Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 1538

Search results for: masonry buildings

1538 The Necessity of Retrofitting for Masonry Buildings in Turkey

Authors: Soner Güler, Mustafa Gülen, Eylem Güzel


Masonry buildings constitute major part of building stock in Turkey. Masonry buildings were built up especially in rural areas and underdeveloped regions due to economic reasons. Almost all of these masonry buildings are not designed and detailed according to any design guidelines by designers. As a result of this, masonry buildings were totally collapsed or heavily damaged when subjected to destructive earthquake effects. Thus, these masonry buildings that were built up in our country must be retrofitted to improve their seismic performance. In this study, new seismic retrofitting techniques that is easy to apply and low-cost are summarized and the importance of seismic retrofitting is also emphasized for existing masonry buildings in Turkey.

Keywords: masonry buildings, earthquake effects, seismic retrofitting techniques, seismic performance

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1537 Observed Damages to Adobe Masonry Buildings after 2011 Van Earthquake

Authors: Eylem Güzel, Soner Güler, Mustafa Gülen


Masonry is the oldest building materials since ancient times. Adobe, stone, brick are the most widespread materials used in the construction of masonry buildings. Masonry buildings compose of a large part of building stock especially in rural areas and underdeveloped regions of Turkey. The seismic performance of adobe masonry buildings is vulnerable against earthquake effects. In this study, after 2011 Van earthquake with magnitude 7.2 Mw, damages occurred in existing adobe masonry buildings in Van city is investigated. The observed damages and reasons of adobe masonry buildings in design and construction phase are specified and evaluated.

Keywords: adobe masonry buildings, earthquake effects, damages, seismic performance

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
1536 Better Knowledge and Understanding of the Behavior of Masonry Buildings in Earthquake

Authors: A. R. Mirzaee, M. Khajehpour


Due to Simple Design, reasonable cost and easy implementation most people are reluctant to build buildings with masonry construction. Masonry Structures performance at earthquake are so limited. Of most earthquakes occurred in Iran and other countries, we can easily see that most of the damages are for masonry constructions and this is the evidence that we lack proper understanding of the performance of masonry buildings in earthquake. In this paper, according to field studies, conducted in past earthquakes. To evaluate the strengths and weaknesses points of the masonry constructions and also provide a solution to prevent such damage should be presented, and also program Examples of the correct bearing wall and tie-column design with the valid regulations (MSJC-08 (ASD)) will be explained.

Keywords: Masonry constructions, performance at earthquake, MSJC-08 (ASD), bearing wall, tie-column

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1535 Effects of Blast Load on Historic Stone Masonry Buildings in Canada: A Review and Analytical Study

Authors: Abass Braimah, Maha Hussein Abdallah


The global ascendancy of terrorist attacks on building infrastructure with economic and heritage significance has increased awareness of the possibility of terrorism in Canada. Many structures in Canada that are at risk of terrorist attacks include government buildings, built many years ago of historic stone masonry construction. Although many researchers are investigating ways to retrofit masonry stone buildings to mitigate the effect of blast loadings, lack of knowledge on the dynamic behavior of historic stone masonry structures under blast loads makes it difficult to ascertain the effectiveness of the retrofitting techniques. This paper presents a review of open-source literature for the experimental and numerical stone masonry structures under blast loads. This review yielded very little information of the response of the historic stone masonry structures under blast loads. Thus, a comprehensive study is needed to understand the blast load effects on historic stone masonry buildings. The out-of-plane response of historic masonry structures to blast loads is investigated by using single-degree-of-freedom analysis. This approach presents equations that can be used effectively in the analysis of historic masonry walls to out-of-plane blast loading.

Keywords: blast loads, historical buildings, masonry structure, single-degree-of-freedom analysis

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1534 A Case Study of Building Behavior Damaged during 26th Oct, 2015 Earthquake in Northern Areas of Pakistan

Authors: Rahmat Ali, Amjad Naseer, Abid A. Shah


This paper is an attempt to presents the performance of building observed during 26th Oct, 2015 earthquake in District Swat and Shangla region. Most of the buildings in the earthquake hit areas were built with Rubble stone masonry, dress Stone Masonry, brick masonry with and without RC column, Brick masonry with RC beams and column, Block Masonry with and without RC column. It was found that most of the buildings were built without proper supervision and without following any codes. A majority of load bearing masonry walls were highly affected during the earthquake. The load bearing walls built with rubble stone masonry were collapsed resulting huge damages and loss of property and life. Load bearing bricks masonry walls were also affected in most of the region. In some residential buildings the bricks were crushed in a single brick walls. Severe cracks were also found in double brick masonry walls. In RC frame structure beams and columns were also seriously affected. A majority of building structures were non-engineered. Some buildings designed by unskilled local consultants were also affected during the earthquake. Several architectural and structural mistakes were also found in various buildings designed by local consultant. It was found that the structures were collapsed prematurely either because of unskillful labor and using substandard materials or avoiding delicate repair, maintenance, and health monitoring activities because of lack of available sophisticated technology in our country.

