Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 22

Search results for: Tarun Panwar

22 Sub-Saharan Africa: Role of Global Fashion System in Turbo-Charging Growth of Apparel Industry

Authors: Rajkishore Nayak, Tarun Panwar, Majo George


The study focuses on investigating the factors that influence the growth of fashion and textile manufacturing in the Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries. This paper endeavours to identify, analyse and evaluate the critical factors associated with the growth of fashion and textile manufacturing in SSA countries. This research has done a Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat (SWOT) analysis based on the available literature and the knowledge of authors in garment manufacturing and export. It was found that the SSA countries have shown little growth in fashion and textile manufacturing and export from the starting of the year 2000. Unlike the developing countries such as Vietnam and Bangladesh, the total export to the US, the EU and other parts of the world has declined. On the other hand, the total supply of fashion and textiles to the domestic market has been in rise. However, the local communities still need to rely on other countries to meet their demand. Availability of cheaper imported clothes from other countries such as Bangladesh, China and Vietnam have made it difficult for the local manufacturers to produce at a cheaper price.

Keywords: Sub-Saharan Africa, developing countries, apparel industry, fashion and textile, sustainable fashion

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21 Comparative Analysis of Two Different Ant Colony Optimization Algorithm for Solving Travelling Salesman Problem

Authors: Sourabh Joshi, Tarun Sharma, Anurag Sharma


Ant Colony Optimization is heuristic Algorithm which has been proven a successful technique applied on number of combinatorial optimization problems. Two variants of Ant Colony Optimization algorithm named Ant System and Max-Min Ant System are implemented in MATLAB to solve travelling Salesman Problem and the results are compared. In, this paper both systems are analyzed by solving the some Travelling Salesman Problem and depict which system solve the problem better in term of cost and time.

Keywords: Ant Colony Optimization, Travelling Salesman Problem, Ant System, Max-Min Ant System

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20 Classification of Computer Generated Images from Photographic Images Using Convolutional Neural Networks

Authors: Chaitanya Chawla, Divya Panwar, Gurneesh Singh Anand, M. P. S Bhatia


This paper presents a deep-learning mechanism for classifying computer generated images and photographic images. The proposed method accounts for a convolutional layer capable of automatically learning correlation between neighbouring pixels. In the current form, Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) will learn features based on an image's content instead of the structural features of the image. The layer is particularly designed to subdue an image's content and robustly learn the sensor pattern noise features (usually inherited from image processing in a camera) as well as the statistical properties of images. The paper was assessed on latest natural and computer generated images, and it was concluded that it performs better than the current state of the art methods.

Keywords: image forensics, computer graphics, classification, deep learning, convolutional neural networks

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19 Green Technologies and Sustainability in the Care and Maintenance of Protective Textiles

Authors: R. Nayak, T. Panwar, R. Padhye


Protective textiles get soiled, stained and even worn during their use, which may not be usable after a certain period due to the loss of protective performance. They need regular cleaning and maintenance, which helps to extend the durability of the clothing, retains their useful properties and ensures that fresh clothing is ready to wear when needed. Generally, the cleaning processes used for various protective clothing include dry-cleaning (using solvents) or wet cleaning (using water). These cleaning processes can alter the fabric surface properties, dimensions, and physical, mechanical and performance properties. The technology of laundering and dry-cleaning has undergone several changes. Sustainable methods and products are available for faster, safer and improved cleaning of protective textiles. We performed a comprehensive and systematic review of green technologies and eco-friendly products for sustainable cleaning of protective textiles. Special emphasis is given on the care and maintenance procedures of protective textiles for protection from fire, bullets, chemical and other types of protective clothing.

