Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16310

Search results for: SIMPLE method

16310 A Simple Autonomous Hovering and Operating Control of Multicopter Using Only Web Camera

Authors: Kazuya Sato, Toru Kasahara, Junji Kuroda


In this paper, an autonomous hovering control method of multicopter using only Web camera is proposed. Recently, various control method of an autonomous flight for multicopter are proposed. But, in the previously proposed methods, a motion capture system (i.e., OptiTrack) and laser range finder are often used to measure the position and posture of multicopter. To achieve an autonomous flight control of multicopter with simple equipment, we propose an autonomous flight control method using AR marker and Web camera. AR marker can measure the position of multicopter with Cartesian coordinate in three dimensional, then its position connects with aileron, elevator, and accelerator throttle operation. A simple PID control method is applied to the each operation and adjust the controller gains. Experimental result are given to show the effectiveness of our proposed method. Moreover, another simple operation method for autonomous flight control multicopter is also proposed.

Keywords: autonomous hovering control, multicopter, Web camera, operation

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16309 Simple Rheological Method to Estimate the Branch Structures of Polyethylene under Reactive Modification

Authors: Mahdi Golriz


The aim of this work is to estimate the change in molecular structure of linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE) during peroxide modification can be detected by a simple rheological method. For this purpose a commercial grade LLDPE (Exxon MobileTM LL4004EL) was reacted with different doses of dicumyl peroxide (DCP). The samples were analyzed by size-exclusion chromatography coupled with a light scattering detector. The dynamic shear oscillatory measurements showed a deviation of the δ-׀G ׀٭curve from that of the linear LLDPE, which can be attributed to the presence of long-chain branching (LCB). By the use of a simple rheological method that utilizes melt rheology, transformations in molecular architecture induced on an originally linear low density polyethylene during the early stages of reactive modification were indicated. Reasonable and consistent estimates are obtained, concerning the degree of LCB, the volume fraction of the various molecular species produced in peroxide modification of LLDPE.

Keywords: linear low-density polyethylene, peroxide modification, long-chain branching, rheological method

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16308 A Simple Light-Outcoupling Enhancement Method for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes

Authors: Ho-Nyeon Lee


We propose to use a gradual-refractive-index dielectric (GRID) as a simple and efficient light-outcoupling method for organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). Using the simple GRIDs, we could improve the light outcoupling efficiency of OLEDs rather than relying on difficult nano-patterning processes. Through numerical simulations using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method, the feasibility of the GRID structure was examined and the design parameters were extracted. The outcoupling enhancement effects due to the GRIDs were proved through severe experimental works. The GRIDs were adapted to bottom-emission OLEDs and top-emission OLEDs. For bottom-emission OLEDs, the efficiency was improved more than 20%, and for top-emission OLEDs, more than 40%. The detailed numerical and experimental results will be presented at the conference site.

Keywords: efficiency, GRID, light outcoupling, OLED

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16307 A Simple Approach for the Analysis of First Vibration Mode of Layered Soil Profiles

Authors: Haizhong Zhang, Yan-Gang Zhao


Fundamental period, mode shape, and participation factor are important basic information for the understanding of earthquake response of ground. In this study, a simple approach is presented to calculate these basic information of layered soil profiles. To develop this method, closed form equations are derived for analysis of free vibration of layered soil profiles firstly, based on equilibrium between inertia and elastic forces. Then, by further associating with the Madera procedure developed for estimation of fundamental period, a simple method that can directly determine the fundamental period, mode shape and participation factor is proposed. The proposed approach can be conveniently implemented in simple spreadsheets and easily used by practicing engineers. In addition, the accuracy of the proposed approach is investigated by analyzing first vibration mode of 67 representative layered soil profiles, it is found that results by the proposed method agree very well with accurate results.

Keywords: layered soil profile, natural vibration, fundamental period, fundamental mode shape

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16306 Vibration Analysis of Pendulum in a Viscous Fluid by Analytical Methods

Authors: Arash Jafari, Mehdi Taghaddosi, Azin Parvin


In this study, a vibrational differential equation governing on swinging single-degree-of-freedom pendulum in a viscous fluid has been investigated. The damping process is characterized according to two different regimes: at first, damping in stationary viscous fluid, in the second, damping in flowing viscous fluid with constant velocity. Our purpose is to enhance the ability of solving the mentioned nonlinear differential equation with a simple and innovative approach. Comparisons are made between new method and Numerical Method (rkf45). The results show that this method is very effective and simple and can be applied for other nonlinear problems.

