Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 48

Search results for: OpenFOAM

48 An Inviscid Compressible Flow Solver Based on Unstructured OpenFOAM Mesh Format

Authors: Utkan Caliskan

Abstract:

Two types of numerical codes based on finite volume method are developed in order to solve compressible Euler equations to simulate the flow through forward facing step channel. Both algorithms have AUSM+- up (Advection Upstream Splitting Method) scheme for flux splitting and two-stage Runge-Kutta scheme for time stepping. In this study, the flux calculations differentiate between the algorithm based on OpenFOAM mesh format which is called 'face-based' algorithm and the basic algorithm which is called 'element-based' algorithm. The face-based algorithm avoids redundant flux computations and also is more flexible with hybrid grids. Moreover, some of OpenFOAM’s preprocessing utilities can be used on the mesh. Parallelization of the face based algorithm for which atomic operations are needed due to the shared memory model, is also presented. For several mesh sizes, 2.13x speed up is obtained with face-based approach over the element-based approach.

Keywords: cell centered finite volume method, compressible Euler equations, OpenFOAM mesh format, OpenMP

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
47 Numerical Simulation of Plasma Actuator Using OpenFOAM

Authors: H. Yazdani, K. Ghorbanian

Abstract:

This paper deals with modeling and simulation of the plasma actuator with OpenFOAM. Plasma actuator is one of the newest devices in flow control techniques which can delay separation by inducing external momentum to the boundary layer of the flow. The effects of the plasma actuators on the external flow are incorporated into Navier-Stokes computations as a body force vector which is obtained as a product of the net charge density and the electric field. In order to compute this body force vector, the model solves two equations: One for the electric field due to the applied AC voltage at the electrodes and the other for the charge density representing the ionized air. The simulation result is compared to the experimental and typical values which confirms the validity of the modeling.

Keywords: active flow control, flow-field, OpenFOAM, plasma actuator

Procedia PDF Downloads 175
46 Feasibility of Simulating External Vehicle Aerodynamics Using Spalart-Allmaras Turbulence Model with Adjoint Method in OpenFOAM and Fluent

Authors: Arpit Panwar, Arvind Deshpande

Abstract:

The study of external vehicle aerodynamics using Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model with adjoint method was conducted. The accessibility and ease of working with the Fluent module of ANSYS and OpenFOAM were considered. The objective of the study was to understand and analyze the possibility of bringing high-level aerodynamic simulation to the average consumer vehicle. A form-factor of BMW M6 vehicle was designed in Solidworks, which was analyzed in OpenFOAM and Fluent. The turbulence model being a single equation provides much faster convergence rate when clubbed with the adjoint method. Fluent being commercial software still does not allow us to solve Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model using the adjoint method. Hence, the turbulence model was solved using the SIMPLE method in Fluent. OpenFOAM being an open source provide flexibility in simulation but is not user-friendly. It supports solving the defined turbulence model with the adjoint method. The result generated from the simulation gives us acceptable values of drag, when validated with the result of percentage error in drag values for a notch-back vehicle model on an extensive simulation produced at 6th ANSA and μETA conference, Greece. The success of this approach will allow us to bring more aerodynamic vehicle body design to all segments of the automobile and not limiting it to just the high-end sports cars.

Keywords: Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model, OpenFOAM, adjoint method, SIMPLE method, vehicle aerodynamic design

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
45 3D Steady and Transient Centrifugal Pump Flow within Ansys CFX and OpenFOAM

Authors: Clement Leroy, Guillaume Boitel

Abstract:

This paper presents a comparative benchmarking review of a steady and transient three-dimensional (3D) flow computations in centrifugal pump using commercial (AnsysCFX) and open source (OpenFOAM) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) software. In centrifugal rotor-dynamic pump, the fluid enters in the impeller along to the rotating axis to be accelerated in order to increase the pressure, flowing radially outward into another stage, vaned diffuser or volute casing, from where it finally exits into a downstream pipe. Simulations are carried out at the best efficiency point (BEP) and part load, for single-phase flow with several turbulence models. The results are compared with overall performance report from experimental data. The use of CFD technology in industry is still limited by the high computational costs, and even more by the high cost of commercial CFD software and high-performance computing (HPC) licenses. The main objectives of the present study are to define OpenFOAM methodology for high-quality 3D steady and transient turbomachinery CFD simulation to conduct a thorough time-accurate performance analysis. On the other hand a detailed comparisons between computational methods, features on latest Ansys release 18 and OpenFOAM is investigated to assess the accuracy and industrial applications of those solvers. Finally an automated connected workflow (IoT) for turbine blade applications is presented.

Keywords: benchmarking, CFX, internet of things, openFOAM, time-accurate, turbomachinery

Procedia PDF Downloads 109
44 A Numerical Study on the Influence of CO2 Dilution on Combustion Characteristics of a Turbulent Diffusion Flame

Authors: Yasaman Tohidi, Rouzbeh Riazi, Shidvash Vakilipour, Masoud Mohammadi

Abstract:

The objective of the present study is to numerically investigate the effect of CO2 replacement of N2 in air stream on the flame characteristics of the CH4 turbulent diffusion flame. The Open source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM) has been used as the computational tool. In this regard, laminar flamelet and modified k-ε models have been utilized as combustion and turbulence models, respectively. Results reveal that the presence of CO2 in air stream changes the flame shape and maximum flame temperature. Also, CO2 dilution causes an increment in CO mass fraction.

