Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Search results for: Ambra Giovannelli

6 Internal Power Recovery in Cryogenic Cooling Plants Part I: Expander Development

Authors: Ambra Giovannelli, Erika Maria Archilei


The amount of the electrical power required by refrigeration systems is relevant worldwide. It is evaluated in the order of 15% of the total electricity production taking refrigeration and air-conditioning into consideration. For this reason, in the last years several energy saving techniques have been proposed to reduce the power demand of such plants. The paper deals with the development of an innovative internal recovery system for cryogenic cooling plants. Such a system consists in a Compressor-Expander Group (CEG) designed on the basis of the automotive turbocharging technology. In particular, the paper is focused on the design of the expander, the critical component of the CEG system. Due to the low volumetric flow entering the expander and the high expansion ratio, a commercial turbocharger expander wheel was strongly modified. It was equipped with a transonic nozzle, designed to have a radially inflow full admission. To verify the performance of such a machine and suggest improvements, two different set of nozzles have been designed and modelled by means of the commercial Ansys-CFX software. steady-state 3D CFD simulations of the second-generation prototype are presented and compared with the initial ones.

Keywords: vapour cCompression systems, energy saving, refrigeration plant, organic fluids, radial turbine

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5 Optimum Turbomachine Preliminary Selection for Power Regeneration in Vapor Compression Cool Production Plants

Authors: Sayyed Benyamin Alavi, Giovanni Cerri, Leila Chennaoui, Ambra Giovannelli, Stefano Mazzoni


Primary energy consumption and emissions of pollutants (including CO2) sustainability call to search methodologies to lower power absorption for unit of a given product. Cool production plants based on vapour compression are widely used for many applications: air conditioning, food conservation, domestic refrigerators and freezers, special industrial processes, etc. In the field of cool production, the amount of Yearly Consumed Primary Energy is enormous, thus, saving some percentage of it, leads to big worldwide impact in the energy consumption and related energy sustainability. Among various techniques to reduce power required by a Vapour Compression Cool Production Plant (VCCPP), the technique based on Power Regeneration by means of Internal Direct Cycle (IDC) will be considered in this paper. Power produced by IDC reduces power need for unit of produced Cool Power by the VCCPP. The paper contains basic concepts that lead to develop IDCs and the proposed options to use the IDC Power. Among various selections for using turbo machines, Best Economically Available Technologies (BEATs) have been explored. Based on vehicle engine turbochargers, they have been taken into consideration for this application. According to BEAT Database and similarity rules, the best turbo machine selection leads to the minimum nominal power required by VCCPP Main Compressor. Results obtained installing the prototype in “ad hoc” designed test bench will be discussed and compared with the expected performance. Forecasts for the upgrading VCCPP, various applications will be given and discussed. 4-6% saving is expected for air conditioning cooling plants and 15-22% is expected for cryogenic plants.

Keywords: Refrigeration Plant, Vapour Pressure Amplifier, Compressor, Expander, Turbine, Turbomachinery Selection, Power Saving

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4 Internal Power Recovery in Cryogenic Cooling Plants, Part II: Compressor Development

Authors: Ambra Giovannelli, Erika Maria Archilei


The electrical power consumption related to refrigeration systems is evaluated to be in the order of 15% of the total electricity consumption worldwide. For this reason, in the last years several energy saving techniques have been suggested to reduce the power demand of refrigeration and air conditioning plants. The research work deals with the development of an innovative internal power recovery system for industrial cryogenic cooling plants. Such system is based on a Compressor-Expander Group (CEG). Both the expander and the compressor have been designed starting from automotive turbocharging components, strongly modified to take refrigerant fluid properties and specific system requirements into consideration. A preliminary choice of the machines (radial compressors and expanders) among existing components available on the market was realised according to the rules of the similarity theory. Once the expander was selected, it was strongly modified and performance verified by means of steady-state 3D CFD simulations. This paper focuses the attention on the development of the second CEG main component: the compressor. Once the preliminary selection has been done, the compressor geometry has been modified to take the new boundary conditions into account. In particular, the impeller has been machined to address the required total enthalpy increase. Such evaluation has been carried out by means of a simplified 1D model. Moreover, a vaneless diffuser has been added, modifying the shape of casing rear and front disks. To verify the performance of the modified compressor geometry and suggest improvements, a numerical fluid dynamic model has been set up and the commercial Ansys-CFX software has been used to perform steady-state 3D simulations. In this work, all the numerical results will be shown, highlighting critical aspects and suggesting further developments to increase compressor performance and flexibility.

