Janou Koskamp, Amir Raoof, Mariette Wolthers

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Calcite is the main mineral found in carbonate rocks, which form significant hydrocarbon reservoirs and subsurface repositories for CO2 sequestration. The injected CO2 mixes with the reservoir fluid and disturbs the geochemical equilibrium, triggering calcite dissolution. Different combinations of fluid chemistry and injection rate may therefore result in different evolution of porosity, permeability and dissolution patterns. To model the changes in porosity and permeability Kozeny-Carman equation K∝〖(∅)〗^n is used, where K is permeability and ∅ is porosity. The value of n is mostly based on experimental data or pore network models. In pore network models, this derivation is based on accuracy of relation used for conductivity and pore volume change. In fact, at a single pore scale, this relationship is the result of the pore shape development due to dissolution. We have prepared a new reactive transport model for a single pore which simulates the complex chemical reaction of carbonic-acid induced calcite dissolution and subsequent pore-geometry evolution at a single pore scale. We use COMSOL Multiphysics package 5.3 for the simulation. COMSOL utilizes the arbitary-Lagrangian Eulerian (ALE) method for the free-moving domain boundary. We examined the effect of flow rate on the evolution of single pore shape profiles due to calcite dissolution. We used three flow rates to cover diffusion dominated and advection-dominated transport regimes. The fluid in diffusion dominated flow (Pe number 0.037 and 0.37) becomes less reactive along the pore length and thus produced non-uniform pore shapes. However, for the advection-dominated flow (Pe number 3.75), the fast velocity of the fluid keeps the fluid relatively more reactive towards the end of the pore length, thus yielding uniform pore shape. Different pore shapes in terms of inlet opening vs overall pore opening will have an impact on the relation between changing volumes and conductivity. We have related the shape of pore with the Pe number which controls the transport regimes. For every Pe number, we have derived the relation between conductivity and porosity. These relations will be used in the pore network model to get the porosity and permeability variation.

Keywords: single pore, reactive transport, calcite system, moving boundary

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445 Comparison of Accumulated Stress Based Pore Pressure Model and Plasticity Model in 1D Site Response Analysis

Authors: Saeedullah J. Mandokhail, Shamsher Sadiq, Meer H. Khan

Abstract:

This paper presents the comparison of excess pore water pressure ratio (ru) predicted by using accumulated stress based pore pressure model and plasticity model. One dimensional effective stress site response analyses were performed on a 30 m deep sand column (consists of a liquefiable layer in between non-liquefiable layers) using accumulated stress based pore pressure model in Deepsoil and PDMY2 (PressureDependentMultiYield02) model in Opensees. Three Input motions with different peak ground acceleration (PGA) levels of 0.357 g, 0.124 g, and 0.11 g were used in this study. The developed excess pore pressure ratio predicted by the above two models were compared and analyzed along the depth. The time history of the ru at mid of the liquefiable layer and non-liquefiable layer were also compared. The comparisons show that the two models predict mostly similar ru values. The predicted ru is also consistent with the PGA level of the input motions.

Keywords: effective stress, excess pore pressure ratio, pore pressure model, site response analysis

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444 CPT Pore Water Pressure Correlations with PDA to Identify Pile Drivability Problem

Authors: Fauzi Jarushi, Paul Cosentino, Edward Kalajian, Hadeel Dekhn

Abstract:

At certain depths during large diameter displacement pile driving, rebound well over 0.25 inches was experienced, followed by a small permanent set during each hammer blow. High pile rebound (HPR) soils may stop the pile driving and results in a limited pile capacity. In some cases, rebound leads to pile damage, delaying the construction project, and the requiring foundations redesign. HPR was evaluated at seven Florida sites, during driving of square precast, prestressed concrete piles driven into saturated, fine silty to clayey sands and sandy clays. Pile Driving Analyzer (PDA) deflection versus time data recorded during installation, was used to develop correlations between cone penetrometer (CPT) pore-water pressures, pile displacements and rebound. At five sites where piles experienced excessive HPR with minimal set, the pore pressure yielded very high positive values of greater than 20 tsf. However, at the site where the pile rebounded, followed by an acceptable permanent set, the measured pore pressure ranged between 5 and 20 tsf. The pore pressure exhibited values of less than 5 tsf at the site where no rebound was noticed. In summary, direct correlations between CPTu pore pressure and rebound were produced, allowing identification of soils that produce HPR.