Keywords: Sustainable cleaning, protective textiles, ecofriendly cleaning, ozone laundering, ultrasonic cleaning

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18 Characteristics of Technology Infrastructure in Small Firms

Authors: Davinder Singh, Jaimal Singh Khamba, Tarun Nanda


Growth of the Indian economy has accelerated to 8% and efforts are on to further propel it to 10%. Undoubtedly, all the segments of the economy, viz. agriculture, industry and services have to improve their contribution to the economy. Growth of Micro-small and medium enterprises (MSMEs) is a sine qua non for the growth of industry, exports and other segments of the economy. Furthermore, promotion of entrepreneurship is also vital for sustenance and upward movement of the current growth trajectory of the economy. The MSME sector acts as a catalyst in upholding and encouraging the creation of the innovative spirit and entrepreneurship in the economy, thereby helping in laying the foundation for rapid industrial development. In this competitive world, they need to be able to confront the increasing competition from developed and emerging economies and to plug into the new market opportunities.

Keywords: characteristics, management, MSMEs, technology infrastructure

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17 Design of Lead-Lag Based Internal Model Controller for Binary Distillation Column

Authors: Rakesh Kumar Mishra, Tarun Kumar Dan


Lead-Lag based Internal Model Control method is proposed based on Internal Model Control (IMC) strategy. In this paper, we have designed the Lead-Lag based Internal Model Control for binary distillation column for SISO process (considering only bottom product). The transfer function has been taken from Wood and Berry model. We have find the composition control and disturbance rejection using Lead-Lag based IMC and comparing with the response of simple Internal Model Controller.

Keywords: SISO, lead-lag, internal model control, wood and berry, distillation column

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16 Stress Concentration around Countersunk Hole in Isotropic Plate under Transverse Loading

Authors: Parveen K. Saini, Tarun Agarwal


An investigation into the effect of countersunk depth, plate thickness, countersunk angle and plate width on the stress concentration around countersunk hole is carried out with the help of finite element analysis. The variation of stress concentration with respect to these parameters is studied for three types of loading viz. uniformly distributed load, uniformly varying load and functionally distributed load. The results of the finite element analysis are interpreted and some conclusions are drawn. The distribution of stress concentration around countersunk hole in isotropic plates simply supported at all the edges is found similar and is independent of loading. The maximum stress concentration also occurs at a particular point irrespective of the loading conditions.

Keywords: stress concentration factor, countersunk hole, finite element, ANSYS

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15 Dielectric, Energy Storage and Impedance Spectroscopic Studies of Tin Doped Ba₀.₉₈Ca₀.₀₂TiO₃ Lead-Free Ceramics

Authors: Ramovatar, Neeraj Panwar


Lead free Ba₀.₉₈Ca₀.₀₂SnxTi₁₋ₓO₃ (x = 0.01 and 0.05 mole %) ferroelectric ceramics have been synthesized by the solid-state reaction method with sintering at 1400 °C for 2 h. The room temperature x-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns identified the tetragonal phase for x = 0.01 composition whereas co-existence of tetragonal and orthorhombic phases for x =0.05 composition. Raman spectroscopy results corroborated with the XRD results at room temperature. The maximum dielectric properties (ɛm ~ 8591, tanδ ~ 0.018) were obtained for the compound with x = 0.01 at 5 kHz. Further, the tetragonal to cubic (TC) transition temperature was observed at 122 °C and 102 °C for the ceramics with x =0.01 and x = 0.05, respectively. The temperature dependent P-E loops also revealed the existence of TC at these particular temperature values. The energy storage density (Ed) of both compounds was calculated from room temperature P – E loops at an applied electric field of 20 kV/cm. The maximum Ed ~ 224 kJ/m³ was achieved for the sample with x = 0.01 as compared to 164 kJ/m³ for the x =0.05 composition. The value of Ed is comparable to other BaTiO₃ based lead free ferroelectric systems. Impedance spectroscopy analysis exhibited the bulk and grain boundary contributions above 300 °C under the frequency range 100 Hz to 1 MHz. The above properties make these ceramics suitable for energy storage devices.