Keywords: oscillating systems, angular frequency and damping ratio, pendulum at fluid, locus of maximum

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16305 A Novel Method for Silence Removal in Sounds Produced by Percussive Instruments

Authors: B. Kishore Kumar, Rakesh Pogula, T. Kishore Kumar


The steepness of an audio signal which is produced by the musical instruments, specifically percussive instruments is the perception of how high tone or low tone which can be considered as a frequency closely related to the fundamental frequency. This paper presents a novel method for silence removal and segmentation of music signals produced by the percussive instruments and the performance of proposed method is studied with the help of MATLAB simulations. This method is based on two simple features, namely the signal energy and the spectral centroid. As long as the feature sequences are extracted, a simple thresholding criterion is applied in order to remove the silence areas in the sound signal. The simulations were carried on various instruments like drum, flute and guitar and results of the proposed method were analyzed.

Keywords: percussive instruments, spectral energy, spectral centroid, silence removal

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16304 Simplified Analysis on Steel Frame Infill with FRP Composite Panel

Authors: HyunSu Seo, HoYoung Son, Sungjin Kim, WooYoung Jung


In order to understand the seismic behavior of steel frame structure with infill FRP composite panel, simple models for simulation on the steel frame with the panel systems were developed in this study. To achieve the simple design method of the steel framed structure with the damping panel system, 2-D finite element analysis with the springs and dashpots models was conducted in ABAQUS. Under various applied spring stiffness and dashpot coefficient, the expected hysteretic energy responses of the steel frame with damping panel systems we re investigated. Using the proposed simple design method which decides the stiffness and the damping, it is possible to decide the FRP and damping materials on a steel frame system.

Keywords: numerical analysis, FEM, infill, GFRP, damping

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16303 About Some Results of the Determination of Alcohol in Moroccan Gasoline-Alcohol Mixtures

Authors: Mahacine Amrani


A simple and rapid method for the determination of alcohol in gasoline-alcohol mixtures using density measurements is described. The method can determine a minimum of 1% of alcohol by volume. The precision of the method is ± 3%.The method is more useful for field test in the quality assessment of alcohol blended fuels.

Keywords: gasoline-alcohol, mixture, alcohol determination, density, measurement, Morocco

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16302 Simple Modified Method for DNA Isolation from Lyophilised Cassava Storage Roots (Manihot esculenta Crantz.)

Authors: P. K. Telengech, K. Monjero, J. Maling’a, A. Nyende, S. Gichuki


There is need to identify an efficient protocol for use in extraction of high quality DNA for purposes of molecular work. Cassava roots are known for their high starch content, polyphenols and other secondary metabolites which interfere with the quality of the DNA. These factors have negative interference on the various methodologies for DNA extraction. There is need to develop a simple, fast and inexpensive protocol that yields high quality DNA. In this improved Dellaporta method, the storage roots are lyophilized to reduce the water content; the extraction buffer is modified to eliminate the high polyphenols, starch and wax. This simple protocol was compared to other protocols intended for plants with similar secondary metabolites. The method gave high yield (300-950ng) and pure DNA for use in PCR analysis. This improved Dellaporta protocol allows isolation of pure DNA from starchy cassava storage roots.

Keywords: cassava storage roots, dellaporta, DNA extraction, lyophilisation, polyphenols secondary metabolites

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16301 A Study on the Solutions of the 2-Dimensional and Forth-Order Partial Differential Equations

Authors: O. Acan, Y. Keskin


In this study, we will carry out a comparative study between the reduced differential transform method, the adomian decomposition method, the variational iteration method and the homotopy analysis method. These methods are used in many fields of engineering. This is been achieved by handling a kind of 2-Dimensional and forth-order partial differential equations called the Kuramoto–Sivashinsky equations. Three numerical examples have also been carried out to validate and demonstrate efficiency of the four methods. Furthermost, it is shown that the reduced differential transform method has advantage over other methods. This method is very effective and simple and could be applied for nonlinear problems which used in engineering.