Keywords: CPTU, pore water pressure, pile rebound

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443 Factors Controlling Marine Shale Porosity: A Case Study between Lower Cambrian and Lower Silurian of Upper Yangtze Area, South China

Authors: Xin Li, Zhenxue Jiang, Zhuo Li

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Generally, shale gas is trapped within shale systems with low porosity and ultralow permeability as free and adsorbing states. Its production is controlled by properties, in terms of occurrence phases, gas contents, and percolation characteristics. These properties are all influenced by porous features. In this paper, porosity differences of marine shales were explored between Lower Cambrian shale and Lower Silurian shale of Sichuan Basin, South China. Both the two shales were marine shales with abundant oil-prone kerogen and rich siliceous minerals. Whereas Lower Cambrian shale (3.56% Ro) possessed a higher thermal degree than that of Lower Silurian shale (2.31% Ro). Samples were measured by a combination of organic-chemistry geology measurement, organic matter (OM) isolation, X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, and focused ion beam milling and scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM). Lower Cambrian shale presented relatively low pore properties, with averaging 0.008ml/g pore volume (PV), averaging 7.99m²/g pore surface area (PSA) and averaging 5.94nm average pore diameter (APD). Lower Silurian shale showed as relatively high pore properties, with averaging 0.015ml/g PV, averaging 10.53m²/g PSA and averaging 18.60nm APD. Additionally, fractal analysis indicated that the two shales presented discrepant pore morphologies, mainly caused by differences in the combination of pore types between the two shales. More specifically, OM-hosted pores with pin-hole shape and dissolved pores with dead-end openings were the main types in Lower Cambrian shale, while OM-hosted pore with a cellular structure was the main type in Lower Silurian shale. Moreover, porous characteristics of isolated OM suggested that OM of Lower Silurian shale was more capable than that of Lower Cambrian shale in the aspect of pore contribution. PV of isolated OM in Lower Silurian shale was almost 6.6 times higher than that in Lower Cambrian shale, and PSA of isolated OM in Lower Silurian shale was almost 4.3 times higher than that in Lower Cambrian shale. However, no apparent differences existed among samples with various matrix compositions. At late diagenetic or metamorphic epoch, extensive diagenesis overprints the effects of minerals on pore properties and OM plays the dominant role in pore developments. Hence, differences of porous features between the two marine shales highlight the effect of diagenetic degree on OM-hosted pore development. Consequently, distinctive pore characteristics may be caused by the different degrees of diagenetic evolution, even with similar matrix basics.

Keywords: marine shale, lower Cambrian, lower Silurian, om isolation, pore properties, om-hosted pore

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442 Prediction of Excess Pore Pressure Variation of Reinforced Silty Sand by Stone Columns During Liquefaction

Authors: Zeineb Ben Salem, Wissem Frikha, Mounir Bouassida

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Liquefaction has been responsible for tremendous amounts of damage in historical earthquakes around the world. The installation of stone columns is widely adopted to prevent liquefaction. Stone columns provide a drainage path, and due to their high permeability, allow for the quick dissipation of earthquake generated excess pore water pressure. Several excess pore pressure generation models in silty sand have been developed and calibrated based on the results of shaking table and centrifuge tests focusing on the effect of silt content on liquefaction resistance. In this paper, the generation and dissipation of excess pore pressure variation of reinforced silty sand by stone columns during liquefaction are analyzedwith different silt content based on test results. In addition, the installation effect of stone columns is investigated. This effect is described by a decrease in horizontal permeability within a disturbed zone around the column. Obtained results show that reduced soil permeability and a larger disturbed zone around the stone column increases the generation of excess pore pressure during the cyclic loading and decreases the dissipation rate after cyclic loading. On the other hand, beneficial effects of silt content were observed in the form of a decrease in excess pore water pressure.

