Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Search results for: Somnath Mahato

13 Microstructural and Optical Characterization of High-quality ZnO Nano-rods Deposited by Simple Electrodeposition Process

Authors: Somnath Mahato, Minarul Islam Sarkar, Luis Guillermo Gerling, Joaquim Puigdollers, Asit Kumar Kar

Abstract:

Nanostructured Zinc Oxide (ZnO) thin films have been successfully deposited on indium tin oxide (ITO) coated glass substrates by a simple two electrode electrodeposition process at constant potential. The preparative parameters such as deposition time, deposition potential, concentration of solution, bath temperature and pH value of electrolyte have been optimized for deposition of uniform ZnO thin films. X-ray diffraction studies reveal that the prepared ZnO thin films have a high preferential oriented c-axis orientation with compact hexagonal (wurtzite) structure. Surface morphological studies show that the ZnO films are smooth, continuous, uniform without cracks or holes and compact with nanorod-like structure on the top of the surface. Optical properties reveal that films exhibit higher absorbance in the violet region of the optical spectrum; it gradually decreased in the visible range with increases in wavelength and became least at the beginning of NIR region. The photoluminescence spectra shows that the observed peaks are attributed to the various structural defects in the nanostructured ZnO crystal. The microstructural and optical properties suggest that the electrodeposited ZnO thin films are suitable for application in photosensitive devices such as photovoltaic solar cells photoelectrochemical cells and light emitting diodes etc.

Keywords: electrodeposition, microstructure, optical properties, ZnO thin films

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12 Solvent Extraction and Spectrophotometric Determination of Palladium(II) Using P-Methylphenyl Thiourea as a Complexing Agent

Authors: Shashikant R. Kuchekar, Somnath D. Bhumkar, Haribhau R. Aher, Bhaskar H. Zaware, Ponnadurai Ramasami

Abstract:

A precise, sensitive, rapid and selective method for the solvent extraction, spectrophotometric determination of palladium(II) using para-methylphenyl thiourea (PMPT) as an extractant is developed. Palladium(II) forms yellow colored complex with PMPT which shows an absorption maximum at 300 nm. The colored complex obeys Beer’s law up to 7.0 µg ml-1 of palladium. The molar absorptivity and Sandell’s sensitivity were found to be 8.486 x 103 l mol-1cm-1 and 0.0125 μg cm-2 respectively. The optimum conditions for the extraction and determination of palladium have been established by monitoring the various experimental parameters. The precision of the method has been evaluated and the relative standard deviation has been found to be less than 0.53%. The proposed method is free from interference from large number of foreign ions. The method has been successfully applied for the determination of palladium from alloy, synthetic mixtures corresponding to alloy samples.

Keywords: solvent extraction, PMPT, Palladium (II), spectrophotometry

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11 A Site Unexplored: Recently Discovered In Bangladesh

Authors: Md. Rifat-Ur- Rahman

Abstract:

Dhamairnagar, Sirajganj, Bangladesh, local villagers describe the peculiar mounds spotted scattered among the nearby villages as “Buruj”. Among these, a mound was explored in one of these mounds, in Khirtala village, in early 2019. Primary archaeological surveys and map making has been conducted in this site, where suspect lays the remains of an 8 square miles city, at least 1200 years old. In the government gazettes of Bangladesh from 1990, this place has been linked with a mythical kind from the Indian epic, Mahabharata. In the primary explorations, found bricks, mortars, different kinds of potteries and terracotta pieces. Assumable observation is that this city was a flourishing establishment during the early Pala dynasty of Bengal (800 AD to 1200 AD). At present there are four indigenous groups live around this site and they are known as Mahato, Teli, Oraon and Santals. These four indigenous groups are considered as the core four of Bengali ethnicity. In the folklore of these groups we find stories of ancient kingdoms which have not been documented through archaeological findings yet. So, a question rises about the population that was used to reside in this archaeological site. Were they the ancestors of these indigenous tribes that are dwelling in this area? With such primary information, the aim is to conduct a comparative study of the physiology; osteology and cultural practices of this civilization.

