Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 15

Search results for: Ha Hai Duong

15 Management Practices and Economic Performance of Smallholder Dairy Cattle Farms in Southern Vietnam

Authors: Ngoc-Hieu Vu


Although dairy production in Vietnam is a relatively new agricultural activity, milk production increased remarkably in recent years. Smallholders are still the main drivers for this development, especially in the southern part of the country. However, information on the farming practices is very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize husbandry practices, educational experiences, decision-making practices, constraints, income and expenses of smallholder dairy farms in Southern Vietnam. A total of 200 farms, located in the regions Ho Chi Minh (HCM, N=80 farms), Lam Dong (N=40 farms), Binh Duong (N=40 farms) and Long An (N=40 farms) were included. Between October 2013 and December 2014 farmers were interviewed twice. On average, farms owned 3.200m2, 2.000m2, and 193m2 of pasture, cropping and housing area, respectively. The number of total, milking and dry cows, heifers, and calves were 20.4, 11.6, 4.7, 3.3, and 2.9 head. The number of lactating dairy cows was higher (p<0.001) in HCM (15.5) and Lam Dong (14.7) than in Binh Duong (6.7) and Long An (10.7). Animals were mainly crossbred Holstein-Friesian (HF) cows with at least 75% HF origin (84%), whereas a higher (P<0.001) percentage of purebred HF was found in HCM and Lam Dong and crossbreds in Binh Duong and Long An. Animals were mainly raised in tie-stalls (94%) and machine-milked (80%). Farmers used their own replacement animals (76%), and both genetic and phenotypic information (67%) for selecting sires. Farmers were predominantly educated at primary school level (53%). Major constraints for dairy farming were the lack of capital (43%), diseases (17%), marketing (22%), lack of knowledge (8%) and feed (7%). Monthly profit per lactating cow was superior in Lam Dong (2,817 thousand VND) and HCM (2,798 thousand VND) compared to other regions in Long An (2,597 thousand VND), and Binh Duong (1,775 thousand VND). Regional differences may be mainly attributed to environmental factors, urbanization, and particularly governmental support and the availability of extension and financial institutions. Results from this study provide important information on farming practices of smallholders in Southern Vietnam that are useful in determining regions that need to be addressed by authorities in order to improve dairy production.

Keywords: dairy farms, milk yield, Southern Vietnam, socio-economics

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14 An Assessment of Tai Chi Exercise on Cognitive Performance in Vietnamese Older Adults

Authors: Hung Manh Nguyen, Duong Dai Nguyen


Objective: To evaluate the effects of Tai Chi exercise on cognitive performance of community-dwelling elderly in Vinh city, Vietnam. Design: A randomized controlled trial. Participants: One hundred and two subjected were recruited. Intervention: Subjects were divided randomly into two groups. Tai Chi group was assigned 6-months Tai Chi training. Control group was instructed to maintain their routine daily activities. Outcome measures: Trail Making Test (TMT) is primary outcome measure. Results: Participants in Tai Chi group reported significant improvement in TMT (part A) F(1, 71) = 78.37, p < .001, and in TMT (part B) F(1, 71)= 175.00, p < .001 in comparison with Control group. Conclusion: Tai Chi is beneficial to improve cognitive performance of the elderly.

Keywords: cognitive, elderly, Vietnam, Tai Chi

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13 A Ratiometric Inorganic Phosphate Sensor Based on CdSe/ZnS QDs and Rhodamine 6G-Doped Nanofibers

Authors: Hong Dinh Duong, Jong Il Rhee


In this study, a ratiometric inorganic phosphate sensor was fabricated by a double layer of the rhodamine 6G-doped nanofibers and the CdSe/ZnS QDs-captured polymer. In which, CdSe/ZnS QDs with emission wavelengths of 595nm were synthesized and ligands on their surface were exchanged with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The synthesized MPA-QDs were combined with the mixture of sol-gel of 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS), 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and polyurethane (PU) to build a layer for sensing inorganic phosphate. Another sensing layer was of nanofibers doped R6G which were produced from poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile) by electrospining. The ratio of fluorescence intensities between rhodamin 6G (R6G) and CdSe/ZnS QDs exposed at different phosphate concentrations was used for calculating a linear phosphate concentration range of 0-10mM.