Keywords: dielectric properties, energy storage properties, impedance spectroscopy, lead free ceramics

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14 Role of Nano Gelatin and Hydrogel Based Scaffolds in Odontogenic Differentiation of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells

Authors: Husain S. Yawer, Vasim Raja Panwar, Nidhi Priya


The objective of this study is to evaluate and compare the role of nano-gelatin and Bioengineered Scaffolds on the attachment, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs). Tooth decay and early fall have each been one of the most prevailing dental disorders which cause physical and emotional suffering and compromise the patient's quality of life. The design of novel scaffolding materials will be based on mimicking the architecture of natural dental extracellular matrix which may provide as in vivo environments for proper cell growth. This methodology will involve the combination of nano-fibred gelatin as well as biodegradable hydrogel based tooth scaffold. We have measured and optimized the Dental Pulp Stem Cells growth profile in cultures carried out on collagen-coated plastic surface, however, for tissue regeneration study, we aim to develop an enhanced microenvironment for stem cell growth and dental tissue regeneration. We believe biomimetic cell adhesion and scaffolds might provide a near in vivo growth environment for proper growth and differentiation of human DPSCs, which further help in dentin/pulp tissue regeneration.

Keywords: nano-gelatin, stem cells, dental pulp, scaffold

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13 Optimal Scheduling of Trains in Complex National Scale Railway Networks

Authors: Sanat Ramesh, Tarun Dutt, Abhilasha Aswal, Anushka Chandrababu, G. N. Srinivasa Prasanna


Optimal Schedule Generation for a large national railway network operating thousands of passenger trains with tens of thousands of kilometers of track is a grand computational challenge in itself. We present heuristics based on a Mixed Integer Program (MIP) formulation for local optimization. These methods provide flexibility in scheduling new trains with varying speed and delays and improve utilization of infrastructure. We propose methods that provide a robust solution with hundreds of trains being scheduled over a portion of the railway network without significant increases in delay. We also provide techniques to validate the nominal schedules thus generated over global correlated variations in travel times thereby enabling us to detect conflicts arising due to delays. Our validation results which assume only the support of the arrival and departure time distributions takes an order of few minutes for a portion of the network and is computationally efficient to handle the entire network.

Keywords: mixed integer programming, optimization, railway network, train scheduling

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12 TiO2 Adsorbed on Cement Balls for Effective Photomineralization of Organic Pollutants under UV Light Irradiation

Authors: Tarun Jain, Lovnish Gupta, Soumen Basu


Organic pollutants like phenols and organic dyes present in industrial waste water are posing a hazardous threat to aquatic ecosystem. Several measures have been adopted for the neutralization and photodecomposition of these harmful organic moieties, among these semiconductor photocatalysis has been provided a major thrust after the discovery of Honda-Fujishema effect. Present study demonstrates the adsorption of TiO2- P25 in nano size (~36 nm) on cement balls for effective photodegradation of Alizarin and penta chlorophenol (PCP) under UV light illumination. Triton-X was used as a stabilizer for effective adsorption of TiO2 on cement balls (TCB) followed by calcination at ~300oC for 4 h. The TCB’s were dispersed randomly in a self designed reactor for phototcatalytic performance as shown in scheme 1. The change in concentration of alizarin and PCP was observed under UV-Vis spectroscopy, PCP was detoxified within 40 min while alizarin photodecomposed within 15 min of UV light irradiation. Taking into consideration the go green slogan and future prospective this technique can be also utilized under visible light and on mass scale because this is an effective tool for environmental remediation and waste water treatment.

Keywords: organic pollutants, TiO2 cement balls, photodegradation, UV light irradiation

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11 Feasibility of Simulating External Vehicle Aerodynamics Using Spalart-Allmaras Turbulence Model with Adjoint Method in OpenFOAM and Fluent

Authors: Arpit Panwar, Arvind Deshpande


The study of external vehicle aerodynamics using Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model with adjoint method was conducted. The accessibility and ease of working with the Fluent module of ANSYS and OpenFOAM were considered. The objective of the study was to understand and analyze the possibility of bringing high-level aerodynamic simulation to the average consumer vehicle. A form-factor of BMW M6 vehicle was designed in Solidworks, which was analyzed in OpenFOAM and Fluent. The turbulence model being a single equation provides much faster convergence rate when clubbed with the adjoint method. Fluent being commercial software still does not allow us to solve Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model using the adjoint method. Hence, the turbulence model was solved using the SIMPLE method in Fluent. OpenFOAM being an open source provide flexibility in simulation but is not user-friendly. It supports solving the defined turbulence model with the adjoint method. The result generated from the simulation gives us acceptable values of drag, when validated with the result of percentage error in drag values for a notch-back vehicle model on an extensive simulation produced at 6th ANSA and μETA conference, Greece. The success of this approach will allow us to bring more aerodynamic vehicle body design to all segments of the automobile and not limiting it to just the high-end sports cars.

