Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 161

Search results for: generalization

161 An Evaluation Model for Automatic Map Generalization

Authors: Quynhan Tran, Hong Fan, Quockhanh Pham

Abstract:

Automatic map generalization is a well-known problem in cartography. The development of map generalization research accompanied the development of cartography. The traditional map is plotted manually by cartographic experts. The paper studies none-scale automation generalization of resident polygons and house marker symbol, proposes methodology to evaluate the result maps based on minimal spanning tree. In this paper, the minimal spanning tree before and after map generalization is compared to evaluate whether the generalization result maintain the geographical distribution of features. The minimal spanning tree in vector format is firstly converted into a raster format and the grid size is 2mm (distance on the map). The statistical number of matching grid before and after map generalization and the ratio of overlapping grid to the total grids is calculated. Evaluation experiments are conduct to verify the results. Experiments show that this methodology can give an objective evaluation for the feature distribution and give specialist an hand while they evaluate result maps of none-scale automation generalization with their eyes.

Keywords: automatic cartography generalization, evaluation model, geographic feature distribution, minimal spanning tree

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160 Digital Geomatics Trends for Production and Updating Topographic Map by Using Digital Generalization Procedures

Authors: O. Z. Jasim

Abstract:

An accuracy digital map must satisfy the users for two main requirements, first, map must be visually readable and second, all the map elements must be in a good representation. These two requirements hold especially true for map generalization which aims at simplifying the representation of cartographic data. Different scales of maps are very important for any decision in any maps with different scales such as master plan and all the infrastructures maps in civil engineering. Cartographer cannot project the data onto a piece of paper, but he has to worry about its readability. The map layout of any geodatabase is very important, this layout is help to read, analyze or extract information from the map. There are many principles and guidelines of generalization that can be find in the cartographic literature. A manual reduction method for generalization depends on experience of map maker and therefore produces incompatible results. Digital generalization, rooted from conventional cartography, has become an increasing concern in both Geographic Information System (GIS) and mapping fields. This project is intended to review the state of the art of the new technology and help to understand the needs and plans for the implementation of digital generalization capability as well as increase the knowledge of production topographic maps.

Keywords: cartography, digital generalization, mapping, GIS

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159 Research on Urban Point of Interest Generalization Method Based on Mapping Presentation

Authors: Chengming Li, Yong Yin, Peipei Guo, Xiaoli Liu

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Without taking account of the attribute richness of POI (point of interest) data and spatial distribution limited by roads, a POI generalization method considering both attribute information and spatial distribution has been proposed against the existing point generalization algorithm merely focusing on overall information of point groups. Hierarchical characteristic of urban POI information expression has been firstly analyzed to point out the measurement feature of the corresponding hierarchy. On this basis, an urban POI generalizing strategy has been put forward: POIs urban road network have been divided into three distribution pattern; corresponding generalization methods have been proposed according to the characteristic of POI data in different distribution patterns. Experimental results showed that the method taking into account both attribute information and spatial distribution characteristics of POI can better implement urban POI generalization in the mapping presentation.

Keywords: POI, road network, selection method, spatial information expression, distribution pattern

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158 Impact of Map Generalization in Spatial Analysis

Authors: Lin Li, P. G. R. N. I. Pussella

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When representing spatial data and their attributes on different types of maps, the scale plays a key role in the process of map generalization. The process is consisted with two main operators such as selection and omission. Once some data were selected, they would undergo of several geometrical changing processes such as elimination, simplification, smoothing, exaggeration, displacement, aggregation and size reduction. As a result of these operations at different levels of data, the geometry of the spatial features such as length, sinuosity, orientation, perimeter and area would be altered. This would be worst in the case of preparation of small scale maps, since the cartographer has not enough space to represent all the features on the map. What the GIS users do is when they wanted to analyze a set of spatial data; they retrieve a data set and does the analysis part without considering very important characteristics such as the scale, the purpose of the map and the degree of generalization. Further, the GIS users use and compare different maps with different degrees of generalization. Sometimes, GIS users are going beyond the scale of the source map using zoom in facility and violate the basic cartographic rule 'it is not suitable to create a larger scale map using a smaller scale map'. In the study, the effect of map generalization for GIS analysis would be discussed as the main objective. It was used three digital maps with different scales such as 1:10000, 1:50000 and 1:250000 which were prepared by the Survey Department of Sri Lanka, the National Mapping Agency of Sri Lanka. It was used common features which were on above three maps and an overlay analysis was done by repeating the data with different combinations. Road data, River data and Land use data sets were used for the study. A simple model, to find the best place for a wild life park, was used to identify the effects. The results show remarkable effects on different degrees of generalization processes. It can see that different locations with different geometries were received as the outputs from this analysis. The study suggests that there should be reasonable methods to overcome this effect. It can be recommended that, as a solution, it would be very reasonable to take all the data sets into a common scale and do the analysis part.