Keywords: nanofiber, QDs, ratiometric phosphate sensor, rhodamine 6G, sol-gel

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12 Empirical Research to Improve Performances of Paddy Columnar Dryer

Authors: Duong Thi Hong, Nguyen Van Hung, Martin Gummert


Good practices of mechanical drying can reduce losses of grain quality. Recently, with demands of higher capacity for paddy drying in the Mekong River Delta of Vietnam, columnar dryers have been introduced rapidly in this area. To improve the technology, this study was conducted to investigate and optimize the parameters for drying Jasmine paddy using an empirical cross-flow columnar dryer. The optimum parameters were resulted in air flow rate and drying temperature that are 1-1.5 m³ s-¹ t-¹ of paddy and 40-42°C, respectively. The investigation also addressed a solution of reversing drying air to achieve the uniformity of grain temperature and quality. Results of this study should be significant for developments of grain drying, contributing to reduce post harvest losses

Keywords: paddy drying, columnar dryer, air flow rate, drying temperature

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11 Synthesis and Functionalization of Gold Nanostars for ROS Production

Authors: H. D. Duong, J. I. Rhee


In this work, gold nanoparticles in star shape (called gold nanostars, GNS) were synthesized and coated by N-(3-aminopropyl) methacrylamide hydrochloride (PA) and mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) for functionalizing their surface by amine and carboxyl groups and then investigated for ROS production. The GNS with big size and multi-tips seem to be superior in singlet oxygen production as compared with that of small GNS and less tips. However, the functioned GNS in small size could also enhance efficiency of singlet oxygen production about double as compared with that of the intact GNS. In combination with methylene blue (MB+), the functioned GNS could enhance the singlet oxygen production of MB+ after 1h of LED750 irradiation and no difference between small size and big size in this reaction was observed. In combination with 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), only GNS coated PA could enhance the singlet oxygen production of ALA and the small size of GNS coated PA was a little higher effect than that of the bigger size. However, GNS coated MPA with small size had strong effect on hydroxyl radical production of ALA.

Keywords: 5-aminolevulinic acid, gold nanostars, methylene blue, ROS production

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10 Integrative System of GDP, Emissions, Health Services and Population Health in Vietnam: Dynamic Panel Data Estimation

Authors: Ha Hai Duong, Amnon Levy Livermore, Kankesu Jayanthakumaran, Oleg Yerokhin


The issues of economic development, the environment and human health have been investigated since 1990s. Previous researchers have found different empirical evidences of the relationship between income and environmental pollution, health as determinant of economic growth, and the effects of income and environmental pollution on health in various regions of the world. This paper concentrates on integrative relationship analysis of GDP, carbon dioxide emissions, and health services and population health in context of Vietnam. We applied the dynamic generalized method of moments (GMM) estimation on datasets of Vietnam’s sixty-three provinces for the years 2000-2010. Our results show the significant positive effect of GDP on emissions and the dependence of population health on emissions and health services. We find the significant relationship between population health and GDP. Additionally, health services are significantly affected by population health and GDP. Finally, the population size too is other important determinant of both emissions and GDP.

Keywords: economic development, emissions, environmental pollution, health

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9 Techniques to Teach Reading at Pre-Reading Stage

Authors: Anh Duong


The three-phase reading lesson has been put forth around the world as the new and innovative framework which is corresponding to the learner-centered trend in English language teaching and learning. Among three stages, pre-reading attracts many teachers’ and researchers’ attention for its vital role in preparing students with knowledge and interest in reading class. The researcher’s desire to exemplify effectiveness of activities prior to text reading has provoked the current study. Three main aspects were investigated in this paper, i.e. teachers’ and student’s perception of pre-reading stage, teachers’ exploitation of pre-reading techniques and teachers’ recommendation of effective pre-reading activities. Aiming at pre-reading techniques for first-year students at English Department, this study involved 200 fresh-men and 10 teachers from Division 1 to participate in the questionnaire survey. Interviews with the teachers and classroom observation were employed as a tool to take an insight into the responses gained from the early instrument. After a detailed procedure of analyzing data, the researcher discovered that thanks to the participants’ acclamation of pre-reading stage, this phase was frequently conducted by the surveyed teachers. Despite the fact that pre-reading activities apparently put a hand in motivating students to read and creating a joyful learning atmosphere, they did not fulfill another function as supporting students’ reading comprehension. Therefore, a range of techniques and notices when preparing and conducting pre-reading phase was detected from the interviewed teachers. The findings assisted the researcher to propose some related pedagogical implications concerning teachers’ source of pre-reading techniques, variations of suggested activities and first-year reading syllabus.