Keywords: Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model, OpenFOAM, adjoint method, SIMPLE method, vehicle aerodynamic design

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10 Signal Processing of Barkhausen Noise Signal for Assessment of Increasing Down Feed in Surface Ground Components with Poor Micro-Magnetic Response

Authors: Tanmaya Kumar Dash, Tarun Karamshetty, Soumitra Paul


The Barkhausen Noise Analysis (BNA) technique has been utilized to assess surface integrity of steels. But the BNA technique is not very successful in evaluating surface integrity of ground steels that exhibit poor micro-magnetic response. A new approach has been proposed for the processing of BN signal with Fast Fourier transforms while Wavelet transforms has been used to remove noise from the BN signal, with judicious choice of the ‘threshold’ value, when the micro-magnetic response of the work material is poor. In the present study, the effect of down feed induced upon conventional plunge surface grinding of hardened bearing steel has been investigated along with an ultrasonically cleaned, wet polished and a sample ground with spark out technique for benchmarking. Moreover, the FFT analysis has been established, at different sets of applied voltages and applied frequency and the pattern of the BN signal in the frequency domain is analyzed. The study also depicts the wavelet transforms technique with different levels of decomposition and different mother wavelets, which has been used to reduce the noise value in BN signal of materials with poor micro-magnetic response, in order to standardize the procedure for all BN signals depending on the frequency of the applied voltage.

Keywords: barkhausen noise analysis, grinding, magnetic properties, signal processing, micro-magnetic response

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9 Antifeedant Activity of Ageratum conyzoides (L.) (Asteraceae) Extracts against Diamondback Moth Plutella xylostella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae)

Authors: Tarun Kumar Vats, Sanjiv Mullick, Vagisha Rawal, Ashok Kumar Singh


Antifeedant activity of aqueous, methanolic and hexane crude extracts of powdered leaves of Ageratum conyzoides (L.) was evaluated against the last instar larvae of Plutella xylostella (L.), an oligophagous pest of Crucifer crops. Cauliflower leaf discs treated with different concentrations of extracts were provided to last instar larvae in both no-choice and choice bioassays under the standard laboratory conditions. All three extracts showed antifeedant effects in both the test conditions. In no-choice condition, hexane extract was found to significantly reduce the leaf area consumption at all the tested concentrations (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3%, 4% and 5%). Also, aqueous and methanol extracts significantly reduced the leaf area consumption at different concentrations (P<0.05). In choice tests, effect of aqueous extract was significantly higher at 3%, 4% and 5% concentrations as compared to control. However, significant activities of methanol and hexane extracts were recorded even at lowest concentrations of 1% (P < 0.05). Complete feeding inhibition of larvae was observed at 2% concentration of hexane extract. Antifeedant index values (AFI) obtained were found to increase in a dose dependent manner, i.e. higher the concentration, more the activity. The results clearly indicate the potential of A. conyzoides extracts for its use in the integrated management of P. xylostella, which will be ecofriendly and sustainable.

Keywords: ageratum conyzoides, plutella xylostella, crucifer, antifeedant index

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8 Biologically Synthesised Silver Nanoparticles Induces Autophagy and JNK Signaling as a Pro-Survival Response by Abrogating Reactive Oxygen Species Accumulation in Cancer Cells

Authors: Sudeshna Mukherjee, Leena Fageria, R. Venkataramana Dilip, Rajdeep Chowdhury, Jitendra Panwar