Keywords: generalization, GIS, scales, spatial analysis

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157 Application of Argumentation for Improving the Classification Accuracy in Inductive Concept Formation

Authors: Vadim Vagin, Marina Fomina, Oleg Morosin

Abstract:

This paper contains the description of argumentation approach for the problem of inductive concept formation. It is proposed to use argumentation, based on defeasible reasoning with justification degrees, to improve the quality of classification models, obtained by generalization algorithms. The experiment’s results on both clear and noisy data are also presented.

Keywords: argumentation, justification degrees, inductive concept formation, noise, generalization

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
156 Generalization of Tau Approximant and Error Estimate of Integral Form of Tau Methods for Some Class of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. I. Ma’ali, R. B. Adeniyi, A. Y. Badeggi, U. Mohammed

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An error estimation of the integrated formulation of the Lanczos tau method for some class of ordinary differential equations was reported. This paper is concern with the generalization of tau approximants and their corresponding error estimates for some class of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) characterized by m + s =3 (i.e for m =1, s=2; m=2, s=1; and m=3, s=0) where m and s are the order of differential equations and number of overdetermination, respectively. The general result obtained were validated with some numerical examples.

Keywords: approximant, error estimate, tau method, overdetermination

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155 Exponentiated Transmuted Weibull Distribution: A Generalization of the Weibull Probability Distribution

Authors: Abd El Hady N. Ebraheim

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This paper introduces a new generalization of the two parameter Weibull distribution. To this end, the quadratic rank transmutation map has been used. This new distribution is named exponentiated transmuted Weibull (ETW) distribution. The ETW distribution has the advantage of being capable of modeling various shapes of aging and failure criteria. Furthermore, eleven lifetime distributions such as the Weibull, exponentiated Weibull, Rayleigh and exponential distributions, among others follow as special cases. The properties of the new model are discussed and the maximum likelihood estimation is used to estimate the parameters. Explicit expressions are derived for the quantiles. The moments of the distribution are derived, and the order statistics are examined.

Keywords: exponentiated, inversion method, maximum likelihood estimation, transmutation map

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154 Every g-Riesz Basis is a Riesz Basis

Authors: Mehdi Rashidi-Kouchi, Asghar Rahimi

Abstract:

Sun introduced a generalization of frames and showed that this includes more other cases of generalizations of frame concept and proved that many basic properties can be derived within this more general context. Another generalization of frames is frames in Hilbert C*-module. It has been proved that every g-frame in Hilbert space H respect to Hilbert space K is a frame for B(H;K) as Hilbert C*-module. We show that every g-Riesz basis for Hilbert space H respect to K by add a condition is a Riesz basis for Hilbert B(K)-module B(H;K). Also, we investigate similar result for g-orthonormal and orthogonal bases.

Keywords: frame, g-frame, Riesz basis, g-Riesz basis, Hilbert C*-module

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153 Characterization of Monoids by a New Generalization of Flatness Property

Authors: Mahdiyeh Abbasi, Akbar Golchin

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It is well-known that, using principal weak flatness property, some important monoids are characterized, such as regular monoids, left almost regular monoids, and so on. In this article, we define a generalization of principal weak flatness called GP-Flatness, and will characterize monoids by this property of their right (Rees factor) acts. Also we investigate new classes of monoids called generally regular monoids and generally left almost regular monoids.