Keywords: Archaeology, Heritage, Indigenous Peoples, Physiology

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10 Effect of pH-Dependent Surface Charge on the Electroosmotic Flow through Nanochannel

Authors: Partha P. Gopmandal, Somnath Bhattacharyya, Naren Bag

Abstract:

In this article, we have studied the effect of pH-regulated surface charge on the electroosmotic flow (EOF) through nanochannel filled with binary symmetric electrolyte solution. The channel wall possesses either an acidic or a basic functional group. Going beyond the widely employed Debye-Huckel linearization, we develop a mathematical model based on Nernst-Planck equation for the charged species, Poisson equation for the induced potential, Stokes equation for fluid flow. A finite volume based numerical algorithm is adopted to study the effect of key parameters on the EOF. We have computed the coupled governing equations through the finite volume method and our results found to be in good agreement with the analytical solution obtained from the corresponding linear model based on low surface charge condition or strong electrolyte solution. The influence of the surface charge density, reaction constant of the functional groups, bulk pH, and concentration of the electrolyte solution on the overall flow rate is studied extensively. We find the effect of surface charge diminishes with the increase in electrolyte concentration. In addition for strong electrolyte, the surface charge becomes independent of pH due to complete dissociation of the functional groups.

Keywords: electroosmosis, finite volume method, functional group, surface charge

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9 Career Path: A Tool to Support Talent Management

Authors: Rashi Mahato

Abstract:

Talent management represents an organization’s effort to attract, develop and retain highly skilled and valuable employees. The goal is to have people with capabilities and commitment needed for current and future organizational success. The organizational talent pool is its managerial talent referred to as leadership pipeline. It is managed through various systems and processes to help the organization source, reward, evaluate, develop and move employees into various functions and roles. The pipeline bends, turns, and sometimes breaks as organizations identify who is 'ready now' and who is 'on track' for larger leadership roles. From this perspective, talent management designs structured approach and a robust mechanism for high potential employees to meet organization’s needs. The paper attempts to provide a roadmap and a structured approach towards building a high performing organization through well-defined career path. Managers want career paths to be defined, so that an adequate number of individuals may be identified and prepared to fill future vacancies. Once career progression patterns are identified, more systematic forecasting of talent requirements is possible. For the development of senior management talent or leadership team, career paths are needed as guidelines for talent management across functional and organizational lines. Career path is one of the important tools for talent management and aligning talent with business strategy. This paper briefly describes the approach for career path and the concept of

Keywords: career path, career path framework, lateral movement, talent management

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8 Making of Alloy Steel by Direct Alloying with Mineral Oxides during Electro-Slag Remelting

Authors: Vishwas Goel, Kapil Surve, Somnath Basu

Abstract:

In-situ alloying in steel during the electro-slag remelting (ESR) process has already been achieved by the addition of necessary ferroalloys into the electro-slag remelting mold. However, the use of commercially available ferroalloys during ESR processing is often found to be financially less favorable, in comparison with the conventional alloying techniques. However, a process of alloying steel with elements like chromium and manganese using the electro-slag remelting route is under development without any ferrochrome addition. The process utilizes in-situ reduction of refined mineral chromite (Cr₂O₃) and resultant enrichment of chromium in the steel ingot produced. It was established in course of this work that this process can become more advantageous over conventional alloying techniques, both economically and environmentally, for applications which inherently demand the use of the electro-slag remelting process, such as manufacturing of superalloys. A key advantage is the lower overall CO₂ footprint of this process relative to the conventional route of production, storage, and the addition of ferrochrome. In addition to experimentally validating the feasibility of the envisaged reactions, a mathematical model to simulate the reduction of chromium (III) oxide and transfer to chromium to the molten steel droplets was also developed as part of the current work. The developed model helps to correlate the amount of chromite input and the magnitude of chromium alloying that can be achieved through this process. Experiments are in progress to validate the predictions made by this model and to fine-tune its parameters.

Keywords: alloying element, chromite, electro-slag remelting, ferrochrome

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7 Value-Added Products from Recycling of Solid Waste in Steel Plants

Authors: B. Karthik Vasan, Rachil Maliwal, Somnath Basu

Abstract:

Generation of solid waste is a major problem confronting the iron and steel industry around the world. Disposal of untreated wastes is no longer a viable solution in view of the environmental regulations becoming more and more stringent, as well as an increase in community awareness about the long-term hazards of indiscriminate waste disposal. The current work explores the possibility of converting some of the ‘problematic’ solid wastes generated during steel manufacturing operations, viz. dust from primary steelmaking, iron ore handling, and flux calcination processes, into value-added products instead of environmentally hazardous disposal practices. It was possible to develop a synthetic calcium ferrite, which helped to enhance the dissolution of calcined basic fluxes (e.g. CaO) and reduce the overall energy consumption during steel making. This, in turn, increased process efficiency and reduced greenhouse gas emissions. The preliminary results from laboratory-scale experiments clearly demonstrate the potential of utilizing these ‘waste materials’ that are generated in-house in iron and steel manufacturing plants. The energy required for synthesis of the ferrite may be reduced further by partially utilizing the waste heat from the exhaust gases. In the longer run, it would result in significant financial benefits due to reduced dependence on purchased fluxes. The synthesized ferrite is non-hygroscopic and this provides an additional benefit during its storage and transportation, relative to calcined lime (CaO) that is widely used as a basic flux across the steel making industry.