Keywords: reduced differential transform method, adomian decomposition method, variational iteration method, homotopy analysis method

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16300 Analytical Solving of Nonlinear Differential Equations in the Nonlinear Phenomena for Viscos Fluids

Authors: Arash Jafari, Mehdi Taghaddosi, Azin Parvin


In the paper, our purpose is to enhance the ability to solve a nonlinear differential equation which is about the motion of an incompressible fluid flow going down of an inclined plane without thermal effect with a simple and innovative approach which we have named it new method. Comparisons are made amongst the Numerical, new method, and HPM methods, and the results reveal that this method is very effective and simple and can be applied to other nonlinear problems. It is noteworthy that there are some valuable advantages in this way of solving differential equations, and also most of the sets of differential equations can be answered in this manner which in the other methods they do not have acceptable solutions up to now. A summary of the excellence of this method in comparison to the other manners is as follows: 1) Differential equations are directly solvable by this method. 2) Without any dimensionless procedure, we can solve equation(s). 3) It is not necessary to convert variables into new ones. According to the afore-mentioned assertions which will be proved in this case study, the process of solving nonlinear equation(s) will be very easy and convenient in comparison to the other methods.

Keywords: viscos fluid, incompressible fluid flow, inclined plane, nonlinear phenomena

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16299 Influence of Optimization Method on Parameters Identification of Hyperelastic Models

Authors: Bale Baidi Blaise, Gilles Marckmann, Liman Kaoye, Talaka Dya, Moustapha Bachirou, Gambo Betchewe, Tibi Beda


This work highlights the capabilities of particles swarm optimization (PSO) method to identify parameters of hyperelastic models. The study compares this method with Genetic Algorithm (GA) method, Least Squares (LS) method, Pattern Search Algorithm (PSA) method, Beda-Chevalier (BC) method and the Levenberg-Marquardt (LM) method. Four classic hyperelastic models are used to test the different methods through parameters identification. Then, the study compares the ability of these models to reproduce experimental Treloar data in simple tension, biaxial tension and pure shear.

Keywords: particle swarm optimization, identification, hyperelastic, model

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16298 Preparation and Characterization of Supported Metal Nanocrystal Using Simple Heating Method for Renewable Diesel Synthesis from Nyamplung Oil (Calophyllum inophyllum Oil)

Authors: Aida Safiera, Andika Dwi Rubyantoro, Muhammad Bagus Prakasa


Indonesia’s needs of diesel oil each year are increasing and getting urge. However, that problems are not supported by the amount of oil production that still low and also influenced by the fact of oil reserve is reduced. Because of that, the government prefers to import from other countries than fulfill the needs of diesel. To anticipate that problem, development of fuel based on renewable diesel is started. Renewable diesel is renewable alternative fuel that is hydrocarbon derivative from decarbonylation of non-edible oil. Indonesia is rich with natural resources, including nyamplung oil (Calophyllum inophyllum oil) and zeolite. Nyamplung oil (Calophyllum inophyllum oil) has many stearic acids which are useful on renewable diesel synthesis meanwhile zeolite is cheap. Zeolite is many used on high temperature reaction and cracking process on oil industry. Zeolite also has advantages which are a high crystallization, surface area and pores. In this research, the main focus that becomes our attention is on preparation and characterization of metal nanocrystal. Active site that used in this research is Nickel Molybdenum (NiMo). The advantage of nanocrystal with nano scale is having larger surface area. The synthesis of metal nanocrystal will be done with conventional preparation modification method that is called simple heating. Simple heating method is a metal nanocrystal synthesis method using continuous media which is polymer liquid. This method is a simple method and produces a small particles size in a short time. Influence of metal nanocrystal growth on this method is the heating profile. On the synthesis of nanocrystal, the manipulated variables are temperature and calcination time. Results to achieve from this research are diameter size on nano scale (< 100 nm) and uniform size without any agglomeration. Besides that, the conversion of synthesis of renewable diesel is high and has an equal specification with petroleum diesel. Catalyst activities are tested by FT-IR and GC-TCD on decarbonylation process with a pressure 15 bar and temperature 375 °C. The highest conversion from this reaction is 35% with selectivity around 43%.

Keywords: renewable diesel, simple heating, metal nanocrystal, NiMo, zeolite

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16297 Simple Procedure for Probability Calculation of Tensile Crack Occurring in Rigid Pavement: A Case Study

Authors: Aleš Florian, Lenka Ševelová, Jaroslav Žák


Formation of tensile cracks in concrete slabs of rigid pavement can be (among others) the initiation point of the other, more serious failures which can ultimately lead to complete degradation of the concrete slab and thus the whole pavement. Two measures can be used for reliability assessment of this phenomenon - the probability of failure and/or the reliability index. Different methods can be used for their calculation. The simple ones are called moment methods and simulation techniques. Two methods - FOSM Method and Simple Random Sampling Method - are verified and their comparison is performed. The influence of information about the probability distribution and the statistical parameters of input variables as well as of the limit state function on the calculated reliability index and failure probability are studied in three points on the lower surface of concrete slabs of the older type of rigid pavement formerly used in the Czech Republic.