Keywords: cracks, collapse, earthquake, masonry, repair

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1533 Numerical Simulations on the Torsional Behavior of Multistory Concrete Masonry Buildings

Authors: Alvaro Jose Cordova, Hsuan Teh Hu


The use of concrete masonry constructions in developing countries has become very frequent, especially for domestic purpose. Most of them with asymmetric wall configurations in plan resulting in significant torsional actions when subjected to seismic loads. The study consisted on the finding of a material model for hollow unreinforced concrete masonry and a validation with experimental data found in literature. Numerical simulations were performed to 20 buildings with variations in wall distributions and heights. Results were analyzed by inspection and with a non-linear static method. The findings revealed that eccentricities as well as structure rigidities have a strong influence on the overall response of concrete masonry buildings. In addition, slab rotations depicted more accurate information about the torsional behavior than maximum versus average displacement ratios. The failure modes in low buildings were characterized by high tensile strains in the first floor. Whereas in tall buildings these strains were lowered significantly by higher compression stresses due to a higher self-weight. These tall buildings developed multiple plastic hinges along the height. Finally, the non-linear static analysis exposed a brittle response for all masonry assemblies. This type of behavior is undesired in any construction and the need for a material model for reinforced masonry is pointed out.

Keywords: concrete damaged plasticity, concrete masonry, macro-modeling, nonlinear static analysis, torsional capacity

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1532 A Review of Masonry Buildings Restrengthening Methods

Authors: Negar Sartipzadeh


The historic buildings are generally the ones which have been built by materials like brick, mud, stone, and wood. Some phenomena such as severe earthquakes can be tremendously detrimental to the structures, imposing serious effects and losses on such structures. Hence, it matters a lot to ascertain safety and reliability of the structures under such circumstances. It has been asserted that the major reason for the collapse of Unreinforced Masonry (URM) in various earthquakes is the incapability of resisting the forces and vice versa because such URMs are meant for the gravity load and they fail to withstand the shear forces inside the plate and the bending forces outside the plate. For this reason, restrengthening such structures is a key factor in lowering the seismic loss in developing countries. Seismic reinforcement of the historic buildings with regard to their cultural value on one hand, and exhaustion and damage of many of the structural elements on the other hand, have brought in restricting factors which necessitate the seismic reinforcement methods meant for such buildings to be maximally safe, non-destructive, effective, and non-obvious. Henceforth, it is pinpointed that making use of diverse technologies such as active controlling, Energy dampers, and seismic separators besides the current popular methods would be justifiable for such buildings, notwithstanding their high imposed costs.

Keywords: masonry buildings, seismic reinforcement, Unreinforced Masonry (URM), earthquake

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1531 Seismic Performance Assessment of Pre-70 RC Frame Buildings with FEMA P-58

Authors: D. Cardone


Past earthquakes have shown that seismic events may incur large economic losses in buildings. FEMA P-58 provides engineers a practical tool for the performance seismic assessment of buildings. In this study, FEMA P-58 is applied to two typical Italian pre-1970 reinforced concrete frame buildings, characterized by plain rebars as steel reinforcement and masonry infills and partitions. Given that suitable tools for these buildings are missing in FEMA P- 58, specific fragility curves and loss functions are first developed. Next, building performance is evaluated following a time-based assessment approach. Finally, expected annual losses for the selected buildings are derived and compared with past applications to old RC frame buildings representative of the US building stock. 

Keywords: FEMA P-58, RC frame buildings, plain rebars, Masonry infills, fragility functions, loss functions, expected annual loss

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
1530 Earthquake Vulnerability and Repair Cost Estimation of Masonry Buildings in the Old City Center of Annaba, Algeria

Authors: Allaeddine Athmani, Abdelhacine Gouasmia, Tiago Ferreira, Romeu Vicente


The seismic risk mitigation from the perspective of the old buildings stock is truly essential in Algerian urban areas, particularly those located in seismic prone regions, such as Annaba city, and which the old buildings present high levels of degradation associated with no seismic strengthening and/or rehabilitation concerns. In this sense, the present paper approaches the issue of the seismic vulnerability assessment of old masonry building stocks through the adaptation of a simplified methodology developed for a European context area similar to that of Annaba city, Algeria. Therefore, this method is used for the first level of seismic vulnerability assessment of the masonry buildings stock of the old city center of Annaba. This methodology is based on a vulnerability index that is suitable for the evaluation of damage and for the creation of large-scale loss scenarios. Over 380 buildings were evaluated in accordance with the referred methodology and the results obtained were then integrated into a Geographical Information System (GIS) tool. Such results can be used by the Annaba city council for supporting management decisions, based on a global view of the site under analysis, which led to more accurate and faster decisions for the risk mitigation strategies and rehabilitation plans.