Metal nanoparticles in recent years have gained importance in cancer therapy due to their enhanced permeability retention effect. Among various nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have received considerable attention due to their unique properties like conductivity, chemical stability, relative lower toxicity and outstanding therapeutic potential, such as anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anti-cancerous activities. In this study, we took a greener approach to synthesize silver nanoparticle from fungus and analyze its effects on both epithelial and mesenchymal derived cancer cells. Much research has been done on nanoparticle-induced apoptosis, but little is known about its role in autophagy. In our study, the silver nanoparticles were seen to induce autophagy which was analyzed by studying the expression of several autophagy markers like, LC3B-II and ATG genes. Monodansylcadaverine (MDC) assay also revealed the induction of autophagy upon treatment with AgNPs. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine resulted in increased cell death suggesting autophagy as a survival strategy adopted by the cells. In parallel to autophagy induction, silver nanoparticles induced ROS accumulation. Interestingly, autophagy inhibition by chloroquine increased ROS level, resulting in enhanced cell death. We further analyzed MAPK signaling upon AgNP treatment. It was observed that along with autophagy, activation of JNK signaling served as pro-survival while ERK signaling served as a pro-death signal. Our results provide valuable insights into the role of autophagy upon AgNP exposure and provide cues to probabilistic strategies to effectively sensitize cancer cells.

Keywords: autophagy, JNK signalling, reactive oxygen species, silver nanoparticles

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7 Impacts of Aquaculture Farms on the Mangroves Forests of Sundarbans, India (2010-2018): Temporal Changes of NDVI

Authors: Sandeep Thakur, Ismail Mondal, Phani Bhusan Ghosh, Papita Das, Tarun Kumar De


Sundarbans Reserve forest of India has been undergoing major transformations in the recent past owing to population pressure and related changes. This has brought about major changes in the spatial landscape of the region especially in the western parts. This study attempts to assess the impacts of the Landcover changes on the mangrove habitats. Time series imageries of Landsat were used to analyze the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) patterns over the western parts of Indian Sundarbans forest in order to assess the heath of the mangroves in the region. The images were subjected to Land use Land cover (LULC) classification using sub-pixel classification techniques in ERDAS Imagine software and the changes were mapped. The spatial proliferation of aquaculture farms during the study period was also mapped. A multivariate regression analysis was carried out between the obtained NDVI values and the LULC classes. Similarly, the observed meteorological data sets (time series rainfall and minimum and maximum temperature) were also statistically correlated for regression. The study demonstrated the application of NDVI in assessing the environmental status of mangroves as the relationship between the changes in the environmental variables and the remote sensing based indices felicitate an efficient evaluation of environmental variables, which can be used in the coastal zone monitoring and development processes.

Keywords: aquaculture farms, LULC, Mangrove, NDVI

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6 A Low-Power Two-Stage Seismic Sensor Scheme for Earthquake Early Warning System

Authors: Arvind Srivastav, Tarun Kanti Bhattacharyya


The north-eastern, Himalayan, and Eastern Ghats Belt of India comprise of earthquake-prone, remote, and hilly terrains. Earthquakes have caused enormous damages in these regions in the past. A wireless sensor network based earthquake early warning system (EEWS) is being developed to mitigate the damages caused by earthquakes. It consists of sensor nodes, distributed over the region, that perform majority voting of the output of the seismic sensors in the vicinity, and relay a message to a base station to alert the residents when an earthquake is detected. At the heart of the EEWS is a low-power two-stage seismic sensor that continuously tracks seismic events from incoming three-axis accelerometer signal at the first-stage, and, in the presence of a seismic event, triggers the second-stage P-wave detector that detects the onset of P-wave in an earthquake event. The parameters of the P-wave detector have been optimized for minimizing detection time and maximizing the accuracy of detection.Working of the sensor scheme has been verified with seven earthquakes data retrieved from IRIS. In all test cases, the scheme detected the onset of P-wave accurately. Also, it has been established that the P-wave onset detection time reduces linearly with the sampling rate. It has been verified with test data; the detection time for data sampled at 10Hz was around 2 seconds which reduced to 0.3 second for the data sampled at 100Hz.