Keywords: G-left stabilizing, GP-flatness, generally regular, principal weak flatness

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152 Pattern Identification in Statistical Process Control Using Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: M. Pramila Devi, N. V. N. Indra Kiran

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Control charts, predominantly in the form of X-bar chart, are important tools in statistical process control (SPC). They are useful in determining whether a process is behaving as intended or there are some unnatural causes of variation. A process is out of control if a point falls outside the control limits or a series of point’s exhibit an unnatural pattern. In this paper, a study is carried out on four training algorithms for CCPs recognition. For those algorithms optimal structure is identified and then they are studied for type I and type II errors for generalization without early stopping and with early stopping and the best one is proposed.

Keywords: control chart pattern recognition, neural network, backpropagation, generalization, early stopping

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151 A Generalization of Planar Pascal’s Triangle to Polynomial Expansion and Connection with Sierpinski Patterns

Authors: Wajdi Mohamed Ratemi

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The very well-known stacked sets of numbers referred to as Pascal’s triangle present the coefficients of the binomial expansion of the form (x+y)n. This paper presents an approach (the Staircase Horizontal Vertical, SHV-method) to the generalization of planar Pascal’s triangle for polynomial expansion of the form (x+y+z+w+r+⋯)n. The presented generalization of Pascal’s triangle is different from other generalizations of Pascal’s triangles given in the literature. The coefficients of the generalized Pascal’s triangles, presented in this work, are generated by inspection, using embedded Pascal’s triangles. The coefficients of I-variables expansion are generated by horizontally laying out the Pascal’s elements of (I-1) variables expansion, in a staircase manner, and multiplying them with the relevant columns of vertically laid out classical Pascal’s elements, hence avoiding factorial calculations for generating the coefficients of the polynomial expansion. Furthermore, the classical Pascal’s triangle has some pattern built into it regarding its odd and even numbers. Such pattern is known as the Sierpinski’s triangle. In this study, a presentation of Sierpinski-like patterns of the generalized Pascal’s triangles is given. Applications related to those coefficients of the binomial expansion (Pascal’s triangle), or polynomial expansion (generalized Pascal’s triangles) can be in areas of combinatorics, and probabilities.

Keywords: pascal’s triangle, generalized pascal’s triangle, polynomial expansion, sierpinski’s triangle, combinatorics, probabilities

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150 Bivariate Generalization of q-α-Bernstein Polynomials

Authors: Tarul Garg, P. N. Agrawal

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We propose to define the q-analogue of the α-Bernstein Kantorovich operators and then introduce the q-bivariate generalization of these operators to study the approximation of functions of two variables. We obtain the rate of convergence of these bivariate operators by means of the total modulus of continuity, partial modulus of continuity and the Peetre’s K-functional for continuous functions. Further, in order to study the approximation of functions of two variables in a space bigger than the space of continuous functions, i.e. Bögel space; the GBS (Generalized Boolean Sum) of the q-bivariate operators is considered and degree of approximation is discussed for the Bögel continuous and Bögel differentiable functions with the aid of the Lipschitz class and the mixed modulus of smoothness.

Keywords: Bögel continuous, Bögel differentiable, generalized Boolean sum, K-functional, mixed modulus of smoothness

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149 Privacy Preserving Data Publishing Based on Sensitivity in Context of Big Data Using Hive

Authors: P. Srinivasa Rao, K. Venkatesh Sharma, G. Sadhya Devi, V. Nagesh

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Privacy Preserving Data Publication is the main concern in present days because the data being published through the internet has been increasing day by day. This huge amount of data was named as Big Data by its size. This project deals the privacy preservation in the context of Big Data using a data warehousing solution called hive. We implemented Nearest Similarity Based Clustering (NSB) with Bottom-up generalization to achieve (v,l)-anonymity. (v,l)-Anonymity deals with the sensitivity vulnerabilities and ensures the individual privacy. We also calculate the sensitivity levels by simple comparison method using the index values, by classifying the different levels of sensitivity. The experiments were carried out on the hive environment to verify the efficiency of algorithms with Big Data. This framework also supports the execution of existing algorithms without any changes. The model in the paper outperforms than existing models.