Keywords: stone column, liquefaction, excess pore pressure, silt content, disturbed zone, reduced permeability

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441 Quantum Sieving for Hydrogen Isotope Separation

Authors: Hyunchul Oh

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One of the challenges in modern separation science and technology is the separation of hydrogen isotopes mixtures since D2 and H2 consist of almost identical size, shape and thermodynamic properties. Recently, quantum sieving of isotopes by confinement in narrow space has been proposed as an alternative technique. Despite many theoretical suggestions, however, it has been difficult to discover a feasible microporous material up to now. Among various porous materials, the novel class of microporous framework materials (COFs, ZIFs and MOFs) is considered as a promising material class for isotope sieving due to ultra-high porosity and uniform pore size which can be tailored. Hence, we investigate experimentally the fundamental correlation between D2/H2 molar ratio and pore size at optimized operating conditions by using different ultramicroporous frameworks. The D2/H2 molar ratio is strongly depending on pore size, pressure and temperature. An experimentally determined optimum pore diameter for quantum sieving lies between 3.0 and 3.4 Å which can be an important guideline for designing and developing feasible microporous frameworks for isotope separation. Afterwards, we report a novel strategy for efficient hydrogen isotope separation at technologically relevant operating pressure through the development of quantum sieving exploited by the pore aperture engineering. The strategy involves installation of flexible components in the pores of the framework to tune the pore surface.

Keywords: gas adsorption, hydrogen isotope, metal organic frameworks(MOFs), quantum sieving

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440 Effect of Prefabricated Vertical Drain System Properties on Embankment Behavior

Authors: Seyed Abolhasan Naeini, Ali Namaei

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This study presents the effect of prefabricated vertical drain system properties on embankment behavior by calculating the settlement, lateral displacement and induced excess pore pressure by numerical method. In order to investigate this behavior, three different prefabricated vertical drains have been simulated under an embankment. The finite element software PLAXIS has been carried out for analyzing the displacements and excess pore pressures. The results showed that the consolidation time and induced excess pore pressure are highly depended to the discharge capacity of the prefabricated vertical drain. The increase in the discharge capacity leads to decrease the consolidation process and the induced excess pore pressure. Moreover, it was seen that the vertical drains spacing does not have any significant effect on the consolidation time. However, the increase in the drains spacing would decrease the system stiffness.

Keywords: vertical drain, prefabricated, consolidation, embankment

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439 Characteristics of Pore Pressure and Effective Stress Changes in Sandstone Reservoir Due to Hydrocarbon Production

Authors: Kurniawan Adha, Wan Ismail Wan Yusoff, Luluan Almanna Lubis

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Preventing hazardous events during oil and gas operation is an important contribution of accurate pore pressure data. The availability of pore pressure data also contribute in reducing the operation cost. Suggested methods in pore pressure estimation were mostly complex by the many assumptions and hypothesis used. Basic properties which may have significant impact on estimation model are somehow being neglected. To date, most of pore pressure determinations are estimated by data model analysis and rarely include laboratory analysis, stratigraphy study or core check measurement. Basically, this study developed a model that might be applied to investigate the changes of pore pressure and effective stress due to hydrocarbon production. In general, this paper focused velocity model effect of pore pressure and effective stress changes due to hydrocarbon production with illustrated by changes in saturation. The core samples from Miri field from Sarawak Malaysia ware used in this study, where the formation consists of sandstone reservoir. The study area is divided into sixteen (16) layers and encompassed six facies (A-F) from the outcrop that is used for stratigraphy sequence model. The experimental work was firstly involving data collection through field study and developing stratigraphy sequence model based on outcrop study. Porosity and permeability measurements were then performed after samples were cut into 1.5 inch diameter core samples. Next, velocity was analyzed using SONIC OYO and AutoLab 500. Three (3) scenarios of saturation were also conducted to exhibit the production history of the samples used. Results from this study show the alterations of velocity for different saturation with different actions of effective stress and pore pressure. It was observed that sample with water saturation has the highest velocity while dry sample has the lowest value. In comparison with oil to samples with oil saturation, water saturated sample still leads with the highest value since water has higher fluid density than oil. Furthermore, water saturated sample exhibits velocity derived parameters, such as poisson’s ratio and P-wave velocity over S-wave velocity (Vp/Vs) The result shows that pore pressure value ware reduced due to the decreasing of fluid content. The decreasing of pore pressure result may soften the elastic mineral frame and have tendency to possess high velocity. The alteration of pore pressure by the changes in fluid content or saturation resulted in alteration of velocity value that has proportionate trend with the effective stress.

Keywords: pore pressure, effective stress, production, miri formation

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438 Finite Difference Method of the Seismic Analysis of Earth Dam

Authors: Alaoua Bouaicha, Fahim Kahlouche, Abdelhamid Benouali

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Many embankment dams have suffered failures during earthquakes due to the increase of pore water pressure under seismic loading. After analyzing of the behavior of embankment dams under severe earthquakes, major advances have been attained in the understanding of the seismic action on dams. The present study concerns numerical analysis of the seismic response of earth dams. The procedure uses a nonlinear stress-strain relation incorporated into the code FLAC2D based on the finite difference method. This analysis provides the variation of the pore water pressure and horizontal displacement.