Keywords: CH4 diffusion flame, CO2 dilution, OpenFOAM, turbulent flame

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
43 Numerical Modeling of Large Scale Dam Break Flows

Authors: Amanbek Jainakov, Abdikerim Kurbanaliev

Abstract:

The work presents the results of mathematical modeling of large-scale flows in areas with a complex topographic relief. The Reynolds-averaged Navier—Stokes equations constitute the basis of the three-dimensional unsteady modeling. The well-known Volume of Fluid method implemented in the solver interFoam of the open package OpenFOAM 2.3 is used to track the free-boundary location. The mathematical model adequacy is checked by comparing with experimental data. The efficiency of the applied technology is illustrated by the example of modeling the breakthrough of the dams of the Andijan (Uzbekistan) and Papan (near the Osh town, Kyrgyzstan) reservoir.

Keywords: three-dimensional modeling, free boundary, the volume-of-fluid method, dam break, flood, OpenFOAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 271
42 Computational Fluid Dynamics Simulations and Analysis of Air Bubble Rising in a Column of Liquid

Authors: Baha-Aldeen S. Algmati, Ahmed R. Ballil

Abstract:

Multiphase flows occur widely in many engineering and industrial processes as well as in the environment we live in. In particular, bubbly flows are considered to be crucial phenomena in fluid flow applications and can be studied and analyzed experimentally, analytically, and computationally. In the present paper, the dynamic motion of an air bubble rising within a column of liquid is numerically simulated using an open-source CFD modeling tool 'OpenFOAM'. An interface tracking numerical algorithm called MULES algorithm, which is built-in OpenFOAM, is chosen to solve an appropriate mathematical model based on the volume of fluid (VOF) numerical method. The bubbles initially have a spherical shape and starting from rest in the stagnant column of liquid. The algorithm is initially verified against numerical results and is also validated against available experimental data. The comparison revealed that this algorithm provides results that are in a very good agreement with the 2D numerical data of other CFD codes. Also, the results of the bubble shape and terminal velocity obtained from the 3D numerical simulation showed a very good qualitative and quantitative agreement with the experimental data. The simulated rising bubbles yield a very small percentage of error in the bubble terminal velocity compared with the experimental data. The obtained results prove the capability of OpenFOAM as a powerful tool to predict the behavior of rising characteristics of the spherical bubbles in the stagnant column of liquid. This will pave the way for a deeper understanding of the phenomenon of the rise of bubbles in liquids.

Keywords: CFD simulations, multiphase flows, OpenFOAM, rise of bubble, volume of fluid method, VOF

Procedia PDF Downloads 24
41 Numerical Investigation of Dynamic Stall over a Wind Turbine Pitching Airfoil by Using OpenFOAM

Authors: Mahbod Seyednia, Shidvash Vakilipour, Mehran Masdari

Abstract:

Computations for two-dimensional flow past a stationary and harmonically pitching wind turbine airfoil at a moderate value of Reynolds number (400000) are carried out by progressively increasing the angle of attack for stationary airfoil and at fixed pitching frequencies for rotary one. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations in conjunction with Unsteady Reynolds Average Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations for turbulence modeling are solved by OpenFOAM package to investigate the aerodynamic phenomena occurred at stationary and pitching conditions on a NACA 6-series wind turbine airfoil. The aim of this study is to enhance the accuracy of numerical simulation in predicting the aerodynamic behavior of an oscillating airfoil in OpenFOAM. Hence, for turbulence modelling, k-ω-SST with low-Reynolds correction is employed to capture the unsteady phenomena occurred in stationary and oscillating motion of the airfoil. Using aerodynamic and pressure coefficients along with flow patterns, the unsteady aerodynamics at pre-, near-, and post-static stall regions are analyzed in harmonically pitching airfoil, and the results are validated with the corresponding experimental data possessed by the authors. The results indicate that implementing the mentioned turbulence model leads to accurate prediction of the angle of static stall for stationary airfoil and flow separation, dynamic stall phenomenon, and reattachment of the flow on the surface of airfoil for pitching one. Due to the geometry of the studied 6-series airfoil, the vortex on the upper surface of the airfoil during upstrokes is formed at the trailing edge. Therefore, the pattern flow obtained by our numerical simulations represents the formation and change of the trailing-edge vortex at near- and post-stall regions where this process determines the dynamic stall phenomenon.

Keywords: CFD, moderate Reynolds number, OpenFOAM, pitching oscillation, unsteady aerodynamics, wind turbine

Procedia PDF Downloads 121
40 Heat Transfer Enhancement by Turbulent Impinging Jet with Jet's Velocity Field Excitations Using OpenFOAM

Authors: Naseem Uddin

Abstract:

Impinging jets are used in variety of engineering and industrial applications. This paper is based on numerical simulations of heat transfer by turbulent impinging jet with velocity field excitations using different Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations models. Also Detached Eddy Simulations are conducted to investigate the differences in the prediction capabilities of these two simulation approaches. In this paper the excited jet is simulated in non-commercial CFD code OpenFOAM with the goal to understand the influence of dynamics of impinging jet on heat transfer. The jet’s frequencies are altered keeping in view the preferred mode of the jet. The Reynolds number based on mean velocity and diameter is 23,000 and jet’s outlet-to-target wall distance is 2. It is found that heat transfer at the target wall can be influenced by judicious selection of amplitude and frequencies.