Keywords: pre-reading stage, pre-reading techniques, teaching reading, language teaching

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8 Thermophilic Anaerobic Granular Membrane Distillation Bioreactor for Wastewater Reuse

Authors: Duong Cong Chinh, Shiao-Shing Chen, Le Quang Huy


Membrane distillation (MD) is actually claimed to be a cost-effective separation process when waste heat, alternative energy sources, or wastewater are used. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that a thermophilic anaerobic granular bioreactor is integrated with membrane distillation (ThAnMDB) was investigated. In this study, the laboratory scale anaerobic bioreactor (1.2 litter) was set-up. The bioreactor was maintained at temperature 55 ± 2°C, hydraulic retention time = 0.5 days, organic loading rates of 7 and 10 kg chemical oxygen demand (COD) m³/day. Side-stream direct contact membrane distillation with the polytetrafluoroethylene membrane area was 150 cm². The temperature of the distillate was kept at 25°C. Results show that distillate flux was 19.6 LMH (Liters per square meter per hour) on the first day and gradually decreased to 6.9 LMH after 10 days, and the membrane was not wet. Notably, by directly using the heat from the thermophilic anaerobic for MD separation process, all distilled water from wastewater was reuse as fresh water (electrical conductivity < 120 µs/cm). The ThAnMDB system showed its high pollutant removal performance: chemical oxygen demand (COD) from 99.6 to 99.9%, NH₄⁺ from 60 to 95%, and PO₄³⁻ complete removal. In addition, methane yield was from 0.28 to 0.34 lit CH₄/gram COD removal (80 – 97% of the theoretical) demonstrated that the ThAnMDB system was quite stable. The achievement of the ThAnMDB is not only in removing pollutants and reusing wastewater but also in absolutely unnecessarily adding alkaline to the anaerobic bioreactor system.

Keywords: high rate anaerobic digestion, membrane distillation, thermophilic anaerobic, wastewater reuse

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7 Empirical Examination of High Performance Work System, Organizational Commitment and Organizational Citizen Behavior: A Mediation of Model of Vietnam Organizations

Authors: Giang Vu, Duong Nguyen, Yuan-Ling Chen


Vietnam is a fast developing country with highly economic growth, and Vietnam organizations strive to utilize high performance work system (HPWS) in reinforcing employee in-role performance. HPWS, a bundle of human resource (HR) practices, are composed of eight sets of HR practices, namely selective staffing, extensive training, internal mobility, employment security, clear job description, result-oriented appraisal, incentive reward, and participation. However, whether HPWS stimulate employee extra-role behaviors remains understudied in a booming economic context. In this study, we aim to investigate organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) in a Vietnam context and, as a central issue, disentangle how HPWS elicits in employee OCB. On the other hand, recently, a deliberation of so-called 'black-box' HPWS issue has explored the role of employee commitment, suggesting that organizational commitment is a compelling source of employee OCB. We draw upon social exchange theory to predict that when employees perceive the organizational investment, like HPWS, in heightening their abilities, knowledge, and motivation, they are more likely to pay back with commitment; consequently, they will take initiatives in OCB. Hence, we hypothesize an individual level framework, in which organizational commitment mediates the positive relationship between HPWS and OCB. We collected data on HPWS, organizational commitment, OCB, and demographic variables, all at line managers of Vietnamese firms in Hanoi and Hochiminh. We conclude with research findings, implications, and future research suggestions.

Keywords: high performance work system, organizational citizenship behavior, organizational commitment, Vietnam

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6 Memory Retrieval and Implicit Prosody during Reading: Anaphora Resolution by L1 and L2 Speakers of English