Keywords: Damage scenarios, masonry buildings, old city center, seismic vulnerability, vulnerability index

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1529 Development of Palm Kernel Shell Lightweight Masonry Mortar

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole


There need to construct building walls with lightweight masonry bricks/blocks and mortar to reduce the weight and cost of cooling/heating of buildings in hot/cold climates is growing partly due to legislations on energy use and global warming. In this paper, the development of Palm Kernel Shell masonry mortar (PKSMM) prepared with Portland cement and crushed PKS fine aggregate (an agricultural waste) is demonstrated. We show that PKSMM can be used as a lightweight mortar for the construction of lightweight masonry walls with good thermal insulation efficiency than the natural river sand commonly used for masonry mortar production.

Keywords: building walls, fine aggregate, lightweight masonry mortar, palm kernel shell, wall thermal insulation efficacy

Procedia PDF Downloads 237
1528 Low-Level Forced and Ambient Vibration Tests on URM Building Strengthened by Dampers

Authors: Rafik Taleb, Farid Bouriche, Mehdi Boukri, Fouad Kehila


The aim of the paper is to investigate the dynamic behavior of an unreinforced masonry (URM) building strengthened by DC-90 dampers by ambient and low-level forced vibration tests. Ambient and forced vibration techniques are usually applied to reinforced concrete or steel buildings to understand and identify their dynamic behavior, however, less is known about their applicability for masonry buildings. Ambient vibrations were measured before and after strengthening of the URM building by DC-90 dampers system. For forced vibration test, a series of low amplitude steady state harmonic forced vibration tests were conducted after strengthening using eccentric mass shaker. The resonant frequency curves, mode shapes and damping coefficients as well as stress distribution in the steel braces of the DC-90 dampers have been investigated and could be defined. It was shown that the dynamic behavior of the masonry building, even if not regular and with deformable floors, can be effectively represented. It can be concluded that the strengthening of the building does not change the dynamic properties of the building due to the fact of low amplitude excitation which do not activate the dampers.

Keywords: ambient vibrations, masonry buildings, forced vibrations, structural dynamic identification

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1527 Behaviour of Reinforced Concrete Infilled Frames under Seismic Loads

Authors: W. Badla


A significant portion of the buildings constructed in Algeria is structural frames with infill panels which are usually considered as non structural components and are neglected in the analysis. However, these masonry panels tend to influence the structural response. Thus, these structures can be regarded as seismic risk buildings, although in the Algerian seismic code there is little guidance on the seismic evaluation of infilled frame buildings. In this study, three RC frames with 2, 4, and 8 story and subjected to three recorded Algerian accelerograms are studied. The diagonal strut approach is adopted for modeling the infill panels and a fiber model is used to model RC members. This paper reports on the seismic evaluation of RC frames with brick infill panels. The results obtained show that the masonry panels enhance the load lateral capacity of the buildings and the infill panel configuration influences the response of the structures.

Keywords: seismic design, RC frames, infill panels, non linear dynamic analysis

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1526 Effect of Masonry Infill in R.C. Framed Buildings

Authors: Pallab Das, Nabam Zomleen


Effective dissipation of lateral loads that are coming due to seismic force determines the strength, durability and safety concern of the structure. Masonry infill has high stiffness and strength capabilities which can be put into an effective utilization for lateral load dissipation by incorporating it into building construction, but masonry behaves in highly nonlinear manner, so it is highly important to find out generalized, yet a rational approach to determine its nonlinear behavior and failure mode and it’s response when it is incorporated into building. But most of the countries do not specify the procedure for design of masonry infill wall. Whereas, there are many analytical modeling method available in literature, e.g. equivalent diagonal strut method, finite element modeling etc. In this paper the masonry infill is modeled and 6-storey bare framed building and building with masonry infill is analyzed using SAP-200014 in order to find out inter-storey drift by time-history analysis and capacity curve by Pushover analysis. The analysis shows that, while, the structure is well within CP performance level for both the case, whereas, there is considerable reduction of inter-storey drift of about 28%, when the building is analyzed with masonry infill wall.

Keywords: capacity curve, masonry infill, nonlinear analysis, time history analysis

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1525 The Effect of Masonry Infills on the Seismic Response of Reinforced Concrete Structures

Authors: Mohammad Reza Ameri, Ali Massumi, Behnam Mahboubi


The performance of masonry infilled frames during the past earthquakes shows that the infill panels play a major role as earthquake-resistant elements. The present study examines the influence of infill panels on seismic behavior of RC frame structures. For this purpose, several low- and mid-rise RC frames (two-, four-, seven-, and ten story) were numerically investigated. Reinforced masonry infill panels were then placed within the frames and the models were subjected to several nonlinear incremental static and dynamic analyses. The results of analyses showed that the use of reinforced masonry infill panels in RC frame structures can have beneficial effects on structural performance. It was confirmed that the use of masonry infill panels results in an increment in strength and stiffness of the framed buildings, followed by a reduction in displacement demand for the structural systems.