Keywords: excitation, impinging jet, natural frequency, turbulence models

Procedia PDF Downloads 171
39 An Automated Approach to the Nozzle Configuration of Polycrystalline Diamond Compact Drill Bits for Effective Cuttings Removal

Authors: R. Suresh, Pavan Kumar Nimmagadda, Ming Zo Tan, Shane Hart, Sharp Ugwuocha

Abstract:

Polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) drill bits are extensively used in the oil and gas industry as well as the mining industry. Industry engineers continually improve upon PDC drill bit designs and hydraulic conditions. Optimized injection nozzles play a key role in improving the drilling performance and efficiency of these ever changing PDC drill bits. In the first part of this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling is performed to investigate the hydrodynamic characteristics of drilling fluid flow around the PDC drill bit. An Open-source CFD software – OpenFOAM simulates the flow around the drill bit, based on the field input data. A specifically developed console application integrates the entire CFD process including, domain extraction, meshing, and solving governing equations and post-processing. The results from the OpenFOAM solver are then compared with that of the ANSYS Fluent software. The data from both software programs agree. The second part of the paper describes the parametric study of the PDC drill bit nozzle to determine the effect of parameters such as number of nozzles, nozzle velocity, nozzle radial position and orientations on the flow field characteristics and bit washing patterns. After analyzing a series of nozzle configurations, the best configuration is identified and recommendations are made for modifying the PDC bit design.

Keywords: ANSYS Fluent, computational fluid dynamics, nozzle configuration, OpenFOAM, PDC dill bit

Procedia PDF Downloads 238
38 Comparative Mesh Sensitivity Study of Different Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes Turbulence Models in OpenFOAM

Authors: Zhuoneng Li, Zeeshan A. Rana, Karl W. Jenkins

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In industry, to validate a case, often a multitude of simulation are required and in order to demonstrate confidence in the process where users tend to use a coarser mesh. Therefore, it is imperative to establish the coarsest mesh that could be used while keeping reasonable simulation accuracy. To date, the two most reliable, affordable and broadly used advanced simulations are the hybrid RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes)/LES (Large Eddy Simulation) and wall modelled LES. The potentials in these two simulations will still be developed in the next decades mainly because the unaffordable computational cost of a DNS (Direct Numerical Simulation). In the wall modelled LES, the turbulence model is applied as a sub-grid scale model in the most inner layer near the wall. The RANS turbulence models cover the entire boundary layer region in a hybrid RANS/LES (Detached Eddy Simulation) and its variants, therefore, the RANS still has a very important role in the state of art simulations. This research focuses on the turbulence model mesh sensitivity analysis where various turbulence models such as the S-A (Spalart-Allmaras), SSG (Speziale-Sarkar-Gatski), K-Omega transitional SST (Shear Stress Transport), K-kl-Omega, γ-Reθ transitional model, v2f are evaluated within the OpenFOAM. The simulations are conducted on a fully developed turbulent flow over a flat plate where the skin friction coefficient as well as velocity profiles are obtained to compare against experimental values and DNS results. A concrete conclusion is made to clarify the mesh sensitivity for different turbulence models.

Keywords: mesh sensitivity, turbulence models, OpenFOAM, RANS

Procedia PDF Downloads 77
37 Numerical Investigation of Wave Run-Up on Curved Dikes

Authors: Suba Periyal Subramaniam, Babette Scheres, Altomare Corrado, Holger Schuttrumpf

Abstract:

Due to the climatic change and the usage of coastal areas, there is an increasing risk of dike failures along the coast worldwide. Wave run-up plays a key role in planning and design of a coastal structure. The coastal dike lines are bent either due to geological characteristics or due to influence of anthropogenic activities. The effect of the curvature of coastal dikes on wave run-up and overtopping is not yet investigated. The scope of this research is to find the effects of the dike curvature on wave run-up by employing numerical model studies for various dike opening angles. Numerical simulation is carried out using DualSPHysics, a meshless method, and OpenFOAM, a mesh-based method. The numerical results of the wave run-up on a curved dike and the wave transformation process for various opening angles, wave attacks, and wave parameters will be compared and discussed. This research aims to contribute a more precise analysis and understanding the influence of the curvature in the dike line and thus ensuring a higher level of protection in the future development of coastal structures.

Keywords: curved dikes, DualSPHysics, OpenFOAM, wave run-up

Procedia PDF Downloads 48
36 Investigation the Effect of Velocity Inlet and Carrying Fluid on the Flow inside Coronary Artery

Authors: Mohammadreza Nezamirad, Nasim Sabetpour, Azadeh Yazdi, Amirmasoud Hamedi

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In this study OpenFOAM 4.4.2 was used to investigate flow inside the coronary artery of the heart. This step is the first step of our future project, which is to include conjugate heat transfer of the heart with three main coronary arteries. Three different velocities were used as inlet boundary conditions to see the effect of velocity increase on velocity, pressure, and wall shear of the coronary artery. Also, three different fluids, namely the University of Wisconsin solution, gelatin, and blood was used to investigate the effect of different fluids on flow inside the coronary artery. A code based on Reynolds Stress Navier Stokes (RANS) equations was written and implemented with the real boundary condition that was calculated based on MRI images. In order to improve the accuracy of the current numerical scheme, hex dominant mesh is utilized. When the inlet velocity increases to 0.5 m/s, velocity, wall shear stress, and pressure increase at the narrower parts.

Keywords: CFD, simulation, OpenFOAM, heart

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
35 A Numerical Study on the Effects of N2 Dilution on the Flame Structure and Temperature Distribution of Swirl Diffusion Flames

Authors: Yasaman Tohidi, Shidvash Vakilipour, Saeed Ebadi Tavallaee, Shahin Vakilipoor Takaloo, Hossein Amiri

Abstract:

The numerical modeling is performed to study the effects of N2 addition to the fuel stream on the flame structure and temperature distribution of methane-air swirl diffusion flames with different swirl intensities. The Open source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM) has been utilized as the computational tool. Flamelet approach along with modified k-ε model is employed to model the flame characteristics.  The results indicate that the presence of N2 in the fuel stream leads to the flame temperature reduction. By increasing of swirl intensity, the flame structure changes significantly. The flame has a conical shape in low swirl intensity; however, it has an hour glass-shape with a shorter length in high swirl intensity. The effects of N2 dilution decrease the flame length in all swirl intensities; however, the rate of reduction is more noticeable in low swirl intensity.