Keywords: Earthquake, Numerical Analysis, FLAC2D, Displacement, Embankment Dam, Pore Water Pressure

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437 Preparation and Characterization of Newly Developed Trabecular Structures in Titanium Alloy to Optimize Osteointegration

Authors: M. Regis, E. Marin, S. Fusi, M. Pressacco, L. Fedrizzi

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Electron Beam Melting (EBM) process was used to prepare porous scaffolds with controlled porosity to ensure optimal levels of osteointegration for different trabeculae sizes. Morphological characterization by means of SEM analyses was carried out to assess pore dimensions; tensile, compression and adhesion tests have been carried out to determine the mechanical behavior. The results indicate that EBM process allows the creation of regular and repeatable porous scaffolds. Mechanical properties greatly depend on pore dimension and on bulk-pore ratio. Adhesion resistance meets the normative requirements, and the overall performance of the produced structures is compatible with potential orthopaedic applications.

Keywords: additive manufacturing, orthopaedic implants, osteointegration, trabecular structures

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436 Multiscale Analysis of Shale Heterogeneity in Silurian Longmaxi Formation from South China

Authors: Xianglu Tang, Zhenxue Jiang, Zhuo Li

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Characterization of shale multi scale heterogeneity is an important part to evaluate size and space distribution of shale gas reservoirs in sedimentary basins. The origin of shale heterogeneity has always been a hot research topic for it determines shale micro characteristics description and macro quality reservoir prediction. Shale multi scale heterogeneity was discussed based on thin section observation, FIB-SEM, QEMSCAN, TOC, XRD, mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP), and nitrogen adsorption analysis from 30 core samples in Silurian Longmaxi formation. Results show that shale heterogeneity can be characterized by pore structure and mineral composition. The heterogeneity of shale pore is showed by different size pores at nm-μm scale. Macropores (pore diameter > 50 nm) have a large percentage of pore volume than mesopores (pore diameter between 2~ 50 nm) and micropores (pore diameter < 2nm). However, they have a low specific surface area than mesopores and micropores. Fractal dimensions of the pores from nitrogen adsorption data are higher than 2.7, what are higher than 2.8 from MIP data, showing extremely complex pore structure. This complexity in pore structure is mainly due to the organic matter and clay minerals with complex pore network structures, and diagenesis makes it more complicated. The heterogeneity of shale minerals is showed by mineral grains, lamina, and different lithology at nm-km scale under the continuous changing horizon. Through analyzing the change of mineral composition at each scale, random arrangement of mineral equal proportion, seasonal climate changes, large changes of sedimentary environment, and provenance supply are considered to be the main reasons that cause shale minerals heterogeneity from microcosmic to macroscopic. Due to scale effect, the change of shale multi scale heterogeneity is a discontinuous process, and there is a transformation boundary between homogeneous and in homogeneous. Therefore, a shale multi scale heterogeneity changing model is established by defining four types of homogeneous unit at different scales, which can be used to guide the prediction of shale gas distribution from micro scale to macro scale.

Keywords: heterogeneity, homogeneous unit, multiscale, shale

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435 Fluid Catalytic Cracking: Zeolite Catalyzed Chemical Industry Processes

Authors: Mithil Pandey, Ragunathan Bala Subramanian

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One of the major conversion technologies in the oil refinery industry is Fluid catalytic cracking (FCC) which produces the majority of the world’s gasoline. Some useful products are generated from the vacuum gas oil, heavy gas oil and residue feedstocks by the FCC unit in an oil refinery. Moreover, Zeolite catalysts (zeo-catalysts) have found widespread applications and have proved to be substantial and paradigmatic in oil refining and petrochemical processes, such as FCC because of their porous features. Several famous zeo-catalysts have been fabricated and applied in industrial processes as milestones in history, and have brought on huge changes in petrochemicals. So far, more than twenty types of zeolites have been industrially applied, and their versatile porous architectures with their essential features have contributed to affect the catalytic efficiency. This poster depicts the evolution of pore models in zeolite catalysts which are accompanied by an increase in environmental and demands. The crucial roles of modulating pore models are outlined for zeo-catalysts for the enhancement of their catalytic performances in various industrial processes. The development of industrial processes for the FCC process, aromatic conversions and olefin production, makes it obvious that the pore architecture plays a very important role in zeo-catalysis processes. By looking at the different necessities of industrial processes, rational construction of the pore model is critically essential. Besides, the pore structure of the zeolite would have a substantial and direct effect on the utilization efficiency of the zeo-catalyst.