Keywords: reinforced masonry infill panels, nonlinear static analysis, incremental dynamic analysis, low-rise reinforced concrete frames, mid-rise reinforced concrete frames

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1524 Retrofitting Insulation to Historic Masonry Buildings: Improving Thermal Performance and Maintaining Moisture Movement to Minimize Condensation Risk

Authors: Moses Jenkins


Much of the focus when improving energy efficiency in buildings fall on the raising of standards within new build dwellings. However, as a significant proportion of the building stock across Europe is of historic or traditional construction, there is also a pressing need to improve the thermal performance of structures of this sort. On average, around twenty percent of buildings across Europe are built of historic masonry construction. In order to meet carbon reduction targets, these buildings will require to be retrofitted with insulation to improve their thermal performance. At the same time, there is also a need to balance this with maintaining the ability of historic masonry construction to allow moisture movement through building fabric to take place. This moisture transfer, often referred to as 'breathable construction', is critical to the success, or otherwise, of retrofit projects. The significance of this paper is to demonstrate that substantial thermal improvements can be made to historic buildings whilst avoiding damage to building fabric through surface or interstitial condensation. The paper will analyze the results of a wide range of retrofit measures installed to twenty buildings as part of Historic Environment Scotland's technical research program. This program has been active for fourteen years and has seen interventions across a wide range of building types, using over thirty different methods and materials to improve the thermal performance of historic buildings. The first part of the paper will present the range of interventions which have been made. This includes insulating mass masonry walls both internally and externally, warm and cold roof insulation and improvements to floors. The second part of the paper will present the results of monitoring work which has taken place to these buildings after being retrofitted. This will be in terms of both thermal improvement, expressed as a U-value as defined in BS EN ISO 7345:1987, and also, crucially, will present the results of moisture monitoring both on the surface of masonry walls the following retrofit and also within the masonry itself. The aim of this moisture monitoring is to establish if there are any problems with interstitial condensation. This monitoring utilizes Interstitial Hygrothermal Gradient Monitoring (IHGM) and similar methods to establish relative humidity on the surface of and within the masonry. The results of the testing are clear and significant for retrofit projects across Europe. Where a building is of historic construction the use of materials for wall, roof and floor insulation which are permeable to moisture vapor provides both significant thermal improvements (achieving a u-value as low as 0.2 Wm²K) whilst avoiding problems of both surface and intestinal condensation. As the evidence which will be presented in the paper comes from monitoring work in buildings rather than theoretical modeling, there are many important lessons which can be learned and which can inform retrofit projects to historic buildings throughout Europe.

Keywords: insulation, condensation, masonry, historic

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1523 Performance Analysis of Ferrocement Retrofitted Masonry Wall Units under Cyclic Loading

Authors: Raquib Ahsan, Md. Mahir Asif, Md. Zahidul Alam


A huge portion of old masonry buildings in Bangladesh are vulnerable to earthquake. In most of the cases these buildings contain unreinforced masonry wall which are most likely to be subjected to earthquake damages. Due to deterioration of mortar joint and aging, shear resistance of these unreinforced masonry walls dwindle. So, retrofitting of these old buildings has become an important issue. Among many researched and experimented techniques, ferrocement retrofitting can be a low cost technique in context of the economic condition of Bangladesh. This study aims at investigating the behavior of ferrocement retrofitted unconfined URM walls under different types of cyclic loading. Four 725 mm × 725 mm masonry wall units were prepared with bricks jointed by stretcher bond with 12.5 mm mortar between two adjacent layers of bricks. To compare the effectiveness of ferrocement retrofitting a particular type wire mesh was used in this experiment which is 20 gauge woven wire mesh with 12.5 mm × 12.5 mm square opening. After retrofitting with ferrocement these wall units were tested by applying cyclic deformation along the diagonals of the specimens. Then a comparative study was performed between the retrofitted specimens and control specimens for both partially reversed cyclic load condition and cyclic compression load condition. The experiment results show that ultimate load carrying capacities of ferrocement retrofitted specimens are 35% and 27% greater than the control specimen under partially reversed cyclic loading and cyclic compression respectively. And before failure the deformations of ferrocement retrofitted specimens are 43% and 33% greater than the control specimen under reversed cyclic loading and cyclic compression respectively. Therefore, the test results show that the ultimate load carrying capacity and ductility of ferrocement retrofitted specimens have improved.