Keywords: failure, pavement, probability, reliability index, simulation, tensile crack

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16296 Simple Ecofriendly Cyclodextrine-Surfactant Modified UHPLC Method for Quantification of Multivitamins in Pharmaceutical and Food Samples

Authors: Hassan M. Albishri, Abdullah Almalawi, Deia Abd El-Hady


A simple and ecofriendly cyclodextrine-surfactant modified UHPLC (CDS-UPLC) method for rapid and sensitive simultaneous determination of multi water-soluble vitamins such as ascorbic acid, pyridoxine hydrochloride and thiamine hydrochloride in commercial pharmaceuticals and milk samples have been firstly developed. Several chromatographic effective parameters have been changed in a systematic way. Adequate results have been achieved by a mixture of β-cyclodextrine (β-CD) and cationic surfactant under acidic conditions as an eco-friendly isocratic mobile phase at 0.02 mL/min flow rate. The proposed CDS- UHPLC method has been validated for the quantitative determination of multivitamins within 8 min in food and pharmaceutical samples. The method showed excellent linearity for analytes in a wide range of 10-1000 ng/µL. The repeatability and reproducibility of data were about 2.14 and 4.69 RSD%, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) of analytes ranged between 0.86 and 5.6 ng/µL with a range of 81.8 -115.8% recoveries in tablets and milk samples. The current first CDS- UHPLC method could have vast applications for the precise analysis of multivitamins in complicated matrices.

Keywords: ecofriendly, cyclodextrine-surfactant, multivitamins, UHPLC

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16295 Feasibility of Simulating External Vehicle Aerodynamics Using Spalart-Allmaras Turbulence Model with Adjoint Method in OpenFOAM and Fluent

Authors: Arpit Panwar, Arvind Deshpande


The study of external vehicle aerodynamics using Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model with adjoint method was conducted. The accessibility and ease of working with the Fluent module of ANSYS and OpenFOAM were considered. The objective of the study was to understand and analyze the possibility of bringing high-level aerodynamic simulation to the average consumer vehicle. A form-factor of BMW M6 vehicle was designed in Solidworks, which was analyzed in OpenFOAM and Fluent. The turbulence model being a single equation provides much faster convergence rate when clubbed with the adjoint method. Fluent being commercial software still does not allow us to solve Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model using the adjoint method. Hence, the turbulence model was solved using the SIMPLE method in Fluent. OpenFOAM being an open source provide flexibility in simulation but is not user-friendly. It supports solving the defined turbulence model with the adjoint method. The result generated from the simulation gives us acceptable values of drag, when validated with the result of percentage error in drag values for a notch-back vehicle model on an extensive simulation produced at 6th ANSA and μETA conference, Greece. The success of this approach will allow us to bring more aerodynamic vehicle body design to all segments of the automobile and not limiting it to just the high-end sports cars.

Keywords: Spalart-Allmaras turbulence model, OpenFOAM, adjoint method, SIMPLE method, vehicle aerodynamic design

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16294 An Optimal and Efficient Family of Fourth-Order Methods for Nonlinear Equations

Authors: Parshanth Maroju, Ramandeep Behl, Sandile S. Motsa


In this study, we proposed a simple and interesting family of fourth-order multi-point methods without memory for obtaining simple roots. This family requires only three functional evaluations (viz. two of functions f(xn), f(yn) and third one of its first-order derivative f'(xn)) per iteration. Moreover, the accuracy and validity of new schemes is tested by a number of numerical examples are also proposed to illustrate their accuracy by comparing them with the new existing optimal fourth-order methods available in the literature. It is found that they are very useful in high precision computations. Further, the dynamic study of these methods also supports the theoretical aspect.