Keywords: sensitivity, sensitive level, clustering, Privacy Preserving Data Publication (PPDP), bottom-up generalization, Big Data

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148 Loss Function Optimization for CNN-Based Fingerprint Anti-Spoofing

Authors: Yehjune Heo

Abstract:

As biometric systems become widely deployed, the security of identification systems can be easily attacked by various spoof materials. This paper contributes to finding a reliable and practical anti-spoofing method using Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs) based on the types of loss functions and optimizers. The types of CNNs used in this paper include AlexNet, VGGNet, and ResNet. By using various loss functions including Cross-Entropy, Center Loss, Cosine Proximity, and Hinge Loss, and various loss optimizers which include Adam, SGD, RMSProp, Adadelta, Adagrad, and Nadam, we obtained significant performance changes. We realize that choosing the correct loss function for each model is crucial since different loss functions lead to different errors on the same evaluation. By using a subset of the Livdet 2017 database, we validate our approach to compare the generalization power. It is important to note that we use a subset of LiveDet and the database is the same across all training and testing for each model. This way, we can compare the performance, in terms of generalization, for the unseen data across all different models. The best CNN (AlexNet) with the appropriate loss function and optimizers result in more than 3% of performance gain over the other CNN models with the default loss function and optimizer. In addition to the highest generalization performance, this paper also contains the models with high accuracy associated with parameters and mean average error rates to find the model that consumes the least memory and computation time for training and testing. Although AlexNet has less complexity over other CNN models, it is proven to be very efficient. For practical anti-spoofing systems, the deployed version should use a small amount of memory and should run very fast with high anti-spoofing performance. For our deployed version on smartphones, additional processing steps, such as quantization and pruning algorithms, have been applied in our final model.

Keywords: anti-spoofing, CNN, fingerprint recognition, loss function, optimizer

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147 Theorem on Inconsistency of The Classical Logic

Authors: T. J. Stepien, L. T. Stepien

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This abstract concerns an extremely fundamental issue. Namely, the fundamental problem of science is the issue of consistency. In this abstract, we present the theorem saying that the classical calculus of quantifiers is inconsistent in the traditional sense. At the beginning, we introduce a notation, and later we remind the definition of the consistency in the traditional sense. S1 is the set of all well-formed formulas in the calculus of quantifiers. RS1 denotes the set of all rules over the set S1. Cn(R, X) is the set of all formulas standardly provable from X by rules R, where R is a subset of RS1, and X is a subset of S1. The couple < R,X > is called a system, whenever R is a subset of RS1, and X is a subset of S1. Definition: The system < R,X > is consistent in the traditional sense if there does not exist any formula from the set S1, such that this formula and its negation are provable from X, by using rules from R. Finally, < R0+, L2 > denotes the classical calculus of quantifiers, where R0+ consists of Modus Ponens and the generalization rule. L2 is the set of all formulas valid in the classical calculus of quantifiers. The Main Result: The system < R0+, L2 > is inconsistent in the traditional sense.

Keywords: classical calculus of quantifiers, classical predicate calculus, generalization rule, consistency in the traditional sense, Modus Ponens

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146 Generalization of Clustering Coefficient on Lattice Networks Applied to Criminal Networks

Authors: Christian H. Sanabria-Montaña, Rodrigo Huerta-Quintanilla

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A lattice network is a special type of network in which all nodes have the same number of links, and its boundary conditions are periodic. The most basic lattice network is the ring, a one-dimensional network with periodic border conditions. In contrast, the Cartesian product of d rings forms a d-dimensional lattice network. An analytical expression currently exists for the clustering coefficient in this type of network, but the theoretical value is valid only up to certain connectivity value; in other words, the analytical expression is incomplete. Here we obtain analytically the clustering coefficient expression in d-dimensional lattice networks for any link density. Our analytical results show that the clustering coefficient for a lattice network with density of links that tend to 1, leads to the value of the clustering coefficient of a fully connected network. We developed a model on criminology in which the generalized clustering coefficient expression is applied. The model states that delinquents learn the know-how of crime business by sharing knowledge, directly or indirectly, with their friends of the gang. This generalization shed light on the network properties, which is important to develop new models in different fields where network structure plays an important role in the system dynamic, such as criminology, evolutionary game theory, econophysics, among others.