Keywords: cyclic compression, cyclic loading, ferrocement, masonry wall, partially reversed cyclic load, retrofitting

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1522 Study on Adding Story and Seismic Strengthening of Old Masonry Buildings

Authors: Youlu Huang, Huanjun Jiang


A large number of old masonry buildings built in the last century still remain in the city. It generates the problems of unsafety, obsolescence, and non-habitability. In recent years, many old buildings have been reconstructed through renovating façade, strengthening, and adding floors. However, most projects only provide a solution for a single problem. It is difficult to comprehensively solve problems of poor safety and lack of building functions. Therefore, a comprehensive functional renovation program of adding reinforced concrete frame story at the bottom via integrally lifting the building and then strengthening the building was put forward. Based on field measurement and YJK calculation software, the seismic performance of an actual three-story masonry structure in Shanghai was identified. The results show that the material strength of masonry is low, and the bearing capacity of some masonry walls could not meet the code requirements. The elastoplastic time history analysis of the structure was carried out by using SAP2000 software. The results show that under the 7 degrees rare earthquake, the seismic performance of the structure reaches 'serious damage' performance level. Based on the code requirements of the stiffness ration of the bottom frame (lateral stiffness ration of the transition masonry story and frame story), the bottom frame story was designed. The integral lifting process of the masonry building was introduced based on many engineering examples. The reinforced methods for the bottom frame structure strengthened by the steel-reinforced mesh mortar surface layer (SRMM) and base isolators, respectively, were proposed. The time history analysis of the two kinds of structures, under the frequent earthquake, the fortification earthquake, and the rare earthquake, was conducted by SAP2000 software. For the bottom frame structure, the results show that the seismic response of the masonry floor is significantly reduced after reinforced by the two methods compared to the masonry structure. The previous earthquake disaster indicated that the bottom frame is vulnerable to serious damage under a strong earthquake. The analysis results showed that under the rare earthquake, the inter-story displacement angle of the bottom frame floor meets the 1/100 limit value of the seismic code. The inter-story drift of the masonry floor for the base isolated structure under different levels of earthquakes is similar to that of structure with SRMM, while the base-isolated program is better to protect the bottom frame. Both reinforced methods could significantly improve the seismic performance of the bottom frame structure.

Keywords: old buildings, adding story, seismic strengthening, seismic performance

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1521 Surveying Earthquake Vulnerabilities of District 13 of Kabul City, Afghanistan

Authors: Mohsen Mohammadi, Toshio Fujimi


High population and irregular urban development in Kabul city, Afghanistan's capital, are among factors that increase its vulnerability to earthquake disasters (on top of its location in a high seismic region); this can lead to widespread economic loss and casualties. This study aims to evaluate earthquake risks in Kabul's 13th district based on scientific data. The research data, which include hazard curves of Kabul, vulnerability curves, and a questionnaire survey through sampling in district 13, have been incorporated to develop risk curves. To estimate potential casualties, we used a set of M parameters in a model developed by Coburn and Spence. The results indicate that in the worst case scenario, more than 90% of district 13, which comprises mostly residential buildings, is exposed to high risk; this may lead to nearly 1000 million USD economic loss and 120 thousand casualties (equal to 25.88% of the 13th district's population) for a nighttime earthquake. To reduce risks, we present the reconstruction of the most vulnerable buildings, which are primarily adobe and masonry buildings. A comparison of risk reduction between reconstructing adobe and masonry buildings indicates that rebuilding adobe buildings would be more effective.

Keywords: earthquake risk evaluation, Kabul, mitigation, vulnerability

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1520 Modal Analysis for Study of Minor Historical Architecture

Authors: Milorad Pavlovic, Anna Manzato, Antonella Cecchi


Cultural heritage conservation is a challenge for contemporary society. In recent decades, significant resources have been allocated for the conservation and restoration of architectural heritage. Historical buildings were restored, protected and reinforced with the intent to limit the risks of degradation or loss, due to phenomena of structural damage and to external factors such as differential settlements, earthquake effects, etc. The wide diffusion of historic masonry constructions in Italy, Europe and the Mediterranean area requires reliable tools for the evaluation of their structural safety. In this paper is presented a free modal analysis performed on a minor historical architecture located in the village of Bagno Grande, near the city of L’Aquila in Italy. The location is characterized by a complex urban context, seriously damaged by the earthquake of 2009. The aim of this work is to check the structural behavior of a masonry building characterized by several boundary conditions imposed by adjacent buildings and infrastructural facilities.