Keywords: earthquake early warning system, EEWS, STA/LTA, polarization, wavelet, event detector, P-wave detector

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5 Antifeedant Activity of Methanol and Hexane Extracts of Datura Innoxia (Mill.) (Solanaceae) in the Management of Spodoptera Litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Larvae

Authors: Vagisha Rawal, Anupam V. Sharma, Tarun Kumar Vats, Ashok Kumar Singh


The antifeedant activity of methanol and hexane extract of leaves and seeds of Datura innoxia (Mill.) (Solanaceae) was evaluated against the 5th instar Spodoptera litura (F.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae in choice and no-choice leaf disc bioassays under laboratory conditions. These larvae when given a choice between the ‘control’ and ‘treated’ leaf discs in choice bioassays, consumed significantly (p ˂ 0.05) greater area of the ‘control’ leaf discs compared to those treated with the crude extracts of leaves and seeds of D. innoxia. The Antifeedant Index (AFI) for 5% concentration of the hexane extract of Datura seeds (DSHE) was 43.3% and 38.5% for methanol extract of Datura seeds (DSME). On the other hand, these values were 34.1% for the hexane extract of Datura leaves (DLHE), and 31.0% for the methanol extract of Datura leaves (DLME), respectively. In no-choice bioassays also, there was a significant (p˂0.05) reduction in the larval consumption of ‘treated’ leaf discs compared to the ‘control’ leaf discs. Maximum AFI was recorded at 5% concentration of the extracts of both the leaves and seeds with 47.7% for DSHE against 40.0% (DSME) and 39.4% for DLHE compared with 38.4% (DLME). Moreover, DSHE was found to have the maximum antifeedant effect irrespective of its concentration in comparison to the other crude extracts of leaves or seeds of D. innoxia. It is evident from these results that the crude methanol and hexane extracts of leaves and seeds of D. innoxia exhibited potent antifeedant activity against the 5th instar S. litura larvae. Also, the use of the bioactive compound(s) present in these extracts can prove to be an effective, eco-friendly, viable and sustainable component that can be integrated in IPM programs for the management of this economically important polyphagous insect pest in the Indian subcontinent.

Keywords: antifeedant activity, antifeedant index, datura innoxia, spodoptera litura

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4 In vitro Regeneration of Neural Cells Using Human Umbilical Cord Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Urvi Panwar, Kanchan Mishra, Kanjaksha Ghosh, ShankerLal Kothari


Background: Day-by-day the increasing prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases have become a global issue to manage them by medical sciences. The adult neural stem cells are rare and require an invasive and painful procedure to obtain it from central nervous system. Mesenchymal stem cell (MSCs) therapies have shown remarkable application in treatment of various cell injuries and cell loss. MSCs can be derived from various sources like adult tissues, human bone marrow, umbilical cord blood and cord tissue. MSCs have similar proliferation and differentiation capability, but the human umbilical cord-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hUCMSCs) are proved to be more beneficial with respect to cell procurement, differentiation to other cells, preservation, and transplantation. Material and method: Human umbilical cord is easily obtainable and non-controversial comparative to bone marrow and other adult tissues. The umbilical cord can be collected after delivery of baby, and its tissue can be cultured using explant culture method. Cell culture medium such as DMEMF12+10% FBS and DMEMF12+Neural growth factors (bFGF, human noggin, B27) with antibiotics (Streptomycin/Gentamycin) were used to culture and differentiate mesenchymal stem cells into neural cells, respectively. The characterisations of MSCs were done with Flow Cytometer for surface markers CD90, CD73 and CD105 and colony forming unit assay. The differentiated various neural cells will be characterised by fluorescence markers for neurons, astrocytes, and oligodendrocytes; quantitative PCR for genes Nestin and NeuroD1 and Western blotting technique for gap43 protein. Result and discussion: The high quality and number of MSCs were isolated from human umbilical cord via explant culture method. The obtained MSCs were differentiated into neural cells like neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. The differentiated neural cells can be used to treat neural injuries and neural cell loss by delivering cells by non-invasive administration via cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or blood. Moreover, the MSCs can also be directly delivered to different injured sites where they differentiate into neural cells. Therefore, human umbilical cord is demonstrated to be an inexpensive and easily available source for MSCs. Moreover, the hUCMSCs can be a potential source for neural cell therapies and neural cell regeneration for neural cell injuries and neural cell loss. This new way of research will be helpful to treat and manage neural cell damages and neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Still the study has a long way to go but it is a promising approach for many neural disorders for which at present no satisfactory management is available.