Keywords: clustering coefficient, criminology, generalized, regular network d-dimensional

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145 Review of Theories and Applications of Genetic Programing in Sediment Yield Modeling

Authors: Adesoji Tunbosun Jaiyeola, Josiah Adeyemo

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Sediment yield can be considered to be the total sediment load that leaves a drainage basin. The knowledge of the quantity of sediments present in a river at a particular time can lead to better flood capacity in reservoirs and consequently help to control over-bane flooding. Furthermore, as sediment accumulates in the reservoir, it gradually loses its ability to store water for the purposes for which it was built. The development of hydrological models to forecast the quantity of sediment present in a reservoir helps planners and managers of water resources systems, to understand the system better in terms of its problems and alternative ways to address them. The application of artificial intelligence models and technique to such real-life situations have proven to be an effective approach of solving complex problems. This paper makes an extensive review of literature relevant to the theories and applications of evolutionary algorithms, and most especially genetic programming. The successful applications of genetic programming as a soft computing technique were reviewed in sediment modelling and other branches of knowledge. Some fundamental issues such as benchmark, generalization ability, bloat and over-fitting and other open issues relating to the working principles of GP, which needs to be addressed by the GP community were also highlighted. This review aim to give GP theoreticians, researchers and the general community of GP enough research direction, valuable guide and also keep all stakeholders abreast of the issues which need attention during the next decade for the advancement of GP.

Keywords: benchmark, bloat, generalization, genetic programming, over-fitting, sediment yield

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144 Generative Adversarial Network Based Fingerprint Anti-Spoofing Limitations

Authors: Yehjune Heo

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Fingerprint Anti-Spoofing approaches have been actively developed and applied in real-world applications. One of the main problems for Fingerprint Anti-Spoofing is not robust to unseen samples, especially in real-world scenarios. A possible solution will be to generate artificial, but realistic fingerprint samples and use them for training in order to achieve good generalization. This paper contains experimental and comparative results with currently popular GAN based methods and uses realistic synthesis of fingerprints in training in order to increase the performance. Among various GAN models, the most popular StyleGAN is used for the experiments. The CNN models were first trained with the dataset that did not contain generated fake images and the accuracy along with the mean average error rate were recorded. Then, the fake generated images (fake images of live fingerprints and fake images of spoof fingerprints) were each combined with the original images (real images of live fingerprints and real images of spoof fingerprints), and various CNN models were trained. The best performances for each CNN model, trained with the dataset of generated fake images and each time the accuracy and the mean average error rate, were recorded. We observe that current GAN based approaches need significant improvements for the Anti-Spoofing performance, although the overall quality of the synthesized fingerprints seems to be reasonable. We include the analysis of this performance degradation, especially with a small number of samples. In addition, we suggest several approaches towards improved generalization with a small number of samples, by focusing on what GAN based approaches should learn and should not learn.

Keywords: anti-spoofing, CNN, fingerprint recognition, GAN

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143 Approximation by Generalized Lupaş-Durrmeyer Operators with Two Parameter α and β

Authors: Preeti Sharma

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This paper deals with the Stancu type generalization of Lupaş-Durrmeyer operators. We establish some direct results in the polynomial weighted space of continuous functions defined on the interval [0, 1]. Also, Voronovskaja type theorem is studied.

Keywords: Lupas-Durrmeyer operators, polya distribution, weighted approximation, rate of convergence, modulus of continuity

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142 Optimization Modeling of the Hybrid Antenna Array for the DoA Estimation