Keywords: FEM, masonry, minor historical architecture, modal analysis

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1519 Comparative Study of Seismic Isolation as Retrofit Method for Historical Constructions

Authors: Carlos H. Cuadra


Seismic isolation can be used as a retrofit method for historical buildings with the advantage that minimum intervention on super-structure is required. However, selection of isolation devices depends on weight and stiffness of upper structure. In this study, two buildings are considered for analyses to evaluate the applicability of this retrofitting methodology. Both buildings are located at Akita prefecture in the north part of Japan. One building is a wooden structure that corresponds to the old council meeting hall of Noshiro city. The second building is a brick masonry structure that was used as house of a foreign mining engineer and it is located at Ani town. Ambient vibration measurements were performed on both buildings to estimate their dynamic characteristics. Then, target period of vibration of isolated systems is selected as 3 seconds is selected to estimate required stiffness of isolation devices. For wooden structure, which is a light construction, it was found that natural rubber isolators in combination with friction bearings are suitable for seismic isolation. In case of masonry building elastomeric isolator can be used for its seismic isolation. Lumped mass systems are used for seismic response analysis and it is verified in both cases that seismic isolation can be used as retrofitting method of historical construction. However, in the case of the light building, most of the weight corresponds to the reinforced concrete slab that is required to install isolation devices.

Keywords: historical building, finite element method, masonry structure, seismic isolation, wooden structure

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1518 Seismic Vulnerability Mitigation of Non-Engineered Buildings

Authors: Muhammad Tariq A. Chaudhary


The tremendous loss of life that resulted in the aftermath of recent earthquakes in developing countries is mostly due to the collapse of non-engineered and semi-engineered building structures. Such structures are used as houses, schools, primary healthcare centres and government offices. These building are classified structurally into two categories viz. non-engineered and semi-engineered. Non-engineered structures include: adobe, Unreinforced Masonry (URM) and wood buildings. Semi-engineered buildings are mostly low-rise (up to 3 story) light concrete frame structures or masonry bearing walls with reinforced concrete slab. This paper presents an overview of the typical damage observed in non-engineered structures and their most likely causes in the past earthquakes with specific emphasis on the performance of such structures in the 2005 Kashmir earthquake. It is demonstrated that seismic performance of these structures can be improved from life-safety viewpoint by adopting simple low-cost modifications to the existing construction practices. Incorporation of some of these practices in the reconstruction efforts after the 2005 Kashmir earthquake are examined in the last section for mitigating seismic risk hazard.

Keywords: Kashmir earthquake, non-engineered buildings, seismic hazard, structural details, structural strengthening

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1517 Structural Engineering Forensic Evaluation of Misdiagnosed Concrete Masonry Wall Cracking

Authors: W. C. Bracken


Given that concrete masonry walls are expected to experience shrinkage combined with thermal expansion and contraction, and in some cases even carbonation, throughout their service life, cracking is to be expected. However, after concrete masonry walls have been placed into service, originally anticipated and accounted for cracking is often misdiagnosed as a structural defect. Such misdiagnoses often result in or are used to support litigation. This paper begins by discussing the causes and types of anticipated cracking within concrete masonry walls followed by a discussion on the processes and analyses that exists for properly evaluating them and their significance. From here, the paper then presents a case of misdiagnosed concrete masonry cracking and the flawed logic employed to support litigation.

Keywords: concrete masonry, masonry wall cracking, structural defect, structural damage, construction defect, forensic investigation

Procedia PDF Downloads 144
1516 Sensitivity and Reliability Analysis of Masonry Infilled Frames

Authors: Avadhoot Bhosale, Robin Davis P., Pradip Sarkar


The seismic performance of buildings with irregular distribution of mass, stiffness and strength along the height may be significantly different from that of regular buildings with masonry infill. Masonry infilled reinforced concrete (RC) frames are very common structural forms used for multi-storey building construction. These structures are found to perform better in past earthquakes owing to additional strength, stiffness and energy dissipation in the infill walls. The seismic performance of a building depends on the variation of material, structural and geometrical properties. The sensitivity of these properties affects the seismic response of the building. The main objective of the sensitivity analysis is to found out the most sensitive parameter that affects the response of the building. This paper presents a sensitivity analysis by considering 5% and 95% probability value of random variable in the infills characteristics, trying to obtain a reasonable range of results representing a wide number of possible situations that can be met in practice by using pushover analysis. The results show that the strength-related variation values of concrete and masonry, with the exception of tensile strength of the concrete, have shown a significant effect on the structural performance and that this effect increases with the progress of damage condition for the concrete. The seismic risk assessments of the selected frames are expressed in terms of reliability index.