Authors: Duong Thuy Nguyen, Giulia Bencini


The present study examined structural and prosodic factors on the computation of antecedent-reflexive relationships and sentence comprehension in native English (L1) and Vietnamese-English bilinguals (L2). Participants read sentences presented on the computer screen in one of three presentation formats aimed at manipulating prosodic parsing: word-by-word (RSVP), phrase-segment (self-paced), or whole-sentence (self-paced), then completed a grammaticality rating and a comprehension task (following Pratt & Fernandez, 2016). The design crossed three factors: syntactic structure (simple; complex), grammaticality (target-match; target-mismatch) and presentation format. An example item is provided in (1): (1) The actress that (Mary/John) interviewed at the awards ceremony (about two years ago/organized outside the theater) described (herself/himself) as an extreme workaholic). Results showed that overall, both L1 and L2 speakers made use of a good-enough processing strategy at the expense of more detailed syntactic analyses. L1 and L2 speakers’ comprehension and grammaticality judgements were negatively affected by the most prosodically disrupting condition (word-by-word). However, the two groups demonstrated differences in their performance in the other two reading conditions. For L1 speakers, the whole-sentence and the phrase-segment formats were both facilitative in the grammaticality rating and comprehension tasks; for L2, compared with the whole-sentence condition, the phrase-segment paradigm did not significantly improve accuracy or comprehension. These findings are consistent with the findings of Pratt & Fernandez (2016), who found a similar pattern of results in the processing of subject-verb agreement relations using the same experimental paradigm and prosodic manipulation with English L1 and L2 English-Spanish speakers. The results provide further support for a Good-Enough cue model of sentence processing that integrates cue-based retrieval and implicit prosodic parsing (Pratt & Fernandez, 2016) and highlights similarities and differences between L1 and L2 sentence processing and comprehension.

Keywords: anaphora resolution, bilingualism, implicit prosody, sentence processing

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5 Maresin Like 1 Treatment: Curbing the Pathogenesis of Behavioral Dysfunction and Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model

Authors: Yan Lu, Song Hong, Janakiraman Udaiyappan, Aarti Nagayach, Quoc-Viet A. Duong, Masao Morita, Shun Saito, Yuichi Kobayashi, Yuhai, Zhao, Hongying Peng, Nicholas B. Pham, Walter J Lukiw, Christopher A. Vuong, Nicolas G. Bazan


Aims: Neurodegeneration and behavior dysfunction occurs in patients with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), and as the disease progresses many patients develop cognitive impairment. 5XFAD mouse model of AD is widely used to study AD pathogenesis and treatment. This study aimed to investigate the effect of maresin like 1 (MaR-L1) treatment in AD pathology using 5XFAD mice. Methods: We tested 12-month-old male 5XFAD mice and wild type control mice treated with MaR-L1 in a battery of behavioral tasks. We performed open field test, beam walking test, clasping test, inverted grid test, acetone test, marble burring test, elevated plus maze test, cross maze test and novel object recognition test. We also studied neuronal loss, amyloid β burden, and inflammation in the brains of 5XFAD mice using immunohistology and Western blotting. Results: MaR-L1 treatment to the 5XFAD mice showed improved cognitive function of 5XFAD mice. MaR-L1 showed decreased anxiety behavior in open field test and marble burring test, increased muscular strength in the beam walking test, clasping test and inverted grid test. Cognitive function was improved in MaR-L1 treated 5XFAD mice in the novel object recognition test. MaR-L1 prevented neuronal loss and aberrant inflammation. Conclusion: Our finding suggests that behavioral abnormalities were normalized by the administration of MaR-L1 and the neuroprotective role of MaR-L1 in the AD. It also indicates that MaR-L1 treatment is able to prevent and or ameliorate neuronal loss and aberrant inflammation. Further experiments to validate the results are warranted using other AD models in the future.

Keywords: Alzheimer's disease, motor and cognitive behavior, 5XFAD mice, Maresin Like 1, microglial cell, astrocyte, neurodegeneration, inflammation, resolution of inflammation

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4 Factors Influencing Milk Yield, Quality, and Revenue of Dairy Farms in Southern Vietnam