Keywords: calcium ferrite, flux, slag formation, solid waste

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6 The Role of Community Museum in Ethnic Identity: A Case of Tharu Cultural Museum and Research Center in Chitwan Nepal

Authors: Birendra Mahato, Shiva Narayan Chaudhary

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Tharus are indigenous inhabitants of the Tarai, the narrow strip of flat and fertile land that lies at the foothills of the Himalayas. They have unique rituals, festivals, and music, while their clothes and ornaments are similar to some ethnic groups of India. After the control of malaria in the Terai between 1955 to 1965, (with the help of the U.S. Government, the WHO and the government of Nepal) the rate of in-migration skyrocketed, particularly of Nepal’s hill people, whose culture, along with the use of the Western education system, was gradually adopted by the Tharus. Among the many challenges, the Tharus face is their assimilation into the dominant Nepali culture. .The Tharus are thus under threat of slowly losing their ethnic identity and cultural values. In order to preserve the indigenous Tharu Culture, Tharu Cultural Museum, and Research Center. It is a community based non-governmental and non-profitable museum established in 2005 by Tharu intellectuals, traditional leaders and youths. The main goal of the museum is to preserve Tharu culture through different activities with direct and indirect involvement of community people. It aims to preserve arts, culture, handicrafts, and artifacts related to Indigenous Tharu People. Similarly, the museum displays an exhibition about the Tharu histories, lives, culture, and their indigenous knowledge and skills. The paper aims to demonstrate that community museums can be one of the key hubs for the preservation of culture with the collection and promotion of cultural objects, artifacts, and intangible cultural heritages. The preservation of culture not only has contributed to establishing their ethnic identity but also has contributed to establishing their recognition of their political space in the mainstream politics - the constitution of Nepal has recognized Tharus to provide reservation for the political space.

Keywords: community museum, tharu, , identity, culture

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5 Human-Elephant Conflict and Mitigation Measures in Buffer Zone of Bardia National Park, Nepal

Authors: Rabin Paudel, Dambar Bahadur Mahato, Prabin Poudel, Bijaya Neupane, Sakar Jha

Abstract:

Understanding Human-Elephant Conflict (HEC) is very important in countries like Nepal, where solutions to escalating conflicts are urgently required. However, most of the HEC mitigation measures implemented so far have been done on an ad hoc basis without the detailed understanding of nature and extent of the damage. This study aims to assess the current scenario of HEC in regards to crop and property damages by Wild Asian Elephant and people’s perception towards existing mitigating measures and elephant conservation in Buffer zone area of Bardia National Park. The methods used were a questionnaire survey (N= 178), key-informant interview (N= 18) and focal group discussions (N= 6). Descriptive statistics were used to determine the nature and extent of damage and to understand people’s perception towards HEC, its mitigation measures and elephant conservation. Chi-square test was applied to determine the significance of crop and property damages with respect to distance from the park boundary. Out of all types of damage, crop damage was found to be the highest (51%), followed by house damage (31%) and damage to stored grains (18%) with winter being the season with the greatest elephant damage. Among 178 respondents, the majority of them (82%) were positive towards elephant conservation despite the increment in HEC incidents as perceived by 88% of total respondents. Among the mitigation measures present, the most applied was electric fence (91%) followed by barbed wire fence (5%), reinforced concrete cement wall (3%) and gabion wall (1%). Most effective mitigation measures were reinforced concrete cement wall and gabion wall. To combat increasing crop damage, the insurance policy should be initiated. The efficiency of the mitigation measures should be timely monitored, and corrective measures should be applied as per the need.