Authors: Somayeh Komeylian

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The direction of arrival (DoA) estimation is the crucial aspect of the radar technologies for detecting and dividing several signal sources. In this scenario, the antenna array output modeling involves numerous parameters including noise samples, signal waveform, signal directions, signal number, and signal to noise ratio (SNR), and thereby the methods of the DoA estimation rely heavily on the generalization characteristic for establishing a large number of the training data sets. Hence, we have analogously represented the two different optimization models of the DoA estimation; (1) the implementation of the decision directed acyclic graph (DDAG) for the multiclass least-squares support vector machine (LS-SVM), and (2) the optimization method of the deep neural network (DNN) radial basis function (RBF). We have rigorously verified that the LS-SVM DDAG algorithm is capable of accurately classifying DoAs for the three classes. However, the accuracy and robustness of the DoA estimation are still highly sensitive to technological imperfections of the antenna arrays such as non-ideal array design and manufacture, array implementation, mutual coupling effect, and background radiation and thereby the method may fail in representing high precision for the DoA estimation. Therefore, this work has a further contribution on developing the DNN-RBF model for the DoA estimation for overcoming the limitations of the non-parametric and data-driven methods in terms of array imperfection and generalization. The numerical results of implementing the DNN-RBF model have confirmed the better performance of the DoA estimation compared with the LS-SVM algorithm. Consequently, we have analogously evaluated the performance of utilizing the two aforementioned optimization methods for the DoA estimation using the concept of the mean squared error (MSE).

Keywords: DoA estimation, Adaptive antenna array, Deep Neural Network, LS-SVM optimization model, Radial basis function, and MSE

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141 Jensen's Inequality and M-Convex Functions

Authors: Yamin Sayyari

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In this paper, we generalized the Jensen's inequality for m-convex functions and also we present a correction of Jensen's inequality which is a better than the generalization of this inequality for m-convex functions. Finally, we have found new lower and new upper bounds for Jensen's discrete inequality.

Keywords: Jensen's inequality, m-convex function, Convex function, Inequality

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140 Measurement of CES Production Functions Considering Energy as an Input

Authors: Donglan Zha, Jiansong Si

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Because of its flexibility, CES attracts much interest in economic growth and programming models, and the macroeconomics or micro-macro models. This paper focuses on the development, estimating methods of CES production function considering energy as an input. We leave for future research work of relaxing the assumption of constant returns to scale, the introduction of potential input factors, and the generalization method of the optimal nested form of multi-factor production functions.

Keywords: bias of technical change, CES production function, elasticity of substitution, energy input

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139 The Relationship between Representational Conflicts, Generalization, and Encoding Requirements in an Instance Memory Network

Authors: Mathew Wakefield, Matthew Mitchell, Lisa Wise, Christopher McCarthy

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The properties of memory representations in artificial neural networks have cognitive implications. Distributed representations that encode instances as a pattern of activity across layers of nodes afford memory compression and enforce the selection of a single point in instance space. These encoding schemes also appear to distort the representational space, as well as trading off the ability to validate that input information is within the bounds of past experience. In contrast, a localist representation which encodes some meaningful information into individual nodes in a network layer affords less memory compression while retaining the integrity of the representational space. This allows the validity of an input to be determined. The validity (or familiarity) of input along with the capacity of localist representation for multiple instance selections affords a memory sampling approach that dynamically balances the bias-variance trade-off. When the input is familiar, bias may be high by referring only to the most similar instances in memory. When the input is less familiar, variance can be increased by referring to more instances that capture a broader range of features. Using this approach in a localist instance memory network, an experiment demonstrates a relationship between representational conflict, generalization performance, and memorization demand. Relatively small sampling ranges produce the best performance on a classic machine learning dataset of visual objects. Combining memory validity with conflict detection produces a reliable confidence judgement that can separate responses with high and low error rates. Confidence can also be used to signal the need for supervisory input. Using this judgement, the need for supervised learning as well as memory encoding can be substantially reduced with only a trivial detriment to classification performance.