Keywords: swirl diffusion flame, N2 dilution, OpenFOAM, swirl intensity

Procedia PDF Downloads 40
34 Aerodynamic Performance of a Pitching Bio-Inspired Corrugated Airfoil

Authors: Hadi Zarafshani, Shidvash Vakilipour, Shahin Teimori, Sara Barati

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In the present study, the aerodynamic performance of a rigid two-dimensional pitching bio-inspired corrugate airfoil was numerically investigated at Reynolds number of 14000. The Open Field Operations And Manipulations (OpenFOAM) computational fluid dynamic tool is used to solve flow governing equations numerically. The k-ω SST turbulence model with low Reynolds correction (k-ω SST LRC) and the pimpleDyMFOAM solver are utilized to simulate the flow field around pitching bio-airfoil. The lift and drag coefficients of the airfoil are calculated at reduced frequencies k=1.24-4.96 and the angular amplitude of A=5°-20°. Results show that in a fixed reduced frequency, the absolute value of the sectional lift and drag coefficients increase with increasing pitching amplitude. In a fixed angular amplitude, the absolute value of the lift and drag coefficients increase as the pitching reduced frequency increases.

Keywords: bio-inspired pitching airfoils, OpenFOAM, low Reynolds k-ω SST model, lift and drag coefficients

Procedia PDF Downloads 73
33 Evaluating the Capability of the Flux-Limiter Schemes in Capturing the Turbulence Structures in a Fully Developed Channel Flow

Authors: Mohamed Elghorab, Vendra C. Madhav Rao, Jennifer X. Wen

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Turbulence modelling is still evolving, and efforts are on to improve and develop numerical methods to simulate the real turbulence structures by using the empirical and experimental information. The monotonically integrated large eddy simulation (MILES) is an attractive approach for modelling turbulence in high Re flows, which is based on the solving of the unfiltered flow equations with no explicit sub-grid scale (SGS) model. In the current work, this approach has been used, and the action of the SGS model has been included implicitly by intrinsic nonlinear high-frequency filters built into the convection discretization schemes. The MILES solver is developed using the opensource CFD OpenFOAM libraries. The role of flux limiters schemes namely, Gamma, superBee, van-Albada and van-Leer, is studied in predicting turbulent statistical quantities for a fully developed channel flow with a friction Reynolds number, ReT = 180, and compared the numerical predictions with the well-established Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) results for studying the wall generated turbulence. It is inferred from the numerical predictions that Gamma, van-Leer and van-Albada limiters produced more diffusion and overpredicted the velocity profiles, while superBee scheme reproduced velocity profiles and turbulence statistical quantities in good agreement with the reference DNS data in the streamwise direction although it deviated slightly in the spanwise and normal to the wall directions. The simulation results are further discussed in terms of the turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses averaged in time and space to draw conclusion on the flux limiter schemes performance in OpenFOAM context.

Keywords: flux limiters, implicit SGS, MILES, OpenFOAM, turbulence statistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 76
32 Computational Fluid Dynamics Modeling of Physical Mass Transfer of CO₂ by N₂O Analogy Using One Fluid Formulation in OpenFOAM

Authors: Phanindra Prasad Thummala, Umran Tezcan Un, Ahmet Ozan Celik

Abstract:

Removal of CO₂ by MEA (monoethanolamine) in structured packing columns depends highly on the gas-liquid interfacial area and film thickness (liquid load). CFD (computational fluid dynamics) is used to find the interfacial area, film thickness and their impact on mass transfer in gas-liquid flow effectively in any column geometry. In general modeling approaches used in CFD derive mass transfer parameters from standard correlations based on penetration or surface renewal theories. In order to avoid the effect of assumptions involved in deriving the correlations and model the mass transfer based solely on fluid properties, state of art approaches like one fluid formulation is useful. In this work, the one fluid formulation was implemented and evaluated for modeling the physical mass transfer of CO₂ by N₂O analogy in OpenFOAM CFD software. N₂O analogy avoids the effect of chemical reactions on absorption and allows studying the amount of CO₂ physical mass transfer possible in a given geometry. The computational domain in the current study was a flat plate with gas and liquid flowing in the countercurrent direction. The effect of operating parameters such as flow rate, the concentration of MEA and angle of inclination on the physical mass transfer is studied in detail. Liquid side mass transfer coefficients obtained by simulations are compared to the correlations available in the literature and it was found that the one fluid formulation was effectively capturing the effects of interface surface instabilities on mass transfer coefficient with higher accuracy. The high mesh refinement near the interface region was found as a limiting reason for utilizing this approach on large-scale simulations. Overall, the one fluid formulation is found more promising for CFD studies involving the CO₂ mass transfer.

Keywords: one fluid formulation, CO₂ absorption, liquid mass transfer coefficient, OpenFOAM, N₂O analogy

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
31 Numerical Study of Off-Design Performance of a Highly Loaded Low Pressure Turbine Cascade

Authors: Shidvash Vakilipour, Mehdi Habibnia, Rouzbeh Riazi, Masoud Mohammadi, Mohammad H. Sabour

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The flow field passing through a highly loaded low pressure (LP) turbine cascade is numerically investigated at design and off-design conditions. The Field Operation And Manipulation (OpenFOAM) platform is used as the computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tool. Firstly, the influences of grid resolution on the results of k-ε, k-ω, and LES turbulence models are investigated and compared with those of experimental measurements. A numerical pressure under-shoot is appeared near the end of blade pressure surface which is sensitive to grid resolution and flow turbulence modeling. The LES model is able to resolve separation on a coarse and fine grid resolutions. Secondly, the off-design flow condition is modeled by negative and positive inflow incidence angles. The numerical experiments show that a separation bubble generated on blade pressure side is predicted by LES. The total pressure drop is also been calculated at incidence angle between -20◦ and +8◦. The minimum total pressure drop is obtained by k-ω and LES at the design point.