Keywords: crop and property damage, elephant conflict, Asiatic wild elephant, mitigation measures

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4 Effect of Grain Size and Stress Parameters on Ratcheting Behaviour of Two Different Single Phase FCC Metals

Authors: Jayanta Kumar Mahato, Partha Sarathi De, Amrita Kundu, P. C. Chakraborti

Abstract:

Ratcheting is one of the most important phenomena to be considered for design and safety assessment of structural components subjected to stress controlled asymmetric cyclic loading in the elasto-plastic domain. In the present study uniaxial ratcheting behavior of commercially pure annealed OFHC copper and aluminium with two different grain sizes has been investigated. Stress-controlled tests have been conducted at various combinations of stress amplitude and mean stress. These stresses were selected in such a way that the ratio of equivalent stress amplitude (σₐeq) to ultimate tensile strength (σUTS) of the selected materials remains constant. It is found that irrespective of grain size the ratcheting fatigue lives decrease with the increase of both stress amplitude and mean stress following power relationships. However, the effect of stress amplitude on ratcheting lives is observed higher as compared to mean stress for both the FCC metals. It is also found that for both FCC metals ratcheting fatigue lives at a constant ratio of equivalent stress amplitude (σ ₐeq) to ultimate tensile strength (σUTS) are more in case fine grain size. So far ratcheting strain rate is concerned, it decreases rapidly within first few cycles and then a steady state is reached. Finally, the ratcheting strain rate increases up to the complete failure of the specimens due to a very large increase of true stress for a substantial reduction in cross-sectional area. The steady state ratcheting strain rate increases with the increase in both stress amplitude and mean stress. Interestingly, a unique perfectly power relationship between steady state ratcheting strain rate and cycles to failure has been found irrespective of stress combination for both FCC metals. Similar to ratcheting strain rate, the strain energy density decreases rapidly within first few cycles followed by steady state and then increases up to a failure of the specimens irrespective of stress combinations for both FCC metals; but strain energy density at steady state decreases with increase in mean stress and increases with the increase of stress amplitude. From the fractography study, it is found that the void density increases with the increase of maximum stress, but the void size and void density are almost same for any combination of stress parameters considering constant maximum stress.

Keywords: ratcheting phenomena, grain size, stress parameter, ratcheting lives, ratcheting strain rate

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3 Assessing the Influence of Chinese Stock Market on Indian Stock Market

Authors: Somnath Mukhuti, Prem Kumar Ghosh

Abstract:

Background and significance of the study Indian stock market has undergone sudden changes after the current China crisis in terms of turnover, market capitalization, share prices, etc. The average returns on equity investment in both markets have more than three and half times after global financial crisis owing to the development of industrial activity, corporate sectors development, enhancement in global consumption, change of global financial association and fewer imports from developed countries. But the economic policies of both the economies are far different, that is to say, where Indian economy maintaining a conservative policy, Chinese economy maintaining an aggressive policy. Besides this, Chinese economy recently lowering its currency for increasing mysterious growth but Indian does not. But on August 24, 2015 Indian stock market and world stock markets were fall down due to the reason of Chinese stock market. Keeping in view of the above, this study seeks to examine the influence of Chinese stock on Indian stock market. Methodology This research work is based on daily time series data obtained from yahoo finance database between 2009 (April 1) to 2015 (September 28). This study is based on two important stock markets, that is, Indian stock market (Bombay Stock Exchange) and Chinese stock market (Shanghai Stock Exchange). In the course of analysis, the daily raw data were converted into natural logarithm for minimizing the problem of heteroskedasticity. While tackling the issue, correlation statistics, ADF and PP unit root test, bivariate cointegration test and causality test were used. Major findings Correlation statistics show that both stock markets are associated positively. Both ADF and PP unit root test results demonstrate that the time series data were not normal and were not stationary at level however stationary at 1st difference. The bivariate cointegration test results indicate that the Indian stock market was associated with Chinese stock market in the long-run. The Granger causality test illustrates there was a unidirectional causality between Indian stock market and Chinese stock market. Concluding statement The empirical results recommend that India’s stock market was not very much dependent on Chinese stock market because of Indian economic conservative policies. Nevertheless, Indian stock market might be sturdy if Indian economic policies are changed slightly and if increases the portfolio investment with Chinese economy. Indian economy might be a third largest economy in 2030 if India increases its portfolio investment and trade relations with both Chinese economy and US economy.