Keywords: basins of attraction, nonlinear equations, simple roots, Newton's method

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16293 The Simple Two-Step Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) Transferring Process for High Aspect Ratio Microstructures

Authors: Shaoxi Wang, Pouya Rezai


High aspect ratio is the necessary parts of complex microstructures. Some methods available to achieve high aspect ratio requires expensive materials or complex process; others is difficult to research simple high aspect ratio structures. The paper presents a simple and cheap two-step Polydimethylsioxane (PDMS) transferring process to get high aspect ratio single pillars, which only requires covering the PDMS mold with [email protected] surface solution. The experimental results demonstrate the method efficiency and effective.

Keywords: high aspect ratio, microstructure, PDMS, Brij

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16292 Steepest Descent Method with New Step Sizes

Authors: Bib Paruhum Silalahi, Djihad Wungguli, Sugi Guritman


Steepest descent method is a simple gradient method for optimization. This method has a slow convergence in heading to the optimal solution, which occurs because of the zigzag form of the steps. Barzilai and Borwein modified this algorithm so that it performs well for problems with large dimensions. Barzilai and Borwein method results have sparked a lot of research on the method of steepest descent, including alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method. Inspired by previous works, we modified the step size of the steepest descent method. We then compare the modification results against the Barzilai and Borwein method, alternate minimization gradient method and Yuan method for quadratic function cases in terms of the iterations number and the running time. The average results indicate that the steepest descent method with the new step sizes provide good results for small dimensions and able to compete with the results of Barzilai and Borwein method and the alternate minimization gradient method for large dimensions. The new step sizes have faster convergence compared to the other methods, especially for cases with large dimensions.

Keywords: steepest descent, line search, iteration, running time, unconstrained optimization, convergence

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16291 Comparison of Allowable Stress Method and Time History Response Analysis for Seismic Design of Buildings

Authors: Sayuri Inoue, Naohiro Nakamura, Tsubasa Hamada


The seismic design method of buildings is classified into two types: static design and dynamic design. The static design is a design method that exerts static force as seismic force and is a relatively simple design method created based on the experience of seismic motion in the past 100 years. At present, static design is used for most of the Japanese buildings. Dynamic design mainly refers to the time history response analysis. It is a comparatively difficult design method that input the earthquake motion assumed in the building model and examine the response. Currently, it is only used for skyscrapers and specific buildings. In the present design standard in Japan, it is good to use either the design method of the static design and the dynamic design in the medium and high-rise buildings. However, when actually designing middle and high-rise buildings by two kinds of design methods, the relatively simple static design method satisfies the criteria, but in the case of a little difficult dynamic design method, the criterion isn't often satisfied. This is because the dynamic design method was built with the intention of designing super high-rise buildings. In short, higher safety is required as compared with general buildings, and criteria become stricter. The authors consider applying the dynamic design method to general buildings designed by the static design method so far. The reason is that application of the dynamic design method is reasonable for buildings that are out of the conventional standard structural form such as emphasizing design. For the purpose, it is important to compare the design results when the criteria of both design methods are arranged side by side. In this study, we performed time history response analysis to medium-rise buildings that were actually designed with allowable stress method. Quantitative comparison between static design and dynamic design was conducted, and characteristics of both design methods were examined.

Keywords: buildings, seismic design, allowable stress design, time history response analysis, Japanese seismic code

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16290 A Study of Flow near the Leading Edge of a Flat Plate by New Idea in Analytical Methods

Authors: M. R. Akbari, S. Akbari, L. Abdollahpour


The present paper is concerned with calculating the 2-dimensional velocity profile of a viscous flow for an incompressible fluid along the leading edge of a flat plate by using the continuity and motion equations with a simple and innovative approach. A Comparison between Numerical method and AGM has been made and the results have been revealed that AGM is very accurate and easy and can be applied for a wide variety of nonlinear problems. It is notable that most of the differential equations can be solved in this approach which in the other approaches they do not have this capability. Moreover, there are some valuable benefits in this method of solving differential equations, for instance: Without any dimensionless procedure, we can solve many differential equation(s), that is, differential equations are directly solvable by this method. In addition, it is not necessary to convert variables into new ones. According to the afore-mentioned expressions which will be proved in this literature, the process of solving nonlinear differential equation(s) will be very simple and convenient in contrast to the other approaches.