Keywords: vapour compression systems, energy saving, refrigeration plant, organic fluids, centrifugal compressor

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3 High-Pressure Steam Turbine for Medium-Scale Concentrated Solar Power Plants

Authors: Ambra Giovannelli, Coriolano Salvini


Many efforts have been spent in the design and development of Concentrated Solar Power (CPS) Plants worldwide. Most of them are for on-grid electricity generation and they are large plants which can benefit from the economies of scale. Nevertheless, several potential applications for Small and Medium-Scale CSP plants can be relevant in the industrial sector as well as for off-grid purposes (i.e. in rural contexts). In a wide range of industrial processes, CSP technologies can be used for heat generation replacing conventional primary sources. For such market, proven technologies (usually hybrid solutions) already exist: more than 100 installations, especially in developing countries, are in operation and performance can be verified. On the other hand, concerning off-grid applications, solar technologies are not so mature. Even if the market offers a potential deployment of such systems, especially in countries where the access to grid is strongly limited, optimized solutions have not been developed yet. In this context, steam power plants can be taken into consideration for medium scale installations, due to the recent results achieved with direct steam generation systems based on paraboloidal dish or Fresnel lens solar concentrators. Steam at 4.0-4.5 MPa and 500°C can be produced directly by means of innovative solar receivers (some prototypes already exist). Although it could seem a promising technology, presently, steam turbines commercially available do not cover the required cycle specifications. In particular, while low-pressure turbines already exist on the market, high-pressure groups, necessary for the abovementioned applications, are not available. The present paper deals with the preliminary design of a high-pressure steam turbine group for a medium-scale CSP plant (200-1000 kWe). Such a group is arranged in a single geared package composed of four radial expander wheels. Such wheels have been chosen on the basis of automotive turbocharging technology and then modified to take the new requirements into account. Results related to the preliminary geometry selection and to the analysis of the high-pressure turbine group performance are reported and widely discussed.

Keywords: concentrated solar power (CSP) plants, steam turbine, radial turbine, medium-scale power plants

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2 Compression and Air Storage Systems for Small Size CAES Plants: Design and Off-Design Analysis

Authors: Coriolano Salvini, Ambra Giovannelli


The use of renewable energy sources for electric power production leads to reduced CO2 emissions and contributes to improving the domestic energy security. On the other hand, the intermittency and unpredictability of their availability poses relevant problems in fulfilling safely and in a cost efficient way the load demand along the time. Significant benefits in terms of “grid system applications”, “end-use applications” and “renewable applications” can be achieved by introducing energy storage systems. Among the currently available solutions, CAES (Compressed Air Energy Storage) shows favorable features. Small-medium size plants equipped with artificial air reservoirs can constitute an interesting option to get efficient and cost-effective distributed energy storage systems. The present paper is addressed to the design and off-design analysis of the compression system of small size CAES plants suited to absorb electric power in the range of hundreds of kilowatt. The system of interest is constituted by an intercooled (in case aftercooled) multi-stage reciprocating compressor and a man-made reservoir obtained by connecting large diameter steel pipe sections. A specific methodology for the system preliminary sizing and off-design modeling has been developed. Since during the charging phase the electric power absorbed along the time has to change according to the peculiar CAES requirements and the pressure ratio increases continuously during the filling of the reservoir, the compressor has to work at variable mass flow rate. In order to ensure an appropriately wide range of operations, particular attention has been paid to the selection of the most suitable compressor capacity control device. Given the capacity regulation margin of the compressor and the actual level of charge of the reservoir, the proposed approach allows the instant-by-instant evaluation of minimum and maximum electric power absorbable from the grid. The developed tool gives useful information to appropriately size the compression system and to manage it in the most effective way. Various cases characterized by different system requirements are analysed. Results are given and widely discussed.

Keywords: artificial air storage reservoir, compressed air energy storage (CAES), compressor design, compression system management.

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1 The Influence of Directionality on the Giovanelli Illusion

Authors: Michele Sinico


In the Giovanelli illusion, some collinear dots appear misaligned, when each dot lies within a circle and the circles are not collinear. In this illusion, the role of the frame of reference, determined by the circles, is considered a crucial factor. Three experiments were carried out to study the influence of directionality of the circles on the misalignment. The adjustment method was used. Participants changed the orthogonal position of each dot, from the left to the right of the sequence, until a collinear sequence of dots was achieved. The first experiment verified the illusory effect of the misalignment. In the second experiment, the influence of two different directionalities of the circles (-0.58° and +0.58°) on the misalignment was tested. The results show an over-normalization on the sequences of the dots. The third experiment tested the misalignment of the dots without any inclination of the sequence of circles (0°). Only a local illusory effect was found. These results demonstrate that the directionality of the circles, as a global factor, can increase the misalignment. The findings also indicate that directionality and the frame of reference are independent factors in explaining the Giovanelli illusion.

Keywords: Giovannelli illusion, visual illusion, directionality, misalignment, the frame of reference

Procedia PDF Downloads 91