Keywords: bone marrow, cell therapy, explant culture method, flow cytometer, human umbilical cord, mesenchymal stem cells, neurodegenerative diseases, neuroprotective, regeneration

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3 Investigation on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism in Candidate Genes and Their Association with Occurrence of Mycobacterium avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis Infection in Cattle

Authors: Ran Vir Singh, Anuj Chauhan, Subhodh Kumar, Rajesh Rathore, Satish Kumar, B Gopi, Sushil Kumar, Tarun Kumar, Ramji Yadav, Donna Phangchopi, Shoor Vir Singh


Paratuberculosis caused by Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is a chronic granulomatous enteritis affecting ruminants. It is responsible for significant economic losses in livestock industry worldwide. This organism is also of public health concern due to an unconfirmed link to Crohn’s disease. Susceptibility to paratuberculosis has been suggested to have genetic component with low to moderate heritability. Number of SNPs in various candidates genes have been observed to be affecting the susceptibility toward paratuberculosis. The objective of this study was to explore the association of various SNPs in the candidate genes and QTL region with MAP. A total of 117 SNPs from SLC11A1, IFNG, CARD15, TLR2, TLR4, CLEC7A, CD209, SP110, ANKARA2, PGLYRP1 and one QTL were selected for study. A total of 1222 cattle from various organized herds, gauhsalas and farmer herds were screened for MAP infection by Johnin intradermal skin test, AGID, serum ELISA, fecal microscopy, fecal culture and IS900 blood PCR. Based on the results of these tests, a case and control population of 200 and 183 respectively was established for study. A total of 117 SNPs from 10 candidate genes and one QTL were selected and validated/tested in our case and control population by PCR-RFLP technique. Data was analyzed using SAS 9.3 software. Statistical analysis revealed that, 107 out of 117 SNPs were not significantly associated with occurrence of MAP. Only SNP rs55617172 of TLR2, rs8193046 and rs8193060 of TLR4, rs110353594 and rs41654445 of CLEC7A, rs208814257of CD209, rs41933863 of ANKRA2, two loci {SLC11A1(53C/G)} and {IFNG (185 G/r) } and SNP rs41945014 in QTL region was significantly associated with MAP. Six SNP from 10 significant SNPs viz., rs110353594 and rs41654445 from CLEC7A, rs8193046 and rs8193060 from TLR4, rs109453173 from SLC11A1 rs208814257 from CD209 were validated in new case and control population. Out of these only one SNP rs8193046 of TLR4 gene was found significantly associated with occurrence of MAP in cattle. ODD ratio indicates that animals with AG genotype were more susceptible to MAP and this finding is in accordance with the earlier report. Hence it reaffirms that AG genotype can serve as a reliable genetic marker for indentifying more susceptible cattle in future selection against MAP infection in cattle.

Keywords: SNP, candidate genes, paratuberculosis, cattle

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2 Mathematical Model to Simulate Liquid Metal and Slag Accumulation, Drainage and Heat Transfer in Blast Furnace Hearth

Authors: Hemant Upadhyay, Tarun Kumar Kundu


It is utmost important for a blast furnace operator to understand the mechanisms governing the liquid flow, accumulation, drainage and heat transfer between various phases in blast furnace hearth for a stable and efficient blast furnace operation. Abnormal drainage behavior may lead to high liquid build up in the hearth. Operational problems such as pressurization, low wind intake, and lower material descent rates, normally be encountered if the liquid levels in the hearth exceed a critical limit when Hearth coke and Deadman start to float. Similarly, hot metal temperature is an important parameter to be controlled in the BF operation; it should be kept at an optimal level to obtain desired product quality and a stable BF performance. It is not possible to carry out any direct measurement of above due to the hostile conditions in the hearth with chemically aggressive hot liquids. The objective here is to develop a mathematical model to simulate the variation in hot metal / slag accumulation and temperature during the tapping of the blast furnace based on the computed drainage rate, production rate, mass balance, heat transfer between metal and slag, metal and solids, slag and solids as well as among the various zones of metal and slag itself. For modeling purpose, the BF hearth is considered as a pressurized vessel, filled with solid coke particles. Liquids trickle down in hearth from top and accumulate in voids between the coke particles which are assumed thermally saturated. A set of generic mass balance equations gives the amount of metal and slag intake in hearth. A small drainage (tap hole) is situated at the bottom of the hearth and flow rate of liquids from tap hole is computed taking in account the amount of both the phases accumulated their level in hearth, pressure from gases in the furnace and erosion behaviors of tap hole itself. Heat transfer equations provide the exchange of heat between various layers of liquid metal and slag, and heat loss to cooling system through refractories. Based on all that information a dynamic simulation is carried out which provides real time information of liquids accumulation in hearth before and during tapping, drainage rate and its variation, predicts critical event timings during tapping and expected tapping temperature of metal and slag on preset time intervals. The model is in use at JSPL, India BF-II and its output is regularly cross-checked with actual tapping data, which are in good agreement.

