Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 29

Search results for: Vaibhav Sonkar

29 Study of Elastic-Plastic Fatigue Crack in Functionally Graded Materials

Authors: Somnath Bhattacharya, Kamal Sharma, Vaibhav Sonkar

Abstract:

Composite materials emerged in the middle of the 20th century as a promising class of engineering materials providing new prospects for modern technology. Recently, a new class of composite materials known as functionally graded materials (FGMs) has drawn considerable attention of the scientific community. In general, FGMs are defined as composite materials in which the composition or microstructure or both are locally varied so that a certain variation of the local material properties is achieved. This gradual change in composition and microstructure of material is suitable to get gradient of properties and performances. FGMs are synthesized in such a way that they possess continuous spatial variations in volume fractions of their constituents to yield a predetermined composition. These variations lead to the formation of a non-homogeneous macrostructure with continuously varying mechanical and / or thermal properties in one or more than one direction. Lightweight functionally graded composites with high strength to weight and stiffness to weight ratios have been used successfully in aircraft industry and other engineering applications like in electronics industry and in thermal barrier coatings. In the present work, elastic-plastic crack growth problems (using Ramberg-Osgood Model) in an FGM plate under cyclic load has been explored by extended finite element method. Both edge and centre crack problems have been solved by taking additionally holes, inclusions and minor cracks under plane stress conditions. Both soft and hard inclusions have been implemented in the problems. The validity of linear elastic fracture mechanics theory is limited to the brittle materials. A rectangular plate of functionally graded material of length 100 mm and height 200 mm with 100% copper-nickel alloy on left side and 100% ceramic (alumina) on right side is considered in the problem. Exponential gradation in property is imparted in x-direction. A uniform traction of 100 MPa is applied to the top edge of the rectangular domain along y direction. In some problems, domain contains major crack along with minor cracks or / and holes or / and inclusions. Major crack is located the centre of the left edge or the centre of the domain. The discontinuities, such as minor cracks, holes, and inclusions are added either singly or in combination with each other. On the basis of this study, it is found that effect of minor crack in the domain’s failure crack length is minimum whereas soft inclusions have moderate effect and the effect of holes have maximum effect. It is observed that the crack growth is more before the failure in each case when hard inclusions are present in place of soft inclusions.

Keywords: elastic-plastic, fatigue crack, functionally graded materials, extended finite element method (XFEM)

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28 UAV Based Visual Object Tracking

Authors: Vaibhav Dalmia, Manoj Phirke, Renith G

Abstract:

With the wide adoption of UAVs (unmanned aerial vehicles) in various industries by the government as well as private corporations for solving computer vision tasks it’s necessary that their potential is analyzed completely. Recent advances in Deep Learning have also left us with a plethora of algorithms to solve different computer vision tasks. This study provides a comprehensive survey on solving the Visual Object Tracking problem and explains the tradeoffs involved in building a real-time yet reasonably accurate object tracking system for UAVs by looking at existing methods and evaluating them on the aerial datasets. Finally, the best trackers suitable for UAV-based applications are provided.

Keywords: deep learning, drones, single object tracking, visual object tracking, UAVs

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27 Analysis of Performance-Emission Characteristics of a Single Cylinder Diesel Engine Fueled with Coconut Oil

Authors: Purna Singh, Vaibhav Tripathi, Vinayak Kalluri, Sumit Roy

Abstract:

The present experimental work was carried out to investigate performance and emission characteristics of single cylinder diesel engine operating under dual-fuel mode with coconut oil blended with diesel. Coconut oil is one of the edible oil which is abundant in tropical countries and has properties like diesel. To this end, performance and emission parameters of diesel-coconut oil blends were reported in the current study. The results were drawn at different load steps of engine operation with 10% and 20% of coconut oil linearly blended with diesel. From the results, it was evident that coconut oil can be successfully replaced up to 20% of diesel without hampering the performance-emission characteristics of the existing diesel engine.