Keywords: leading edge, new idea, flat plate, incompressible fluid

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16289 Context-Aware Alert Method in Hajj Pilgrim Location-Based Tracking System

Authors: Syarif Hidayat


As millions of people with different backgrounds perform hajj every year in Saudi Arabia, it brings out several problems. Missing people is among many crucial problems need to be encountered. Some people might have had insufficient knowledge of using tracking system equipment. Other might become a victim of an accident, lose consciousness, or even died, prohibiting them to perform certain activity. For those reasons, people could not send proper SOS message. The major contribution of this paper is the application of the diverse alert method in pilgrims tracking system. It offers a simple yet robust solution to send SOS message by pilgrims during Hajj. Knowledge of context aware computing is assumed herein. This study presents four methods that could be utilized by pilgrims to send SOS. The first method is simple mobile application contains only a button. The second method is based on behavior analysis based off GPS location movement anomaly. The third method is by introducing pressing pattern to smartwatch physical button as a panic button. The fourth method is by identifying certain accelerometer pattern recognition as a sign of emergency situations. Presented method in this paper would be an important part of pilgrims tracking system. The discussion provided here includes easy to use design whilst maintaining tracking accuracy, privacy, and security of its users.

Keywords: context aware computing, emergency alert system, GPS, hajj pilgrim tracking, location-based services

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16288 Inverse Heat Transfer Analysis of a Melting Furnace Using Levenberg-Marquardt Method

Authors: Mohamed Hafid, Marcel Lacroix


This study presents a simple inverse heat transfer procedure for predicting the wall erosion and the time-varying thickness of the protective bank that covers the inside surface of the refractory brick wall of a melting furnace. The direct problem is solved by using the Finite-Volume model. The melting/solidification process is modeled using the enthalpy method. The inverse procedure rests on the Levenberg-Marquardt method combined with the Broyden method. The effect of the location of the temperature sensors and of the measurement noise on the inverse predictions is investigated. Recommendations are made concerning the location of the temperature sensor.

Keywords: melting furnace, inverse heat transfer, enthalpy method, levenberg–marquardt method

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16287 Containment/Penetration Analysis for the Protection of Aircraft Engine External Configuration and Nuclear Power Plant Structures

Authors: Dong Wook Lee, Adrian Mistreanu


The authors have studied a method for analyzing containment and penetration using an explicit nonlinear Finite Element Analysis. This method may be used in the stage of concept design for the protection of external configurations or components of aircraft engines and nuclear power plant structures. This paper consists of the modeling method, the results obtained from the method and the comparison of the results with those calculated from simple analytical method. It shows that the containment capability obtained by proposed method matches well with analytically calculated containment capability.

Keywords: computer aided engineering, containment analysis, finite element analysis, impact analysis, penetration analysis

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16286 A Genetic Based Algorithm to Generate Random Simple Polygons Using a New Polygon Merge Algorithm

Authors: Ali Nourollah, Mohsen Movahedinejad


In this paper a new algorithm to generate random simple polygons from a given set of points in a two dimensional plane is designed. The proposed algorithm uses a genetic algorithm to generate polygons with few vertices. A new merge algorithm is presented which converts any two polygons into a simple polygon. This algorithm at first changes two polygons into a polygonal chain and then the polygonal chain is converted into a simple polygon. The process of converting a polygonal chain into a simple polygon is based on the removal of intersecting edges. The merge algorithm has the time complexity of O ((r+s) *l) where r and s are the size of merging polygons and l shows the number of intersecting edges removed from the polygonal chain. It will be shown that 1 < l < r+s. The experiments results show that the proposed algorithm has the ability to generate a great number of different simple polygons and has better performance in comparison to celebrated algorithms such as space partitioning and steady growth.

Keywords: Divide and conquer, genetic algorithm, merge polygons, Random simple polygon generation.

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16285 Development of In Situ Permeability Test Using Constant Discharge Method for Sandy Soils

Authors: A. Rifa’i, Y. Takeshita, M. Komatsu


The post-rain puddles problem that occurs in the first yard of Prambanan Temple are often disturbing visitor activity. A poodle layer and a drainage system has ever built to avoid such a problem, but puddles still didn’t stop appearing after rain. Permeability parameter needs to be determined by using more simple procedure to find exact method of solution. The instrument modelling were proposed according to the development of field permeability testing instrument. This experiment used proposed Constant Discharge method. Constant Discharge method used a tube poured with constant water flow. The procedure were carried out from unsaturated until saturated soil condition. Volumetric water content (θ) were being monitored by soil moisture measurement device. The results were relationship between k and θ which drawn by numerical approach Van Genutchen model. Parameters θr optimum value obtained from the test was at very dry soil. Coefficient of permeability with a density of 19.8 kN/m3 for unsaturated conditions was in range of 3 x 10-6 cm/sec (Sr= 68 %) until 9.98 x 10-4 cm/sec (Sr= 82 %). The equipment and testing procedure developed in this research was quite effective, simple and easy to be implemented on determining field soil permeability coefficient value of sandy soil. Using constant discharge method in proposed permeability test, value of permeability coefficient under unsaturated condition can be obtained without establish soil water characteristic curve.