Keywords: artificial neural networks, representation, memory, conflict monitoring, confidence

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138 Multicomponent Positive Psychology Intervention for Health Promotion of Retirees: A Feasibility Study

Authors: Helen Durgante, Mariana F. Sparremberger, Flavia C. Bernardes, Debora D. DellAglio

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Health promotion programmes for retirees, based on Positive Psychology perspectives for the development of strengths and virtues, demand broadened empirical investigation in Brazil. In the case of evidence-based applied research, it is suggested feasibility studies are conducted prior to efficacy trials of the intervention, in order to identify and rectify possible faults in the design and implementation of the intervention. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of a multicomponent Positive Psychology programme for health promotion of retirees, based on Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Positive Psychology perspectives. The programme structure included six weekly group sessions (two hours each) encompassing strengths such as Values and self-care, Optimism, Empathy, Gratitude, Forgiveness, and Meaning of life and work. The feasibility criteria evaluated were: Demand, Acceptability, Satisfaction with the programme and with the moderator, Comprehension/Generalization of contents, Evaluation of the moderator (Social Skills and Integrity/Fidelity), Adherence, and programme implementation. Overall, 11 retirees (F=11), age range 54-75, from the metropolitan region of Porto Alegre-RS-Brazil took part in the study. The instruments used were: Qualitative Admission Questionnaire; Moderator Field Diary; the Programme Evaluation Form to assess participants satisfaction with the programme and with the moderator (a six-item 4-point likert scale), and Comprehension/Generalization of contents (a three-item 4-point likert scale); Observers’ Evaluation Form to assess the moderator Social Skills (a five-item 4-point likert scale), Integrity/Fidelity (a 10 item 4-point likert scale), and Adherence (a nine-item 5-point likert scale). Qualitative data were analyzed using content analysis. Descriptive statistics as well as Intraclass Correlations coefficients were used for quantitative data and inter-rater reliability analysis. The results revealed high demand (N = 55 interested people) and acceptability (n = 10 concluded the programme with overall 88.3% frequency rate), satisfaction with the program and with the moderator (X = 3.76, SD = .34), and participants self-report of Comprehension/Generalization of contents provided in the programme (X = 2.82, SD = .51). In terms of the moderator Social Skills (X = 3.93; SD = .40; ICC = .752 [IC = .429-.919]), Integrity/Fidelity (X = 3.93; SD = .31; ICC = .936 [IC = .854-.981]), and participants Adherence (X = 4.90; SD = .29; ICC = .906 [IC = .783-.969]), evaluated by two independent observers present in each session of the programme, descriptive and Intraclass Correlation results were considered adequate. Structural changes were introduced in the intervention design and implementation methods, as well as the removal of items from questionnaires and evaluation forms. The obtained results were satisfactory, allowing changes to be made for further efficacy trials of the programme. Results are discussed taking cultural and contextual demands in Brazil into account.

Keywords: feasibility study, health promotion, positive psychology intervention, programme evaluation, retirees

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137 The Formation of Motivational Sphere for Learning Activity under Conditions of Change of One of Its Leading Components

Authors: M. Rodionov, Z. Dedovets

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This article discusses ways to implement a differentiated approach to developing academic motivation for mathematical studies which relies on defining the primary structural characteristics of motivation. The following characteristics are considered: features of realization of cognitive activity, meaning-making characteristics, level of generalization and consistency of knowledge acquired by personal experience. The assessment of the present level of individual student understanding of each component of academic motivation is the basis for defining the relevant educational strategy for its further development.

Keywords: learning activity, mathematics, motivation, student

Procedia PDF Downloads 353
136 Kalman Filter for Bilinear Systems with Application

Authors: Abdullah E. Al-Mazrooei

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In this paper, we present a new kind of the bilinear systems in the form of state space model. The evolution of this system depends on the product of state vector by its self. The well known Lotak Volterra and Lorenz models are special cases of this new model. We also present here a generalization of Kalman filter which is suitable to work with the new bilinear model. An application to real measurements is introduced to illustrate the efficiency of the proposed algorithm.

Keywords: bilinear systems, state space model, Kalman filter, application, models

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135 Tetrad field and torsion vectors in Schwarzschild solution

Authors: M.A.Bakry1, *, Aryn T. Shafeek1, +

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In this article, absolute Parallelism geometry is used to study the torsional gravitational field. And discovered the tetrad fields, torsion vector, and torsion scalar of Schwarzschild space. The new solution of the torsional gravitational field is a generalization of Schwarzschild in the context of general relativity. The results are applied to the planetary orbits.