Keywords: coconut oil, alternative fuel, emissions, dual-fuel

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26 Comparative Exergy Analysis of Vapor Compression Refrigeration System Using Alternative Refrigerants

Authors: Gulshan Sachdeva, Vaibhav Jain

Abstract:

In present paper, the performance of various alternative refrigerants is compared to find the substitute of R22, the widely used hydrochlorofluorocarbon refrigerant in developing countries. These include the environmentally friendly hydrofluorocarbon (HFC) refrigerants such as R134A, R410A, R407C and M20. In the present study, a steady state thermodynamic model (includes both first and second law analysis) which simulates the working of an actual vapor-compression system is developed. The model predicts the performance of system with alternative refrigerants. Considering the recent trends of replacement of ozone depleting refrigerants and improvement in system efficiency, R407C is found to be potential candidate to replace R22 refrigerant in the present study.

Keywords: refrigeration, compression system, performance study, modeling, R407C

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25 Neuron-Based Control Mechanisms for a Robotic Arm and Hand

Authors: Nishant Singh, Christian Huyck, Vaibhav Gandhi, Alexander Jones

Abstract:

A robotic arm and hand controlled by simulated neurons is presented. The robot makes use of a biological neuron simulator using a point neural model. The neurons and synapses are organised to create a finite state automaton including neural inputs from sensors, and outputs to effectors. The robot performs a simple pick-and-place task. This work is a proof of concept study for a longer term approach. It is hoped that further work will lead to more effective and flexible robots. As another benefit, it is hoped that further work will also lead to a better understanding of human and other animal neural processing, particularly for physical motion. This is a multidisciplinary approach combining cognitive neuroscience, robotics, and psychology.

Keywords: cell assembly, force sensitive resistor, robot, spiking neuron

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24 An Unusual Occurrence: Typhoid Retinitis with Kyrieleis' Vasculitis

Authors: Aditya Sethi, Vaibhav Sethi, Shenouda Girgis

Abstract:

We present a case of a 31-year-old female who presented with a three week history of left eye blurry vision following a fever. She was diagnosed with Typhoid fever, confirmed by a positive Widal test report. On examination, her best corrected visual acuity in the right eye was 20/20 and in the left eye was 20/60. Fundus examination of the right eye showed a focal area of retinitis with retinal haemorrhages along the superior arcade within the macula. There was also focal area of retinitis with superficial retinal haemorrhages along the superior arcade vessels. There was also presence of multiple yellowish white exudates within the adjacent retinal artery arranged in a beaded pattern, suggestive of Kyrieleis' vasculitis. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) of the left eye demonstrated cystoid macula edema with serous foveal detachment.

Keywords: typhoid retinitis, Kyrieleis’ vasculitis, immune-mediated retinitis, post-fever retinitis, typhoid retinopathy, retinitis

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23 Performance Study of Cascade Refrigeration System Using Alternative Refrigerants

Authors: Gulshan Sachdeva, Vaibhav Jain, S. S. Kachhwaha

Abstract:

Cascade refrigeration systems employ series of single stage vapor compression units which are thermally coupled with evaporator/condenser cascades. Different refrigerants are used in each of the circuit depending on the optimum characteristics shown by the refrigerant for a particular application. In the present research study, a steady state thermodynamic model is developed which simulates the working of an actual cascade system. The model provides COP and all other system parameters like total compressor work, temperature, pressure, enthalpy and entropy at different state points. The working fluid in Low Temperature Circuit (LTC) is CO2 (R744) while ammonia (R717), propane (R290), propylene (R1270), R404A and R12 are the refrigerants in High Temperature Circuit (HTC). The performance curves of ammonia, propane, propylene, and R404A are compared with R12 to find its nearest substitute. Results show that ammonia is the best substitute of R12.