Authors: Ngoc-Hieu Vu


Dairy production in Vietnam is a relatively new agricultural activity and milk production increased remarkably in recent years. Smallholders are still the main drivers for this development, especially in the southern part of the country. However, information on the farming practices is very limited. Therefore, this study aimed to determine factors influencing milk yield and quality (milk fat, total solids, solids-not-fat, total number of bacteria, and somatic cell count) and revenue of dairy farms in Southern Vietnam. The collection of data was at the farm level; individual animal records were unavailable. The 539 studied farms were located in the provinces Lam Dong (N=111 farms), Binh Duong (N=69 farms), Long An (N=174 farms), and Ho Chi Minh city (N=185 farms). The dataset included 9221 monthly test-day records of the farms from January 2013 to May 2015. Seasons were defined as rainy and dry. Farms sizes were classified as small (< 10 milking cows), medium (10 to 19 milking cows) and large (≥ 20 milking cows). The model for each trait contained year-season and farm region-farm size as subclass fixed effects, and individual farm and residual as random effects. Results showed that year-season, region, and farm size were determining sources of variation affecting all studied traits. Milk yield was higher in dry than in rainy seasons (P < 0.05), while it tended to increase from years 2013 to 2015. Large farms had higher yields (445.6 kg/cow) than small (396.7 kg/cow) and medium (428.0 kg/cow) farms (P < 0.05). Small farms, in contrast, were superior to large farms in terms of milk fat, total solids, solids-not-fat, total number of bacteria, and somatic cell count than large farms (P < 0.05). Revenue per cow was higher in large compared with medium and small farms. In conclusion, large farms achieved higher milk yields and revenues per cow, while small farms were superior in milk quality. Overall, milk yields were low and better training, financial support and marketing opportunities for farmers are needed to improve dairy production and increase farm revenues in Southern Vietnam.

Keywords: farm size, milk yield and quality, season, Southern Vietnam

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3 Proposed Design of an Optimized Transient Cavity Picosecond Ultraviolet Laser

Authors: Marilou Cadatal-Raduban, Minh Hong Pham, Duong Van Pham, Tu Nguyen Xuan, Mui Viet Luong, Kohei Yamanoi, Toshihiko Shimizu, Nobuhiko Sarukura, Hung Dai Nguyen


There is a great deal of interest in developing all-solid-state tunable ultrashort pulsed lasers emitting in the ultraviolet (UV) region for applications such as micromachining, investigation of charge carrier relaxation in conductors, and probing of ultrafast chemical processes. However, direct short-pulse generation is not as straight forward in solid-state gain media as it is for near-IR tunable solid-state lasers such as Ti:sapphire due to the difficulty of obtaining continuous wave laser operation, which is required for Kerr lens mode-locking schemes utilizing spatial or temporal Kerr type nonlinearity. In this work, the transient cavity method, which was reported to generate ultrashort laser pulses in dye lasers, is extended to a solid-state gain medium. Ce:LiCAF was chosen among the rare-earth-doped fluoride laser crystals emitting in the UV region because of its broad tunability (from 280 to 325 nm) and enough bandwidth to generate 3-fs pulses, sufficiently large effective gain cross section (6.0 x10⁻¹⁸ cm²) favorable for oscillators, and a high saturation fluence (115 mJ/cm²). Numerical simulations are performed to investigate the spectro-temporal evolution of the broadband UV laser emission from Ce:LiCAF, represented as a system of two homogeneous broadened singlet states, by solving the rate equations extended to multiple wavelengths. The goal is to find the appropriate cavity length and Q-factor to achieve the optimal photon cavity decay time and pumping energy for resonator transients that will lead to ps UV laser emission from a Ce:LiCAF crystal pumped by the fourth harmonics (266nm) of a Nd:YAG laser. Results show that a single ps pulse can be generated from a 1-mm, 1 mol% Ce³⁺-doped LiCAF crystal using an output coupler with 10% reflectivity (low-Q) and an oscillator cavity that is 2-mm long (short cavity). This technique can be extended to other fluoride-based solid-state laser gain media.

Keywords: rare-earth-doped fluoride gain medium, transient cavity, ultrashort laser, ultraviolet laser

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2 Emissions and Total Cost of Ownership Assessment of Hybrid Propulsion Concepts for Bus Transport with Compressed Natural Gases or Diesel Engine

Authors: Volker Landersheim, Daria Manushyna, Thinh Pham, Dai-Duong Tran, Thomas Geury, Omar Hegazy, Steven Wilkins