Keywords: catalysts, fluid catalytic cracking, industrial processes, zeolite

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434 Study of the Polymer Elastic Behavior in the Displacement Oil Drops at Pore Scale

Authors: Luis Prada, Jose Gomez, Arlex Chaves, Julio Pedraza

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Polymeric liquids have been used in the oil industry, especially at enhanced oil recovery (EOR). From the rheological point of view, polymers have the particularity of being viscoelastic liquids. One of the most common and useful models to describe that behavior is the Upper Convected Maxwell model (UCM). The main characteristic of the polymer used in EOR process is the increase in viscosity which pushes the oil outside of the reservoir. The elasticity could contribute in the drag of the oil that stays in the reservoir. Studying the elastic effect on the oil drop at the pore scale, bring an explanation if the addition of elastic force could mobilize the oil. This research explores if the contraction and expansion of the polymer in the pore scale may increase the elastic behavior of this kind of fluid. For that reason, this work simplified the pore geometry and build two simple geometries with micrometer lengths. Using source terms with the user define a function this work introduces the UCM model in the ANSYS fluent simulator with the purpose of evaluating the elastic effect of the polymer in a contraction and expansion geometry. Also, using the Eulerian multiphase model, this research considers the possibility that extra elastic force will show a deformation effect on the oil; for that reason, this work considers an oil drop on the upper wall of the geometry. Finally, all the simulations exhibit that at the pore scale conditions exist extra vortices at UCM model but is not possible to deform the oil completely and push it outside of the restrictions, also this research find the conditions for the oil displacement.

Keywords: ANSYS fluent, interfacial fluids mechanics, polymers, pore scale, viscoelasticity

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433 Membrane Spanning DNA Origami Nanopores for Protein Translocation

Authors: Genevieve Pugh, Johnathan Burns, Stefan Howorka

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Single-molecule sensing via protein nanopores has achieved a step-change in portable and label-free DNA sequencing. However, protein pores of both natural or engineered origin are not able to produce the tunable diameters needed for effective protein sensing. Here, we describe a generic strategy to build synthetic DNA nanopores that are wide enough to accommodate folded protein. The pores are composed of interlinked DNA duplexes and carry lipid anchors to achieve the required membrane insertion. Our demonstrator pore has a contiguous cross-sectional channel area of 50 nm2 which is 6-times larger than the largest protein pore. Consequently, transport of folded protein across bilayers is possible. The modular design is amenable for different pore dimensions and can be adapted for protein sensing or to create molecular gates in synthetic biology.

Keywords: biosensing, DNA nanotechnology, DNA origami, nanopore sensing

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432 Preparation of Natural Polymeric Scaffold with Desired Pore Morphology for Stem Cell Differentiation

Authors: Mojdeh Mohseni

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In the context of tissue engineering, the effect of microtopography as afforded by scaffold morphology is an important design parameter. Since the morphology of pores can effect on cell behavior, in this study, porous Chitosan (CHIT) - Gelatin (GEL)- Alginate (ALG) scaffolds with microtubule orientation structure were manufactured by unidirectional freeze-drying method and the effect of pore morphology on differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) was investigated. This study showed that, the provided scaffold with natural polymer had good properties for cell behavior and the pores with highest orientation rate have produced appropriate substrate for the differentiation of stem cells.

Keywords: Chitosan, gelatin, Alginate, pore morphology, stem cell differentiation

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431 The Effect of Supplementary Cementitious Materials on the Quality of Passive Oxide Film Developed on Steel Reinforcement Bars in Simulated Concrete Pore Solution

Authors: M. S. Ashraf, Raja Rizwan Hussain, A. M. Alhozaimy, A. I. Al-Negheimish

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The effect of supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) with concrete pore solution on the protective properties of the oxide films that form on reinforcing steel bars has been experimentally investigated using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel Scan. The tests were conducted on oxide films grown in saturated calcium hydroxide solutions that included different representative amounts of NaOH and KOH which are the compounds commonly observed in ordinary portland cement concrete pore solution. In addition to that, commonly used mineral admixtures (silica fume, natural pozzolan and fly ash) were also added to the simulated concrete pore solution. The results of electrochemical tests show that supplementary cementitious materials do have an effect on the protective properties of the passive oxide film. In particular, silica fume has been shown to have a negative influence on the film quality though it has positive effect on the concrete properties. Fly ash and natural pozzolan increase the protective qualities of the passive film. The research data in this area is very limited in the past and needed further investigation.