Keywords: cascade system, refrigerants, thermodynamic model, production engineering

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22 Hybrid GA-PSO Based Pitch Controller Design for Aircraft Control System

Authors: Vaibhav Singh Rajput, Ravi Kumar Jatoth, Nagu Bhookya, Bhasker Boda

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In this paper proportional, integral, derivative (PID) controller is used to control the pitch angle of the aircraft when the elevation angle is changed or modified. The pitch angle is dependent on elevation angle; a change in one corresponds to a change in the other. The PID controller helps in restricted change of pitch rate in response to the elevation angle. The PID controller is dependent on different parameters like Kp, Ki, Kd which change the pitch rate as they change. Various methodologies are used for changing those parameters for getting a perfect time response pitch angle, as desired or wished by a concerned person. While reckoning the values of those parameters, trial and guessing may prove to be futile in order to provide comfort to passengers. So, using some metaheuristic techniques can be useful in handling these errors. Hybrid GA-PSO is one such powerful algorithm which can improve transient and steady state response and can give us more reliable results for PID gain scheduling problem.

Keywords: pitch rate, elevation angle, PID controller, genetic algorithm, particle swarm optimization, phugoid

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21 Experimental Investigation of Cup Anemometer under Static and Dynamic Wind Direction Changes: Evaluation of Directional Sensitivity

Authors: Vaibhav Rana, Nicholas Balaresque

Abstract:

The 3-cup anemometer is the most commonly used instrument for wind speed measurement and, consequently, for the wind resource assessment. Though the cup anemometer shows accurate measurement under quasi-static conditions, there is uncertainty in the measurement when subjected to field measurement. Sensitivity to the angle of attacks with respect to horizontal plane, dynamic response, and non-linear behavior in calibration due to friction. The presented work aimed to identify the sensitivity of anemometer to non-horizontal flow. The cup anemometer was investigated under low wind speed wind tunnel, first under the static flow direction changes and second under the dynamic direction changes, at a different angle of attacks, under the similar conditions of reference wind tunnel speeds. The cup anemometer response under both conditions was evaluated and compared. The results showed the anemometer under dynamic wind direction changes is highly sensitive compared to static conditions.

Keywords: wind energy, cup anemometer, directional sensitivity, dynamic behavior, wind tunnel

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20 Smartphone Based Wound Assessment System for Diabetes Patients

Authors: Vaibhav V. Dixit, Shubham Ajay Karwa

Abstract:

Diabetic foot ulcers speak to a critical medical problem. Right now, clinicians and medical caretakers primarily construct their injury evaluation in light of visual examination of wound size and mending status, while the patients themselves rarely have a chance to play a dynamic part. Henceforth, love quantitative and practical examination technique that empowers the patients and their parental figures to take a more dynamic part in every day wound care possibly can quicken wound recuperating, spare travel cost and diminish human services costs. Considering the commonness of cell phones with a high-determination computerized camera, evaluating wounds by breaking down pictures of ceaseless foot ulcers is an alluring choice. In this paper, we propose a novel injury picture examination framework actualized using feature extraction and color segmentation. Here we are using the Normalized minimum distance classifier for classifying the output.

Keywords: diabetic, Gabor wavelet, normalized minimum distance classifier, quantiable parameters

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19 New Approaches to Guest Engagement Leading to Guest Satisfaction and Driving Guest Loyalty

Authors: Vaibhav Garg

Abstract:

The concept of guest engagement lies in the rigor of operational excellence and the emotional engagement of associates who perform their tasks genuinely from their hearts and hence in word and indeed, in intent and through gestures, a great hospitality is always genuine, attentive, passionate, caring and warm where engaged associates deliver exceptional service experiences and creates memories to last forever for the guests. One out of every five guests says that their decision of coming back to the same hotel is influenced by the opportunity to “experience and be engaged” A key question is what does a guest mean by experience and be engaged? Most hotels are highly concerned about the guest satisfaction. Therefore they have the brand standards which are a guide to the associate to ensure consistent implementation of set service and product standards to satisfy a guest. However, satisfaction of basic guest needs does not necessarily lead to engagement. For example an absolutely clean room and an in room dining order delivered on time can satisfy a guest but may not engage him. Absence of these standards can certainly lead to guest dissatisfaction however; the presence of these standards does not necessarily lead to guest engagement or guest delight.