Keywords: low pressure turbine, off-design performance, openFOAM, turbulence modeling, flow separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
30 Optimization of Tundish Geometry for Minimizing Dead Volume Using OpenFOAM

Authors: Prateek Singh, Dilshad Ahmad

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Growing demand for high-quality steel products has inspired researchers to investigate the unit operations involved in the manufacturing of these products (slabs, rods, sheets, etc.). One such operation is tundish operation, in which a vessel (tundish) acts as a buffer of molten steel for the solidification operation in mold. It is observed that tundish also plays a crucial role in the quality and cleanliness of the steel produced, besides merely acting as a reservoir for the mold. It facilitates removal of dissolved oxygen (inclusions) from the molten steel thus improving its cleanliness. Inclusion removal can be enhanced by increasing the residence time of molten steel in the tundish by incorporation of flow modifiers like dams, weirs, turbo-pad, etc. These flow modifiers also help in reducing the dead or short circuit zones within the tundish which is significant for maintaining thermal and chemical homogeneity of molten steel. Thus, it becomes important to analyze the flow of molten steel in the tundish for different configuration of flow modifiers. In the present work, effect of varying positions and heights/depths of dam and weir on the dead volume in tundish is studied. Steady state thermal and flow profiles of molten steel within the tundish are obtained using OpenFOAM. Subsequently, Residence Time Distribution analysis is performed to obtain the percentage of dead volume in the tundish. Design of Experiment method is then used to configure different tundish geometries for varying positions and heights/depths of dam and weir, and dead volume for each tundish design is obtained. A second-degree polynomial with two-term interactions of independent variables to predict the dead volume in the tundish with positions and heights/depths of dam and weir as variables are computed using Multiple Linear Regression model. This polynomial is then used in an optimization framework to obtain the optimal tundish geometry for minimizing dead volume using Sequential Quadratic Programming optimization.

Keywords: design of experiments, multiple linear regression, OpenFOAM, residence time distribution, sequential quadratic programming optimization, steel, tundish

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
29 Exploration of Cone Foam Breaker Behavior Using Computational Fluid Dynamic

Authors: G. St-Pierre-Lemieux, E. Askari Mahvelati, D. Groleau, P. Proulx

Abstract:

Mathematical modeling has become an important tool for the study of foam behavior. Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) can be used to investigate the behavior of foam around foam breakers to better understand the mechanisms leading to the ‘destruction’ of foam. The focus of this investigation was the simple cone foam breaker, whose performance has been identified in numerous studies. While the optimal pumping angle is known from the literature, the contribution of pressure drop, shearing, and centrifugal forces to the foam syneresis are subject to speculation. This work provides a screening of those factors against changes in the cone angle and foam rheology. The CFD simulation was made with the open source OpenFOAM toolkits on a full three-dimensional model discretized using hexahedral cells. The geometry was generated using a python script then meshed with blockMesh. The OpenFOAM Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method was used (interFOAM) to obtain a detailed description of the interfacial forces, and the model k-omega SST was used to calculate the turbulence fields. The cone configuration allows the use of a rotating wall boundary condition. In each case, a pair of immiscible fluids, foam/air or water/air was used. The foam was modeled as a shear thinning (Herschel-Buckley) fluid. The results were compared to our measurements and to results found in the literature, first by computing the pumping rate of the cone, and second by the liquid break-up at the exit of the cone. A 3D printed version of the cones submerged in foam (shaving cream or soap solution) and water, at speeds varying between 400 RPM and 1500 RPM, was also used to validate the modeling results by calculating the torque exerted on the shaft. While most of the literature is focusing on cone behavior using Newtonian fluids, this works explore its behavior in shear thinning fluid which better reflects foam apparent rheology. Those simulations bring new light on the cone behavior within the foam and allow the computation of shearing, pressure, and velocity of the fluid, enabling to better evaluate the efficiency of the cones as foam breakers. This study contributes to clarify the mechanisms behind foam breaker performances, at least in part, using modern CFD techniques.

Keywords: bioreactor, CFD, foam breaker, foam mitigation, OpenFOAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
28 Numerical Simulation of a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter Using OpenFOAM in Indian Scenario

Authors: Pooja Verma, Sumana Ghosh

Abstract:

There is a growing need for alternative way of power generation worldwide. The reason can be attributed to limited resources of fossil fuels, environmental pollution, increasing cost of conventional fuels, and lower efficiency of conversion of energy in existing systems. In this context, one of the potential alternatives for power generation is wave energy. However, it is difficult to estimate the amount of electrical energy generation in an irregular sea condition by experiment and or analytical methods. Therefore in this work, a numerical wave tank is developed using the computational fluid dynamics software Open FOAM. In this software a specific utility known as waves2Foam utility is being used to carry out the simulation work. The computational domain is a tank of dimension: 5m*1.5m*1m with a floating object of dimension: 0.5m*0.2m*0.2m. Regular waves are generated at the inlet of the wave tank according to Stokes second order theory. The main objective of the present study is to validate the numerical model against existing experimental data. It shows a good matching with the existing experimental data of floater displacement. Later the model is exploited to estimate energy extraction due to the movement of such a point absorber in real sea conditions. Scale down the wave properties like wave height, wave length, etc. are used as input parameters. Seasonal variations are also considered.