Keywords: constant discharge method, in situ permeability test, sandy soil, unsaturated conditions

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16284 Radiochemical Purity of 68Ga-BCA-Peptides: Separation of All 68Ga Species with a Single iTLC Strip

Authors: Anton A. Larenkov, Alesya Ya Maruk


In the present study, highly effective iTLC single strip method for the determination of radiochemical purity (RCP) of 68Ga-BCA-peptides was developed (with no double-developing, changing of eluents or other additional manipulation). In this method iTLC-SG strips and commonly used eluent TFAaq. (3-5 % (v/v)) are used. The method allows determining each of the key radiochemical forms of 68Ga (colloidal, bound, ionic) separately with the peaks separation being no less than 4 σ. Rf = 0.0-0.1 for 68Ga-colloid; Rf = 0.5-0.6 for 68Ga-BCA-peptides; Rf = 0.9-1.0 for ionic 68Ga. The method is simple and fast: For developing length of 75 mm only 4-6 min is required (versus 18-20 min for pharmacopoeial method). The method has been tested on various compounds (including 68Ga-DOTA-TOC, 68Ga-DOTA-TATE, 68Ga-NODAGA-RGD2 etc.). The cross-validation work for every specific form of 68Ga showed good correlation between method developed and control (pharmacopoeial) methods. The method can become convenient and much more informative replacement for pharmacopoeial methods, including HPLC.

Keywords: DOTA-TATE, 68Ga, quality control, radiochemical purity, radiopharmaceuticals, TLC

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16283 Method Development and Validation for Quantification of Active Content and Impurities of Clodinafop Propargyl and Its Enantiomeric Separation by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Kamlesh Vishwakarma, Bipul Behari Saha, Sunilkumar Sing, Abhishek Mishra, Sreenivas Rao


A rapid, sensitive and inexpensive method has been developed for complete analysis of Clodinafop Propargyl. Clodinafop Propargyl enantiomers were separated on chiral column, Chiral Pak AS-H (250 mm. 4.6mm x 5µm) with mobile phase n-hexane: IPA (96:4) at flow rate 1.5 ml/min. The effluent was monitored by UV detector at 230 nm. Clodinafop Propagyl content and impurity quantification was done with reverse phase HPLC. The present study describes a HPLC method using simple mobile phase for the quantification of Clodinafop Propargyl and its impurities. The method was validated and found to be accurate, precise, convenient and effective. Moreover, the lower solvent consumption along with short analytical run time led to a cost effective analytical method.

Keywords: Clodinafop Propargyl, method, validation, HPLC-UV

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16282 Application of Adaptive Particle Filter for Localizing a Mobile Robot Using 3D Camera Data

Authors: Maysam Shahsavari, Seyed Jamalaldin Haddadi


There are several methods to localize a mobile robot such as relative, absolute and probabilistic. In this paper, particle filter due to its simple implementation and the fact that it does not need to know to the starting position will be used. This method estimates the position of the mobile robot using a probabilistic distribution, relying on a known map of the environment instead of predicting it. Afterwards, it updates this estimation by reading input sensors and control commands. To receive information from the surrounding world, distance to obstacles, for example, a Kinect is used which is much cheaper than a laser range finder. Finally, after explaining the Adaptive Particle Filter method and its implementation in detail, we will compare this method with the dead reckoning method and show that this method is much more suitable for situations in which we have a map of the environment.

Keywords: particle filter, localization, methods, odometry, kinect

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16281 Development and Validation of a HPLC Method for Standardization of Methanolic Extract of Hypericum sinaicum Hochst

Authors: Taghreed A. Ibrahim, Atef A. El-Hela, Hala M. El-Hefnawy


The chromatographic profile of methanol extract of Hypericum sinaicum was determined using HPLC-DAD. Apigenin was used as an external standard in the development and validation of the HPLC method. The proposed method is simple, rapid and reliable and can be successfully applied for standardization of Hypericum sinaicum methanol extract.

Keywords: quality control, standardization, falvonoids, methanol extract

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