Keywords: guest engagement, guest satisfaction, hospitality, hotel operations, operational excellence

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18 Assessment of Mammary Gland Immunity and Therapeutic Potential of Topical Herbal Gel against Bovine Subclinical Mastitis

Authors: Mukesh N. Kher, Anju P. Kunjadia, Dev S. Nauriyal, Chaitanya G. Joshi, Navin R. Sheth, Vaibhav D. Bhatt

Abstract:

In-vivo immunotherapeutic potential on cytokines production and antibacterial activity of a topical herbal gel was evaluated in two breeds of cattle in bovine subclinical mastitis. The response to treatment was evaluated by enumerating somatic cell count (SCC), determining total bacterial count and studying the expression of different cytokines like (interleukin 6, 8, 12, GMCSF, interferon–γ and TNF‑α). The pre‑ and post‑treatment SCC in mastitic quarters did not differ statistically-significantly. However, total bacterial count declined significantly from day 0 onwards in both the breeds. Significant differences (P < 0.01) were observed in all types of cytokines production on day 0, 5, and 21 post last treatments in both the breeds. The comparison of cytokine expression profiles between crossbred and Gir cattle affirmed a significant difference in expression of IL-6 and TNF-α. The topical herbal gel showed immunomodulatory and antimicrobial activities in subclinical mastitis, and therefore the work supports its use as substitute herbal therapy against subclinical mastitis in bovines.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, immunomodulation, herbal gel, subclinical mastitis

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17 Effect of Cabbage and Cauliflower Emitted Volatile Organic Compounds on Foraging Response of Plutella xylostella

Authors: Sumbul Farhat, Pratyay Vaibhav, Sarah Jain, Kapinder Kumar, Archna Kumar

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The Diamondback Moth, Plutella xylostella (Linnaeus), is a major pest of cole crops that causes approximately 50% loss in global production. The utilization of inorganic pesticides is reflected in the development of resistance to this pest. Thus, there is a great need for an eco-friendly, sustainable strategy for the control of this pest. Although this pest, several natural enemies are reported worldwide, none of them can control it efficiently. Therefore, a proposed study is planned to understand the Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) mediated signaling interaction mechanism of the plant, pest, and natural enemy. For VOCs collection during different deployment stages of Cabbage POI, Green Ball, Pusa Cabbage, Cabbage Local, Snowball 16, Kanchan Plus, Pusa Meghna, Farm Sona Hybrid F1, and Samridhi F1 Hybrid, the Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) method was employed. Characterization of VOCs was conducted by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). The impact of collected VOCs was assessed through Y-Tube Bioassays. The results indicate that the Cabbage variety Green Ball shows maximum repellency for P. xylostella (-100%). The cues present in this variety may be exploited for efficient management of P. xylostella in the cole crop ecosystem.

Keywords: Plutella xylostella, cole crops, volatile organic compounds, GC-MS, Green Ball

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16 Dynamic Stall Characterization of Low Reynolds Airfoil in Mars and Titan’s Atmosphere

Authors: Vatasta Koul, Vaibhav Sharma, Ayush Gupta, Rajesh Yadav

Abstract:

Exploratory missions to Mars and Titan have increased recently with various endeavors to find an alternate home to humankind. The use of surface rovers has its limitations due to rugged and uneven surfaces of these planetary bodies. The use of aerial robots requires the complete aerodynamic characterization of these vehicles in the atmospheric conditions of these planetary bodies. The dynamic stall phenomenon is extremely important for rotary wings performance under low Reynolds number that can be encountered in Martian and Titan’s atmosphere. The current research focuses on the aerodynamic characterization and exploration of the dynamic stall phenomenon of two different airfoils viz. E387 and Selig-Donovan7003 in Martian and Titan’s atmosphere at low Reynolds numbers of 10000 and 50000. The two-dimensional numerical simulations are conducted using commercially available finite volume solver with multi-species non-reacting mixture of gases as the working fluid. The k-epsilon (k-ε) turbulence model is used to capture the unsteady flow separation and the effect of turbulence. The dynamic characteristics are studied at a fixed different constant rotational extreme of angles of attack. This study of airfoils at different low Reynolds number and atmospheric conditions on Mars and Titan will be resulting in defining the aerodynamic characteristics of these airfoils for unmanned aerial missions for outer space exploration.