Keywords: fragility curve, sensitivity analysis, reliability index, RC frames

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1515 Seismic Vulnerability Assessment of Masonry Buildings in Seismic Prone Regions: The Case of Annaba City, Algeria

Authors: Allaeddine Athmani, Abdelhacine Gouasmia, Tiago Ferreira, Romeu Vicente


Seismic vulnerability assessment of masonry buildings is a fundamental issue even for moderate to low seismic hazard regions. This fact is even more important when dealing with old structures such as those located in Annaba city (Algeria), which the majority of dates back to the French colonial era from 1830. This category of buildings is in high risk due to their highly degradation state, heterogeneous materials and intrusive modifications to structural and non-structural elements. Furthermore, they are usually shelter a dense population, which is exposed to such risk. In order to undertake a suitable seismic risk mitigation strategies and reinforcement process for such structures, it is essential to estimate their seismic resistance capacity at a large scale. In this sense, two seismic vulnerability index methods and damage estimation have been adapted and applied to a pilot-scale building area located in the moderate seismic hazard region of Annaba city: The first one based on the EMS-98 building typologies, and the second one derived from the Italian GNDT approach. To perform this task, the authors took the advantage of an existing data survey previously performed for other purposes. The results obtained from the application of the two methods were integrated and compared using a geographic information system tool (GIS), with the ultimate goal of supporting the city council of Annaba for the implementation of risk mitigation and emergency planning strategies.

Keywords: Annaba city, EMS98 concept, GNDT method, old city center, seismic vulnerability index, unreinforced masonry buildings

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1514 Properties of Modified Dry Masonry Mixtures for Effective Masonry Units

Authors: Vyacheslav S. Semenov, Tamara A. Rozovskaya


The paper is devoted to the problem of the development of dry light-weight mixtures with hollow ceramics microspheres (CMS) for masonry works. For the one-layer fencing structures including effective masonry units, the use of “warm” masonry mortars is necessary. The used light-weight masonry mortars do not provide the brand strength and thermal uniformity of the fencing structures because of high average density. The CMS are effective light-weight aggregate for such mortars. The influence of the dosage of CMS on the physics-and-mechanics parameters and the technological properties of the masonry mortars were studied. The optimal mixture compositions have been obtained and their main properties have been determined. The influence of an air-entraining admixture and redispersible polymer powders on the average density and physics-and-mechanics parameters of the masonry mortars were studied. The optimal compositions of light-weight dry masonry mixtures with CMS have been suggested.

Keywords: dry mortar mixtures, light-weight dry mixtures, hollow ceramics microspheres, masonry mortars, “warm” mortars, air-entraining admixture, redispersible polymer powders

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1513 The Behavior of Masonry Wall Constructed Using Biaxial Interlocking Concrete Block, Solid Concrete Block and Cement Sand Brick Subjected to the Compressive Load

Authors: Fauziah Aziz, Mohd.fadzil Arshad, Hazrina Mansor, Sedat Kömürcü


Masonry is an isotropic and heterogeneous material due to the presence of the different components within the assembly process. Normally the mortar plays a significant role in the compressive behavior of the traditional masonry structures. Biaxial interlocking concrete block is a masonry unit that comes out with the interlocking concept. This masonry unit can improve the quality of the construction process, reduce the cost of labor, reduce high skill workmanship, and speeding the construction time. Normally, the interlocking concrete block masonry unit in the market place was designed in a way interlocking concept only either x or y-axis, shorter in length, and low compressive strength value. However, the biaxial interlocking concrete block is a dry-stack concept being introduced in this research, offered the specialty compared to the normal interlocking concrete available in the market place due to its length and the geometry of the groove and tongue. This material can be used as a non-load bearing wall, or load-bearing wall depends on the application of the masonry. But, there is a lack of technical data that was produced before. This paper presents a finding on the compressive resistance of the biaxial interlocking concrete block masonry wall compared to the other traditional masonry walls. Two series of biaxial interlocking concrete block masonry walls, namely M1 and M2, a series of solid concrete block and cement sand brick walls M3, and M4 have tested the compressive resistance. M1 is the masonry wall of a hollow biaxial interlocking concrete block meanwhile; M2 is the grouted masonry wall, M3 is a solid concrete block masonry wall, and M4 is a cement sand brick masonry wall. All the samples were tested under static compressive load. The results examine that M2 is higher in compressive resistance compared to the M1, M3, and M4. It shows that the compressive strength of the concrete masonry units plays a significant role in the capacity of the masonry wall.