Keywords: absolute parallelism geometry, tetrad fields, torsion vectors, torsion scalar

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134 Recognizing Human Actions by Multi-Layer Growing Grid Architecture

Authors: Z. Gharaee

Abstract:

Recognizing actions performed by others is important in our daily lives since it is necessary for communicating with others in a proper way. We perceive an action by observing the kinematics of motions involved in the performance. We use our experience and concepts to make a correct recognition of the actions. Although building the action concepts is a life-long process, which is repeated throughout life, we are very efficient in applying our learned concepts in analyzing motions and recognizing actions. Experiments on the subjects observing the actions performed by an actor show that an action is recognized after only about two hundred milliseconds of observation. In this study, hierarchical action recognition architecture is proposed by using growing grid layers. The first-layer growing grid receives the pre-processed data of consecutive 3D postures of joint positions and applies some heuristics during the growth phase to allocate areas of the map by inserting new neurons. As a result of training the first-layer growing grid, action pattern vectors are generated by connecting the elicited activations of the learned map. The ordered vector representation layer receives action pattern vectors to create time-invariant vectors of key elicited activations. Time-invariant vectors are sent to second-layer growing grid for categorization. This grid creates the clusters representing the actions. Finally, one-layer neural network developed by a delta rule labels the action categories in the last layer. System performance has been evaluated in an experiment with the publicly available MSR-Action3D dataset. There are actions performed by using different parts of human body: Hand Clap, Two Hands Wave, Side Boxing, Bend, Forward Kick, Side Kick, Jogging, Tennis Serve, Golf Swing, Pick Up and Throw. The growing grid architecture was trained by applying several random selections of generalization test data fed to the system during on average 100 epochs for each training of the first-layer growing grid and around 75 epochs for each training of the second-layer growing grid. The average generalization test accuracy is 92.6%. A comparison analysis between the performance of growing grid architecture and self-organizing map (SOM) architecture in terms of accuracy and learning speed show that the growing grid architecture is superior to the SOM architecture in action recognition task. The SOM architecture completes learning the same dataset of actions in around 150 epochs for each training of the first-layer SOM while it takes 1200 epochs for each training of the second-layer SOM and it achieves the average recognition accuracy of 90% for generalization test data. In summary, using the growing grid network preserves the fundamental features of SOMs, such as topographic organization of neurons, lateral interactions, the abilities of unsupervised learning and representing high dimensional input space in the lower dimensional maps. The architecture also benefits from an automatic size setting mechanism resulting in higher flexibility and robustness. Moreover, by utilizing growing grids the system automatically obtains a prior knowledge of input space during the growth phase and applies this information to expand the map by inserting new neurons wherever there is high representational demand.

Keywords: action recognition, growing grid, hierarchical architecture, neural networks, system performance

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133 Some Results on the Generalized Higher Rank Numerical Ranges

Authors: Mohsen Zahraei

Abstract:

‎In this paper, ‎the notion of ‎rank-k numerical range of rectangular complex matrix polynomials‎ ‎are introduced. ‎Some algebraic and geometrical properties are investigated. ‎Moreover, ‎for ε>0 the notion of Birkhoff-James approximate orthogonality sets for ε-higher ‎rank numerical ranges of rectangular matrix polynomials is also introduced and studied. ‎The proposed definitions yield a natural generalization of the standard higher rank numerical ranges.

Keywords: ‎‎Rank-k numerical range‎, ‎isometry‎, ‎numerical range‎, ‎rectangular matrix polynomials

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132 On the Strong Solutions of the Nonlinear Viscous Rotating Stratified Fluid

Authors: A. Giniatoulline

Abstract:

A nonlinear model of the mathematical fluid dynamics which describes the motion of an incompressible viscous rotating fluid in a homogeneous gravitational field is considered. The model is a generalization of the known Navier-Stokes system with the addition of the Coriolis parameter and the equations for changeable density. An explicit algorithm for the solution is constructed, and the proof of the existence and uniqueness theorems for the strong solution of the nonlinear problem is given. For the linear case, the localization and the structure of the spectrum of inner waves are also investigated.

Keywords: Galerkin method, Navier-Stokes equations, nonlinear partial differential equations, Sobolev spaces, stratified fluid

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