Keywords: OpenFOAM, numerical wave tank, regular waves, floating object, point absorber

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
27 Numerical Analysis of Supersonic Impinging Jets onto Resonance Tube

Authors: Shinji Sato, M. M. A. Alam, Manabu Takao

Abstract:

In recent, investigation of an unsteady flow inside the resonance tube have become a strongly motivated research field for their potential application as high-frequency actuators. By generating a shock wave inside the resonance tube, a high temperature and pressure can be achieved inside the tube, and this high temperature can also be used to ignite a jet engine. In the present research, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis was carried out to investigate the flow inside the resonance tube. The density-based solver of rhoCentralFoam in OpenFOAM was used to numerically simulate the flow. The supersonic jet that was driven by a cylindrical nozzle with a nominal exit diameter of φd = 20.3 mm impinged onto the resonance tube. The jet pressure ratio was varied between 2.6 and 7.8. The gap s between the nozzle exit and tube entrance was changed between 1.5d and 3.0d. The diameter and length of the tube were taken as D = 1.25d and L=3.0D, respectively. As a result, when a supersonic jet has impinged onto the resonance tube, a compression wave was found generating inside the tube and propagating towards the tube end wall. This wave train resulted in a rise in the end wall gas temperature and pressure. While, in an outflow phase, the gas near tube enwall was found cooling back isentropically to its initial temperature. Thus, the compression waves repeated a reciprocating motion in the tube like a piston, and a fluctuation in the end wall pressures and temperatures were observed. A significant change was found in the end wall pressures and temperatures with a change of jet flow conditions. In this study, the highest temperature was confirmed at a jet pressure ratio of 4.2 and a gap of s=2.0d

Keywords: compressible flow, OpenFOAM, oscillations, a resonance tube, shockwave

Procedia PDF Downloads 46
26 Unsteady Flow Simulations for Microchannel Design and Its Fabrication for Nanoparticle Synthesis

Authors: Mrinalini Amritkar, Disha Patil, Swapna Kulkarni, Sukratu Barve, Suresh Gosavi

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Micro-mixers play an important role in the lab-on-a-chip applications and micro total analysis systems to acquire the correct level of mixing for any given process. The mixing process can be classified as active or passive according to the use of external energy. Literature of microfluidics reports that most of the work is done on the models of steady laminar flow; however, the study of unsteady laminar flow is an active area of research at present. There are wide applications of this, out of which, we consider nanoparticle synthesis in micro-mixers. In this work, we have developed a model for unsteady flow to study the mixing performance of a passive micro mixer for reactants used for such synthesis. The model is developed in Finite Volume Method (FVM)-based software, OpenFOAM. The model is tested by carrying out the simulations at Re of 0.5. Mixing performance of the micro-mixer is investigated using simulated concentration values of mixed species across the width of the micro-mixer and calculating the variance across a line profile. Experimental validation is done by passing dyes through a Y shape micro-mixer fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer and comparing variances with the simulated ones. Gold nanoparticles are later synthesized through the micro-mixer and collected at two different times leading to significantly different size distributions. These times match with the time scales over which reactant concentrations vary as obtained from simulations. Our simulations could thus be used to create design aids for passive micro-mixers used in nanoparticle synthesis.

Keywords: Lab-on-chip, LOC, micro-mixer, OpenFOAM, PDMS

Procedia PDF Downloads 42
25 Modeling and Simulation of Secondary Breakup and Its Influence on Fuel Spray in High Torque Low Speed Diesel Engine

Authors: Mohsin Raza, Rizwan Latif, Syed Adnan Qasim, Imran Shafi

Abstract:

High torque low-speed diesel engine has a wide range of industrial and commercial applications. In literature, it’s found that lot of work has been done for the high-speed diesel engine and research on High Torque low-speed is rare. The fuel injection plays a key role in the efficiency of engine and reduction in exhaust emission. The fuel breakup plays a critical role in air-fuel mixture and spray combustion. The current study explains numerically an important phenomenon in spray combustion which is deformation and breakup of liquid drops in compression ignition internal combustion engine. The secondary breakup and its influence on spray and characteristics of compressed gas in-cylinder have been calculated by using simulation software in the backdrop of high torque low-speed diesel like conditions. The secondary spray breakup is modeled with KH - RT instabilities. The continuous field is described by turbulence model and dynamics of the dispersed droplet is modeled by Lagrangian tracking scheme. The results by using KH - RT model are compared against other default methods in OpenFOAM and published experimental data from research and implemented in CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics). These numerical simulation, done in OpenFoam and Matlab, results are analyzed for the complete 720- degree 4 stroke engine cycle at a low engine speed, for favorable agreement to be achieved. Results thus obtained will be analyzed for better evaporation in near nozzle region. The proposed analyses will further help in better engine efficiency, low emission and improved fuel economy.