Keywords: supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs), passive film, EIS, Tafel scan, rebar, concrete, simulated concrete pore solution (SPS)

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430 Insight into Enhancement of CO2 Capture by Clay Minerals

Authors: Mardin Abdalqadir, Paul Adzakro, Tannaz Pak, Sina Rezaei Gomari

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Climate change and global warming recently became significant concerns due to the massive emissions of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, predominantly CO2 gases. Therefore, it is necessary to find sustainable and inexpensive methods to capture the greenhouse gasses and protect the environment for live species. The application of naturally available and cheap adsorbents of carbon such as clay minerals became a great interest. However, the minerals prone to low storage capacity despite their high affinity to adsorb carbon. This paper aims to explore ways to improve the pore volume and surface area of two selected clay minerals, ‘montmorillonite and kaolinite’ by acid treatment to overcome their low storage capacity. Montmorillonite and kaolinite samples were treated with different sulfuric acid concentrations (0.5, 1.2 and 2.5 M) at 40 °C for 8 hours to achieve the above aim. The grain size distribution and morphology of clay minerals before and after acid treatment were explored with Scanning Electron Microscope to evaluate surface area improvement. The ImageJ software was used to find the porosity and pore volume of treated and untreated clay samples. The structure of the clay minerals was also analyzed using an X-ray Diffraction machine. The results showed that the pore volume and surface area were increased substantially through acid treatment, which speeded up the rate of carbon dioxide adsorption. XRD pattern of kaolinite did not change after sulfuric acid treatment, which indicates that acid treatment would not affect the structure of kaolinite. It was also discovered that kaolinite had a higher pore volume and porosity than montmorillonite before and after acid treatment. For example, the pore volume of untreated kaolinite was equal to 30.498 um3 with a porosity of 23.49%. Raising the concentration of acid from 0.5 M to 2.5 M in 8 hours’ time reaction led to increased pore volume from 30.498 um3 to 34.73 um3. The pore volume of raw montmorillonite was equal to 15.610 um3 with a porosity of 12.7%. When the acid concentration was raised from 0.5 M to 2.5 M for the same reaction time, pore volume also increased from 15.610 um3 to 20.538 um3. However, montmorillonite had a higher specific surface area than kaolinite. This study concludes that clay minerals are inexpensive and available material sources to model the realistic conditions and apply the results of carbon capture to prevent global warming, which is one of the most critical and urgent problems in the world.

Keywords: acid treatment, kaolinite, montmorillonite, pore volume, porosity, surface area

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429 Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies of High-Intensity, Nanosecond Pulsed Electric Fields Induced Membrane Electroporation

Authors: Jiahui Song

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The use of high-intensity, nanosecond electric pulses has been a recent development in biomedical. High-intensity (∼100 kV/cm), nanosecond duration-pulsed electric fields have been shown to induce cellular electroporation. This will lead to an increase in transmembrane conductivity and diffusive permeability. These effects will also alter the electrical potential across the membrane. The applications include electrically triggered intracellular calcium release, shrinkage of tumors, and temporary blockage of the action potential in nerves. In this research, the dynamics of pore formation with the presence of an externally applied electric field is studied on the basis of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations using the GROMACS package. MD simulations show pore formation occurs for a pulse with the amplitude of 0.5V/nm at 1ns at temperature 316°K. Also increasing temperatures facilitate pore formation. When the temperature is increased to 323°K, pore forms at 0.75ns with the pulse amplitude of 0.5V/nm. For statistical significance, a total of eight MD simulations are carried out with different starting molecular velocities for each simulation. Also, actual experimental observations are compared against MD simulation results.