Keywords: Indian stock market, China stock market, bivariate cointegration, causality test

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2 Influence of Strain on the Corrosion Behavior of Dual Phase 590 Steel

Authors: Amit Sarkar, Jayanta K. Mahato, Tushar Bhattacharya, Amrita Kundu, P. C. Chakraborti

Abstract:

With increasing the demand for safety and fuel efficiency of automobiles, automotive manufacturers are looking for light weight, high strength steel with excellent formability and corrosion resistance. Dual-phase steel is finding applications in automotive sectors, because of its high strength, good formability, and high corrosion resistance. During service automotive components suffer from environmental attack and thereby gradual degradation of the components occurs reducing the service life of the components. The objective of the present investigation is to assess the effect of deformation on corrosion behaviour of DP590 grade dual phase steel which is used in automotive industries. The material was received from TATA Steel Jamshedpur, India in the form of 1 mm thick sheet. Tensile properties of the steel at strain rate of 10-3 sec-1: 0.2 % Yield Stress is 382 MPa, Ultimate Tensile Strength is 629 MPa, Uniform Strain is 16.30% and Ductility is 29%. Rectangular strips of 100x10x1 mm were machined keeping the long axis of the strips parallel to rolling direction of the sheet. These strips were longitudinally deformed at a strain rate at 10-3 sec-1 to a different percentage of strain, e.g. 2.5, 5, 7.5,10 and 12.5%, and then slowly unloaded. Small specimens were extracted from the mid region of the unclamped portion of these deformed strips. These small specimens were metallographic polished, and corrosion behaviour has been studied by potentiodynamic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectra, and cyclic polarization and potentiostatic tests. Present results show that among three different environments, the 3.5 pct NaCl solution is most aggressive in case of DP 590 dual-phase steel. It is observed that with the increase in the amount of deformation, corrosion rate increases. With deformation, the stored energy increases and leads to enhanced corrosion rate. Cyclic polarization results revealed highly deformed specimen are more prone to pitting corrosion as compared to the condition when amount of deformation is less. It is also observed that stability of the passive layer decreases with the amount of deformation. With the increase of deformation, current density increases in a passive zone and passive zone is also decreased. From Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy study it is found that with increasing amount of deformation polarization resistance (Rp) decreases. EBSD results showed that average geometrically necessary dislocation density increases with increasing strain which in term increased galvanic corrosion as dislocation areas act as the less noble metal.

Keywords: dual phase 590 steel, prestrain, potentiodynamic polarization, cyclic polarization, electrochemical impedance spectra

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1 Study of Elastic-Plastic Fatigue Crack in Functionally Graded Materials

Authors: Somnath Bhattacharya, Kamal Sharma, Vaibhav Sonkar

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Composite materials emerged in the middle of the 20th century as a promising class of engineering materials providing new prospects for modern technology. Recently, a new class of composite materials known as functionally graded materials (FGMs) has drawn considerable attention of the scientific community. In general, FGMs are defined as composite materials in which the composition or microstructure or both are locally varied so that a certain variation of the local material properties is achieved. This gradual change in composition and microstructure of material is suitable to get gradient of properties and performances. FGMs are synthesized in such a way that they possess continuous spatial variations in volume fractions of their constituents to yield a predetermined composition. These variations lead to the formation of a non-homogeneous macrostructure with continuously varying mechanical and / or thermal properties in one or more than one direction. Lightweight functionally graded composites with high strength to weight and stiffness to weight ratios have been used successfully in aircraft industry and other engineering applications like in electronics industry and in thermal barrier coatings. In the present work, elastic-plastic crack growth problems (using Ramberg-Osgood Model) in an FGM plate under cyclic load has been explored by extended finite element method. Both edge and centre crack problems have been solved by taking additionally holes, inclusions and minor cracks under plane stress conditions. Both soft and hard inclusions have been implemented in the problems. The validity of linear elastic fracture mechanics theory is limited to the brittle materials. A rectangular plate of functionally graded material of length 100 mm and height 200 mm with 100% copper-nickel alloy on left side and 100% ceramic (alumina) on right side is considered in the problem. Exponential gradation in property is imparted in x-direction. A uniform traction of 100 MPa is applied to the top edge of the rectangular domain along y direction. In some problems, domain contains major crack along with minor cracks or / and holes or / and inclusions. Major crack is located the centre of the left edge or the centre of the domain. The discontinuities, such as minor cracks, holes, and inclusions are added either singly or in combination with each other. On the basis of this study, it is found that effect of minor crack in the domain’s failure crack length is minimum whereas soft inclusions have moderate effect and the effect of holes have maximum effect. It is observed that the crack growth is more before the failure in each case when hard inclusions are present in place of soft inclusions.

Keywords: elastic-plastic, fatigue crack, functionally graded materials, extended finite element method (XFEM)

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