Keywords: diesel fuel, KH-RT, Lagrangian , Open FOAM, secondary breakup

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24 Numerical Aeroacoustics Investigation of Eroded and Coated Leading Edge of NACA 64- 618 Airfoil

Authors: Zeinab Gharibi, B. Stoevesandt, J. Peinke

Abstract:

Long term surface erosion of wind turbine blades, especially at the leading edge, impairs aerodynamic performance; therefore, lowers efficiency of the blades mostly in the high-speed rotor tip regions. Blade protection provides significant improvements in annual energy production, reduces costly downtime, and protects the integrity of the blades. However, this protection still influences the aerodynamic behavior, and broadband noise caused by interaction between the impinging turbulence and blade’s leading edge. This paper presents an extensive numerical aeroacoustics approach by investigating the sound power spectra of the eroded and coated NACA 64-618 wind turbine airfoil and evaluates aeroacoustics improvements after the protection procedure. Using computational fluid dynamics (CFD), different quasi 2D numerical grids were implemented and special attention was paid to the refinement of the boundary layers. The noise sources were captured and decoupled with acoustic propagation via the derived formulation of Curle’s analogy implemented in OpenFOAM. Therefore, the noise spectra were compared for clean, coated and eroded profiles in the range of chord-based Reynolds number (1.6e6 ≤ Re ≤ 11.5e6). Angle of attack was zero in all cases. Verifications were conducted for the clean profile using available experimental data. Sensitivity studies for the far-field were done on different observational positions. Furthermore, beamforming studies were done simulating an Archimedean spiral microphone array for far-field noise directivity patterns. Comparing the noise spectra of the coated and eroded geometries, results show that, coating clearly improves aerodynamic and acoustic performance of the eroded airfoil.

Keywords: computational fluid dynamics, computational aeroacoustics, leading edge, OpenFOAM

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23 Simulation of Wet Scrubbers for Flue Gas Desulfurization

Authors: Anders Schou Simonsen, Kim Sorensen, Thomas Condra

Abstract:

Wet scrubbers are used for flue gas desulfurization by injecting water directly into the flue gas stream from a set of sprayers. The water droplets will flow freely inside the scrubber, and flow down along the scrubber walls as a thin wall film while reacting with the gas phase to remove SO₂. This complex multiphase phenomenon can be divided into three main contributions: the continuous gas phase, the liquid droplet phase, and the liquid wall film phase. This study proposes a complete model, where all three main contributions are taken into account and resolved using OpenFOAM for the continuous gas phase, and MATLAB for the liquid droplet and wall film phases. The 3D continuous gas phase is composed of five species: CO₂, H₂O, O₂, SO₂, and N₂, which are resolved along with momentum, energy, and turbulence. Source terms are present for four species, energy and momentum, which are affecting the steady-state solution. The liquid droplet phase experiences breakup, collisions, dynamics, internal chemistry, evaporation and condensation, species mass transfer, energy transfer and wall film interactions. Numerous sub-models have been implemented and coupled to realise the above-mentioned phenomena. The liquid wall film experiences impingement, acceleration, atomization, separation, internal chemistry, evaporation and condensation, species mass transfer, and energy transfer, which have all been resolved using numerous sub-models as well. The continuous gas phase has been coupled with the liquid phases using source terms by an approach, where the two software packages are couples using a link-structure. The complete CFD model has been verified using 16 experimental tests from an existing scrubber installation, where a gradient-based pattern search optimization algorithm has been used to tune numerous model parameters to match the experimental results. The CFD model needed to be fast for evaluation in order to apply this optimization routine, where approximately 1000 simulations were needed. The results show that the complex multiphase phenomena governing wet scrubbers can be resolved in a single model. The optimization routine was able to tune the model to accurately predict the performance of an existing installation. Furthermore, the study shows that a coupling between OpenFOAM and MATLAB is realizable, where the data and source term exchange increases the computational requirements by approximately 5%. This allows for exploiting the benefits of both software programs.

Keywords: desulfurization, discrete phase, scrubber, wall film

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
22 Magnetic Navigation of Nanoparticles inside a 3D Carotid Model

Authors: E. G. Karvelas, C. Liosis, A. Theodorakakos, T. E. Karakasidis

Abstract:

Magnetic navigation of the drug inside the human vessels is a very important concept since the drug is delivered to the desired area. Consequently, the quantity of the drug required to reach therapeutic levels is being reduced while the drug concentration at targeted sites is increased. Magnetic navigation of drug agents can be achieved with the use of magnetic nanoparticles where anti-tumor agents are loaded on the surface of the nanoparticles. The magnetic field that is required to navigate the particles inside the human arteries is produced by a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) device. The main factors which influence the efficiency of the usage of magnetic nanoparticles for biomedical applications in magnetic driving are the size and the magnetization of the biocompatible nanoparticles. In this study, a computational platform for the simulation of the optimal gradient magnetic fields for the navigation of magnetic nanoparticles inside a carotid artery is presented. For the propulsion model of the particles, seven major forces are considered, i.e., the magnetic force from MRIs main magnet static field as well as the magnetic field gradient force from the special propulsion gradient coils. The static field is responsible for the aggregation of nanoparticles, while the magnetic gradient contributes to the navigation of the agglomerates that are formed. Moreover, the contact forces among the aggregated nanoparticles and the wall and the Stokes drag force for each particle are considered, while only spherical particles are used in this study. In addition, gravitational forces due to gravity and the force due to buoyancy are included. Finally, Van der Walls force and Brownian motion are taken into account in the simulation. The OpenFoam platform is used for the calculation of the flow field and the uncoupled equations of particles' motion. To verify the optimal gradient magnetic fields, a covariance matrix adaptation evolution strategy (CMAES) is used in order to navigate the particles into the desired area. A desired trajectory is inserted into the computational geometry, which the particles are going to be navigated in. Initially, the CMAES optimization strategy provides the OpenFOAM program with random values of the gradient magnetic field. At the end of each simulation, the computational platform evaluates the distance between the particles and the desired trajectory. The present model can simulate the motion of particles when they are navigated by the magnetic field that is produced by the MRI device. Under the influence of fluid flow, the model investigates the effect of different gradient magnetic fields in order to minimize the distance of particles from the desired trajectory. In addition, the platform can navigate the particles into the desired trajectory with an efficiency between 80-90%. On the other hand, a small number of particles are stuck to the walls and remains there for the rest of the simulation.