Keywords: molecular dynamics, high-intensity, nanosecond, electroporation

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428 Stability Analysis of Slopes during Pile Driving

Authors: Yeganeh Attari, Gudmund Reidar Eiksund, Hans Peter Jostad

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In Geotechnical practice, there is no standard method recognized by the industry to account for the reduction of safety factor of a slope as an effect of soil displacement and pore pressure build-up during pile installation. Pile driving disturbs causes large strains and generates excess pore pressures in a zone that can extend many diameters from the installed pile, resulting in a decrease of the shear strength of the surrounding soil. This phenomenon may cause slope failure. Moreover, dissipation of excess pore pressure set-up may cause weakening of areas outside the volume of soil remoulded during installation. Because of complex interactions between changes in mean stress and shearing, it is challenging to predict installation induced pore pressure response. Furthermore, it is a complex task to follow the rate and path of pore pressure dissipation in order to analyze slope stability. In cohesive soils it is necessary to implement soil models that account for strain softening in the analysis. In the literature, several cases of slope failure due to pile driving activities have been reported, for instance, a landslide in Gothenburg that resulted in a slope failure destroying more than thirty houses and Rigaud landslide in Quebec which resulted in loss of life. Up to now, several methods have been suggested to predict the effect of pile driving on total and effective stress, pore pressure changes and their effect on soil strength. However, this is still not well understood or agreed upon. In Norway, general approaches applied by geotechnical engineers for this problem are based on old empirical methods with little accurate theoretical background. While the limitations of such methods are discussed, this paper attempts to capture the reduction in the factor of safety of a slope during pile driving, using coupled Finite Element analysis and cavity expansion method. This is demonstrated by analyzing a case of slope failure due to pile driving in Norway.

Keywords: cavity expansion method, excess pore pressure, pile driving, slope failure

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427 Effects of Porosity Logs on Pore Connectivity and Volumetric Estimation

Authors: Segun S. Bodunde

Abstract:

In Bona Field, Niger Delta, two reservoirs across three wells were analyzed. The research aimed at determining the statistical dependence of permeability and oil volume in place on porosity logs. Of the three popular porosity logs, two were used; the sonic and density logs. The objectives of the research were to identify the porosity logs that vary more with location and direction, to visualize the depth trend of both logs and to determine the influence of these logs on pore connectivity determination and volumetric analysis. The focus was on density and sonic logs. It was observed that the sonic derived porosities were higher than the density derived porosities (in well two, across the two reservoir sands, sonic porosity averaged 30.8% while density derived porosity averaged 23.65%, and the same trend was observed in other wells.). The sonic logs were further observed to have lower co-efficient of variation when compared to the density logs (in sand A, well 2, sonic derived porosity had a co-efficient of variation of 12.15% compared to 22.52% from the density logs) indicating a lower tendency to vary with location and direction. The bulk density was observed to increase with depth while the transit time reduced with depth. It was also observed that for an 8.87% decrease in porosity, the pore connectivity was observed to decrease by about 38%.

Keywords: pore connectivity, co-efficient of variation, density derived porosity, sonic derived porosity

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426 Vibration Frequencies Analysis of Nanoporous Graphene Membrane

Authors: Haw-Long Lee, Win-Jin Chang, Yu-Ching Yang

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In this study, we use the atomic-scale finite element method to investigate the vibrational behavior of the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene layers with different size under the SFSF and CFFF boundary conditions. The fundamental frequencies computed for the graphene layers without pore are compared with the results of previous studies. We observe very good correspondence of our results with that of the other studies in all the considered cases. For the armchair- and zigzag-structured nanoporous graphene layers under the SFSF and CFFF boundary conditions, the frequencies decrease as the size of the nanopore increase. When the positions of the pore are symmetric with respect to the center of the graphene, the frequency of the zigzag pore graphene is higher than that of the armchair one.

Keywords: atomic-scale finite element method, graphene, nanoporous, natural frequency

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425 Carbamazepine Co-crystal Screening with Dicarboxylic Acids Co-Crystal Formers