Keywords: blast furnace, hearth, deadman, hotmetal

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1 Isolation and Probiotic Characterization of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis from Gut Microbiome of Rohu (Labeo rohita)

Authors: Prem Kumar, Anuj Tyagi, Harsh Panwar, Vaneet Inder Kaur


Though aquaculture started as an occupation for poor and weak farmers for livelihood, it has now acquired the shape of one of the biggest industry to grow live protein in the form of aquatic organisms. Industrialization of the aquaculture sector has led to intensification resulting in stress on aquatic organisms and frequent disease outbreaks leading to huge economic impacts. Indiscriminate use of antibiotics as growth promoter and prophylactic agent in aquaculture has resulted in rapid emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance in bacterial pathogens. Over the past few years, use of probiotics (as an alternative of antibiotics) in aquaculture has gained attention due to their immunostimulant and growth promoting properties. It has now well known that after administration, a probiotic bacterium has to compete and establish itself against native microbiota to show its eventual beneficial properties. Due to their non-fish origin, commercial probiotics sometimes may display poor probiotic functionalities and antagonistic effects. Thus, isolation and characterization of probiotic bacteria from same fish host is very much necessary. In this study, attempts were made to isolate potent probiotic lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from intestinal microflora of rohu fish. Twenty-five experimental rohu fishes (mean weight 400 ± 20gm, mean standard length 20 ± 3cm) were used in the study to collect fish gut after dissection in a sterile condition. A total of 150 tentative LAB isolates from selective agar media (de Man-Rogosa-Sharpe (MRS)) were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Aeromonas hydrophila and Microccocus leuteus. A total of 17 isolates, identified as Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis, identified by biochemical tests and PCR amplification and sequencing of 16S rRNA gene fragment, displayed promising antimicrobial activity against both the pathogens. Two isolates from each species (FLB1, FLB2 from L. plantarum; and FLC1, FLC2 from L. lactis) were subjected to downstream probiotic potential characterization. These isolates were compared in vitro for their hemolytic activity, acid and bile tolerance for growth kinetics, auto-aggregation, cell-surface hydrophobicity against xylene, and chloroform, tolerance to phenol, cell adhesion, and safety parameters (by intraperitoneal and intramuscular injections). None of the tested isolates showed any hemolytic activity indicating their potential safety. Moreover, these isolates were tolerant to 0.3% bile (75-82% survival), phenol stress (96-99% survival) with 100% viability at pH 3 over a period of 3 h. Antibiotic sensitivity test revealed that all the tested LAB isolates were resistant to vancomycin, gentamicin, streptomycin, and erythromycin and sensitive to Erythromycin, Chloramphenicol, Ampicillin, Trimethoprim, and Nitrofurantoin. Tetracycline resistance was found in L. plantarum (FLB1 and FLB2 isolates), whereas L. lactis were susceptible to it. Intramuscular and intraperitoneal challenges to fingerlings of rohu fish (5 ± 1gm weight) with FLB1 showed no pathogenicity and occurrence of disease symptoms in fishes over an observation period of 7 days. The results revealed FLB1 as a potential probiotic candidate for aquaculture application among other isolates.

Keywords: aquaculture, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactococcus lactis, probiotics

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