Keywords: artery, drug, nanoparticles, navigation

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21 Numerical Investigation of Flow Boiling within Micro-Channels in the Slug-Plug Flow Regime

Authors: Anastasios Georgoulas, Manolia Andredaki, Marco Marengo

Abstract:

The present paper investigates the hydrodynamics and heat transfer characteristics of slug-plug flows under saturated flow boiling conditions within circular micro-channels. Numerical simulations are carried out, using an enhanced version of the open-source CFD-based solver ‘interFoam’ of OpenFOAM CFD Toolbox. The proposed user-defined solver is based in the Volume Of Fluid (VOF) method for interface advection, and the mentioned enhancements include the implementation of a smoothing process for spurious current reduction, the coupling with heat transfer and phase change as well as the incorporation of conjugate heat transfer to account for transient solid conduction. In all of the considered cases in the present paper, a single phase simulation is initially conducted until a quasi-steady state is reached with respect to the hydrodynamic and thermal boundary layer development. Then, a predefined and constant frequency of successive vapour bubbles is patched upstream at a certain distance from the channel inlet. The proposed numerical simulation set-up can capture the main hydrodynamic and heat transfer characteristics of slug-plug flow regimes within circular micro-channels. In more detail, the present investigation is focused on exploring the interaction between subsequent vapour slugs with respect to their generation frequency, the hydrodynamic characteristics of the liquid film between the generated vapour slugs and the channel wall as well as of the liquid plug between two subsequent vapour slugs. The proposed investigation is carried out for the 3 different working fluids and three different values of applied heat flux in the heated part of the considered microchannel. The post-processing and analysis of the results indicate that the dynamics of the evolving bubbles in each case are influenced by both the upstream and downstream bubbles in the generated sequence. In each case a slip velocity between the vapour bubbles and the liquid slugs is evident. In most cases interfacial waves appear close to the bubble tail that significantly reduce the liquid film thickness. Finally, in accordance with previous investigations vortices that are identified in the liquid slugs between two subsequent vapour bubbles can significantly enhance the convection heat transfer between the liquid regions and the heated channel walls. The overall results of the present investigation can be used to enhance the present understanding by providing better insight of the complex, underpinned heat transfer mechanisms in saturated boiling within micro-channels in the slug-plug flow regime.

Keywords: slug-plug flow regime, micro-channels, VOF method, OpenFOAM

Procedia PDF Downloads 191
20 Air Flows along Perforated Metal Plates with the Heat Transfer

Authors: Karel Frana, Sylvio Simon

Abstract:

The objective of the paper is a numerical study of heat transfer between perforated metal plates and the surrounding air flows. Different perforation structures can nowadays be found in various industrial products. Besides improving the mechanical properties, the perforations can intensify the heat transfer as well. The heat transfer coefficient depends on a wide range of parameters such as type of perforation, size, shape, flow properties of the surrounding air etc. The paper was focused on three different perforation structures which have been investigated from the point of the view of the production in the previous studies. To determine the heat coefficients and the Nusselt numbers, the numerical simulation approach was adopted. The calculations were performed using the OpenFOAM software. The three-dimensional, unstable, turbulent and incompressible air flow around the perforated surface metal plate was considered.

Keywords: perforations, convective heat transfers, turbulent flows, numerical simulations

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19 An Improved Approach for Hybrid Rocket Injection System Design

Authors: M. Invigorito, G. Elia, M. Panelli

Abstract:

Hybrid propulsion combines beneficial properties of both solid and liquid rockets, such as multiple restarts, throttability as well as simplicity and reduced costs. A nitrous oxide (N2O)/paraffin-based hybrid rocket engine demonstrator is currently under development at the Italian Aerospace Research Center (CIRA) within the national research program HYPROB, funded by the Italian Ministry of Research. Nitrous oxide belongs to the class of self-pressurizing propellants that exhibit a high vapor pressure at standard ambient temperature. This peculiar feature makes those fluids very attractive for space rocket applications because it avoids the use of complex pressurization systems, leading to great benefits in terms of weight savings and reliability. To avoid feed-system-coupled instabilities, the phase change is required to occur through the injectors. In this regard, the oxidizer is stored in liquid condition while target chamber pressures are designed to lie below vapor pressure. The consequent cavitation and flash vaporization constitute a remarkably complex phenomenology that arises great modelling challenges. Thus, it is clear that the design of the injection system is fundamental for the full exploitation of hybrid rocket engine throttability. The Analytical Hierarchy Process has been used to select the injection architecture as best compromise among different design criteria such as functionality, technology innovation and cost. The impossibility to use engineering simplified relations for the dimensioning of the injectors led to the needs of applying a numerical approach based on OpenFOAM®. The numerical tool has been validated with selected experimental data from literature. Quantitative, as well as qualitative comparisons are performed in terms of mass flow rate and pressure drop across the injector for several operating conditions. The results show satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. Modeling assumptions, together with their impact on numerical predictions are discussed in the paper. Once assessed the reliability of the numerical tool, the injection plate has been designed and sized to guarantee the required amount of oxidizer in the combustion chamber and therefore to assure high combustion efficiency. To this purpose, the plate has been designed with multiple injectors whose number and diameter have been selected in order to reach the requested mass flow rate for the two operating conditions of maximum and minimum thrust. The overall design has been finally verified through three-dimensional computations in cavitating non-reacting conditions and it has been verified that the proposed design solution is able to guarantee the requested values of mass flow rates.

Keywords: hybrid rocket, injection system design, OpenFOAM®, cavitation

Procedia PDF Downloads 137