Authors: S. Abd Rahim, F. A. Rahman, E. M. Nasir, N. A. Ramle

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Co-crystal is believed to improve the solubility and dissolution rates and thus, enhanced the bioavailability of poor water soluble drugs particularly during the oral route of administration. With the existing of poorly soluble drugs in pharmaceutical industry, the screening of co-crystal formation using carbamazepine (CBZ) as a model drug compound with dicarboxylic acids co-crystal formers (CCF) namely fumaric (FA) and succinic (SA) acids in ethanol has been studied. The co-crystal formations were studied by varying the mol ratio values of CCF to CBZ to access the effect of CCF concentration on the formation of the co-crystal. Solvent evaporation, slurry, and cooling crystallisations which representing the solution based method co-crystal screening were used. The product crystal from the screening was characterized using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD). The XRPD pattern profile analysis has shown that the CBZ co-crystals with FA and SA were successfully formed for all ratios studied. The findings revealed that CBZ-FA co-crystal were formed in two different polymorphs. It was found that CBZ-FA form A and form B were formed from evaporation and slurry crystallisation methods respectively. On the other hand, in cooling crystallisation method, CBZ-FA form A was formed at lower mol ratio of CCF to CBZ and vice versa. This study disclosed that different methods and mol ratios during the co-crystal screening can affect the outcome of co-crystal produced such as polymorphic forms of co-crystal and thereof. Thus, it was suggested that careful attentions is needed during the screening since the co-crystal formation is currently one of the promising approach to be considered in research and development for pharmaceutical industry to improve the poorly soluble drugs.

Keywords: co-crystal, dicarboxylic acid, carbamazepine, industry

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424 Prediction of Formation Pressure Using Artificial Intelligence Techniques

Authors: Abdulmalek Ahmed

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Formation pressure is the main function that affects drilling operation economically and efficiently. Knowing the pore pressure and the parameters that affect it will help to reduce the cost of drilling process. Many empirical models reported in the literature were used to calculate the formation pressure based on different parameters. Some of these models used only drilling parameters to estimate pore pressure. Other models predicted the formation pressure based on log data. All of these models required different trends such as normal or abnormal to predict the pore pressure. Few researchers applied artificial intelligence (AI) techniques to predict the formation pressure by only one method or a maximum of two methods of AI. The objective of this research is to predict the pore pressure based on both drilling parameters and log data namely; weight on bit, rotary speed, rate of penetration, mud weight, bulk density, porosity and delta sonic time. A real field data is used to predict the formation pressure using five different artificial intelligence (AI) methods such as; artificial neural networks (ANN), radial basis function (RBF), fuzzy logic (FL), support vector machine (SVM) and functional networks (FN). All AI tools were compared with different empirical models. AI methods estimated the formation pressure by a high accuracy (high correlation coefficient and low average absolute percentage error) and outperformed all previous. The advantage of the new technique is its simplicity, which represented from its estimation of pore pressure without the need of different trends as compared to other models which require a two different trend (normal or abnormal pressure). Moreover, by comparing the AI tools with each other, the results indicate that SVM has the advantage of pore pressure prediction by its fast processing speed and high performance (a high correlation coefficient of 0.997 and a low average absolute percentage error of 0.14%). In the end, a new empirical correlation for formation pressure was developed using ANN method that can estimate pore pressure with a high precision (correlation coefficient of 0.998 and average absolute percentage error of 0.17%).

Keywords: Artificial Intelligence (AI), Formation pressure, Artificial Neural Networks (ANN), Fuzzy Logic (FL), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Functional Networks (FN), Radial Basis Function (RBF)

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423 Microstructure Study of Melt Spun Mg₆₅Cu₂₅Y₁₀

Authors: Michael Regev, Shai Essel, Alexander Katz-Demyanetz

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Magnesium alloys are characterized by good physical properties: They exhibit high strength, are lightweight and have good damping absorption and good thermal and electrical conductivity. Amorphous magnesium alloys, moreover, exhibit higher strength, hardness and a large elastic domain in addition to having excellent corrosion resistance. These above-mentioned advantages make magnesium based metallic glasses attractive for industrial use. Among the various existing magnesium alloys, Mg₆₅Cu₂₅Y₁₀ alloy is known to be one of the best glass formers. In the current study, Mg₆₅Cu₂₅Y₁₀ ribbons were produced by melt spinning, their microstructure was investigated in its as-cast condition, after pressing under 0.5 GPa for 5 minutes under different temperatures - RT, 500C, 1000C, 1500C and 2000C - and after five minute exposure to the above temperatures without pressing. The microstructure was characterized by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscope (HRSEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). XRD and DSC studies showed that the as-cast material had an amorphous character and that the material crystallized during exposure to temperature with or without applying stress. HRTEM revealed that the as-cast Mg65Cu25Y10, although known to be one of the best glass formers, is nano-crystalline rather than amorphous. The current study casts light on the question what an amorphous alloy is and whether there is any clear borderline between amorphous and nano-crystalline alloys.

Keywords: metallic glass, magnesium, melt spinning, amorphous alloys

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