Air pollution is one of the emerging problems in our society. Targets of reduction of CO₂ emissions address low-carbon and resource-efficient transport. (Plug-in) hybrid electric propulsion concepts offer the possibility to reduce total cost of ownership (TCO) and emissions for public transport vehicles (e.g., bus application). In this context, typically, diesel engines are used to form the hybrid propulsion system of the vehicle. Though the technological development of diesel engines experience major advantages, some challenges such as the high amount of particle emissions remain relevant. Gaseous fuels (i.e., compressed natural gases (CNGs) or liquefied petroleum gases (LPGs) represent an attractive alternative to diesel because of their composition. In the framework of the research project 'Optimised Real-world Cost-Competitive Modular Hybrid Architecture' (ORCA), which was funded by the EU, two different hybrid-electric propulsion concepts have been investigated: one using a diesel engine as internal combustion engine and one using CNG as fuel. The aim of the current study is to analyze specific benefits for the aforementioned hybrid propulsion systems for predefined driving scenarios with regard to emissions and total cost of ownership in bus application. Engine models based on experimental data for diesel and CNG were developed. For the purpose of designing optimal energy management strategies for each propulsion system, maps-driven or quasi-static models for specific engine types are used in the simulation framework. An analogous modelling approach has been chosen to represent emissions. This paper compares the two concepts regarding their CO₂ and NOx emissions. This comparison is performed for relevant bus missions (urban, suburban, with and without zero-emission zone) and with different energy management strategies. In addition to the emissions, also the downsizing potential of the combustion engine has been analysed to minimize the powertrain TCO (pTCO) for plug-in hybrid electric buses. The results of the performed analyses show that the hybrid vehicle concept using the CNG engine shows advantages both with respect to emissions as well as to pTCO. The pTCO is 10% lower, CO₂ emissions are 13% lower, and the NOx emissions are more than 50% lower than with the diesel combustion engine. These results are consistent across all usage profiles under investigation.

Keywords: bus transport, emissions, hybrid propulsion, pTCO, CNG

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1 Potential Benefits and Adaptation of Climate Smart Practices by Small Farmers Under Three-Crop Rice Production System in Vietnam

Authors: Azeem Tariq, Stephane De Tourdonnet, Lars Stoumann Jensen, Reiner Wassmann, Bjoern Ole Sander, Quynh Duong Vu, Trinh Van Mai, Andreas De Neergaard


Rice growing area is increasing to meet the food demand of increasing population. Mostly, rice is growing on lowland, small landholder fields in most part of the world, which is one of the major sources of greenhouse gases (GHG) emissions from agriculture fields. The strategies such as, altering water and residues (carbon) management practices are assumed to be essential to mitigate the GHG emissions from flooded rice system. The actual implementation and potential of these measures on small farmer fields is still challenging. A field study was conducted on red river delta in Northern Vietnam to identify the potential challenges and barriers to the small rice farmers for implementation of climate smart rice practices. The objective of this study was to develop and access the feasibility of climate smart rice prototypes under actual farmer conditions. Field and scientific oriented framework was used to meet our objective. The methodological framework composed of six steps: i) identification of stakeholders and possible options, ii) assessment of barrios, drawbacks/advantages of new technologies, iii) prototype design, iv) assessment of mitigation potential of each prototype, v) scenario building and vi) scenario assessment. A farm survey was conducted to identify the existing farm practices and major constraints of small rice farmers. We proposed the two water (pre transplant+midseason drainage and early+midseason drainage) and one straw (full residue incorporation) management option keeping in views the farmers constraints and barriers for implementation. To test new typologies with existing prototypes (midseason drainage, partial residue incorporation) at farmer local conditions, a participatory field experiment was conducted for two consecutive rice seasons at farmer fields. Following the results of each season a workshop was conducted with stakeholders (farmers, village leaders, cooperatives, irrigation staff, extensionists, agricultural officers) at local and district level to get feedbacks on new tested prototypes and to develop possible scenarios for climate smart rice production practices. The farm analysis survey showed that non-availability of cheap labor and lacks of alternatives for straw management influence the small farmers to burn the residues in the fields except to use for composting or other purposes. Our field results revealed that application of early season drainage significantly mitigates (40-60%) the methane emissions from residue incorporation. Early season drainage was more efficient and easy to control under cooperate manage system than individually managed water system, and it leads to both economic (9-11% high rice yield, low cost of production, reduced nutrient loses) and environmental (mitigate methane emissions) benefits. The participatory field study allows the assessment of adaptation potential and possible benefits of climate smart practices on small farmer fields. If farmers have no other residue management option, full residue incorporation with early plus midseason drainage is adaptable and beneficial (both environmentally and economically) management option for small rice farmers.

Keywords: adaptation, climate smart agriculture, constrainsts, smallholders

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