Keywords: interlocking concrete block, compressive resistance, concrete masonry unit, masonry

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1512 Development and Application of an Intelligent Masonry Modulation in BIM Tools: Literature Review

Authors: Sara A. Ben Lashihar


The heritage building information modelling (HBIM) of the historical masonry buildings has expanded lately to meet the urgent needs for conservation and structural analysis. The masonry structures are unique features for ancient building architectures worldwide that have special cultural, spiritual, and historical significance. However, there is a research gap regarding the reliability of the HBIM modeling process of these structures. The HBIM modeling process of the masonry structures faces significant challenges due to the inherent complexity and uniqueness of their structural systems. Most of these processes are based on tracing the point clouds and rarely follow documents, archival records, or direct observation. The results of these techniques are highly abstracted models where the accuracy does not exceed LOD 200. The masonry assemblages, especially curved elements such as arches, vaults, and domes, are generally modeled with standard BIM components or in-place models, and the brick textures are graphically input. Hence, future investigation is necessary to establish a methodology to generate automatically parametric masonry components. These components are developed algorithmically according to mathematical and geometric accuracy and the validity of the survey data. The main aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive review of the state of the art of the existing researches and papers that have been conducted on the HBIM modeling of the masonry structural elements and the latest approaches to achieve parametric models that have both the visual fidelity and high geometric accuracy. The paper reviewed more than 800 articles, proceedings papers, and book chapters focused on "HBIM and Masonry" keywords from 2017 to 2021. The studies were downloaded from well-known, trusted bibliographic databases such as Web of Science, Scopus, Dimensions, and Lens. As a starting point, a scientometric analysis was carried out using VOSViewer software. This software extracts the main keywords in these studies to retrieve the relevant works. It also calculates the strength of the relationships between these keywords. Subsequently, an in-depth qualitative review followed the studies with the highest frequency of occurrence and the strongest links with the topic, according to the VOSViewer's results. The qualitative review focused on the latest approaches and the future suggestions proposed in these researches. The findings of this paper can serve as a valuable reference for researchers, and BIM specialists, to make more accurate and reliable HBIM models for historic masonry buildings.

Keywords: HBIM, masonry, structure, modeling, automatic, approach, parametric

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1511 Embodied Energy in Concrete and Structural Masonry on Typical Brazilian Buildings

Authors: Marco A. S. González, Marlova P. Kulakowski, Luciano G. Breitenbach, Felipe Kirch


The AEC sector has an expressive environmental responsibility. Actually, most building materials have severe environmental impacts along their production cycle. Professionals enrolled in building design may choice the materials and techniques with less impact among the viable options. This work presents a study about embodied energy in materials of two typical Brazilian constructive alternatives. The construction options considered are reinforced concrete structure and structural masonry. The study was developed for the region of São Leopoldo, southern Brazil. Results indicated that the energy embodied in these two constructive systems is approximately 1.72 GJ•m-2 and 1.26 GJ•m-2, respectively. It may be concluded that the embodied energy is lower in the structural masonry system, with a reduction around to 1/4 in relation to the traditional option. The results can be used to help design decisions.

Keywords: civil construction, sustainability, embodied energy, Brazil

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1510 Failure Mechanisms of Isolated vs. in Aggregate Historical Buildings: A Case Study for Timisoara, Romania

Authors: I. Apostol, M. Mosoarca


Romania is a seismic country, with two major seismic zones, Vrancea and Banat. One of the most important cities from Banat seismic area is Timisoara, where a lot of valuable historical buildings were built before any design codes, but still they kept their stability during past earthquakes. This article presents the influence of the adjacent buildings during an earthquake and the way that the specific failure mechanism is changed when the building is part of an aggregate. The investigation was made using nonlinear analysis based on Tremuri software, first analyzing the buildings as isolated and second, considering the entire aggregate of buildings. There were noticed significant differences through the two situations regarding the specific failure mechanism activated for each building, showing the fact that in some situations, the presence of the adjacent buildings has positive or negative contribution for the seismic behavior of the analyzed one. The difference between the failure mechanism of the same buildings considered isolated and in aggregate aims to provide explications for the good structural state of the existing historical areas of Timisoara, as part of a larger multidisciplinary study, which will help local authorities to prioritize the consolidation works for the historical buildings in order to assure that the history of the city will be kept alive for the next generations.

Keywords: failure mechanism, analysis, aggregate, masonry, earthquake

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1509 The Review for Repair of Masonry Structures Using the Crack Stitching Technique

Authors: Sandile Daniel Ngidi


Masonry structures often crack due to different factors, which include differential movement of structures, thermal expansion, and seismic waves. Retrofitting is introduced to ensure that these cracks do not expand to a point of making the wall fail. Crack stitching is one of many repairing methods used to repair cracked masonry walls. It is done by stitching helical stainless steel reinforcement bars to reconnect and stabilize the wall. The basic element of this reinforcing system is the mechanical interlink between the helical stainless-steel bar and the grout, which makes it such a flexible and well-known masonry repair system. The objective of this review was to use previous experimental work done by different authors to check the efficiency and effectiveness of using the crack stitching technique to repair and stabilize masonry walls. The technique was found to be effective to rejuvenate the strength of a masonry structure to be stronger than initial strength. Different factors were investigated, which include economic features, sustainability, buildability, and suitability of this technique for application in developing communities.

Keywords: brickforce, crack-stitching, masonry concrete, reinforcement, wall panels

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