Keywords: aerodynamics, dynamic stall, E387, SD7003

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15 Effect of Wavy Leading-Edges on Wings in Different Planetary Atmospheres

Authors: Vatasta Koul, Ayush Gupta, Vaibhav Sharma, Rajesh Yadav

Abstract:

Today we are unmarking the secrets of the universe by exploring different stars and planets and most of the space exploration is done by unmanned space robots. In addition to our planet Earth, there are pieces of evidence that show other astronomical objects in our solar system such as Venus, Mars, Saturn’s moon Titan and Uranus support the flight of fixed wing air vehicles. In this paper, we take forward the concept of presence of large rounded tubercles along the leading edge of a wing and use it as a passive flow control device that will help in improving its aerodynamic performance and maneuverability. Furthermore, in this research, aerodynamic measurements and performance analysis of wavy leading tubercles on the fixed wings at 5-degree angle of attack are carried out after determination of the flow conditions on the selected planetary bodies. Wavelength and amplitude for the sinusoidal modifications on the leading edge are analyzed and simulations are carried out for three-dimensional NACA 0012 airfoil maintaining unity AR (Aspect Ratio). Tubercles have consistently demonstrated the ability to delay and decrease the severity of stall as per the studies were done in the Earth’s atmosphere. Implementing the same design on the leading edges of Micro-Air Vehicles (MAVs) and UAVs could make these aircrafts more stable over a greater range of angles of attack in different planetary environments of our solar system.

Keywords: amplitude, NACA0012, tubercles, unmanned space robots

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14 Study of 'Rolled in Scale' and 'Rolled in Scum' in Automotive Grade Cold-Rolled Annealed Steel Sheet

Authors: Soumendu Monia, Vaibhav Jain, Hrishikesh Jugade, Manashi Adhikary, Goutam Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

'Rolled in scale' (RIS) and 'Rolled in Scum' (RISc) are two superficial surface defects on cold rolled and annealed steel sheets which affect the aesthetics of surface and thereby that of the end-product. Both the defects are believed to be originating from distinctly different sources having different mechanisms of formation. However, due to their similar physical appearance, RIS and RISc are generally confused with each other and hence attaining the exact root cause for elimination of the defect becomes difficult. RIS appears irregular in shape, sometimes scattered, and always oriented in rolling direction. RISc is generally oval shaped, having identifiable pointed edges and mostly oriented in rolling direction. Visually, RIS appears to be greyish in colour whereas RISc is whitish in colour. Both the defects have quite random occurrence and do not leave any imprints on the reverse-side of the sheet. In the current study, an attempt has been made to differentiate these two similar looking surface defects using various metallographic and characterization techniques. Systematic experiments have been carried out to identify possible mechanisms of formation of these defects. Detailed characterization revealed basic differences between RIS and RISc with respect to their surface morphology. To summarize, RIS was observed as a residue of an otherwise under-pickled scale patch on surface, after it has been subjected to cold rolling and annealing in a batch/continuous furnace. Whereas RISc was found to be a localized rubbing of the surface, at the time of cold rolling itself, resulting in a rough surface texture.

Keywords: annealing, rolled in scale, rolled in scum, skin panel

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13 Reversible Information Hitting in Encrypted JPEG Bitstream by LSB Based on Inherent Algorithm

Authors: Vaibhav Barve

Abstract:

Reversible information hiding has drawn a lot of interest as of late. Being reversible, we can restore unique computerized data totally. It is a plan where mystery data is put away in digital media like image, video, audio to maintain a strategic distance from unapproved access and security reason. By and large JPEG bit stream is utilized to store this key data, first JPEG bit stream is encrypted into all around sorted out structure and then this secret information or key data is implanted into this encrypted region by marginally changing the JPEG bit stream. Valuable pixels suitable for information implanting are computed and as indicated by this key subtle elements are implanted. In our proposed framework we are utilizing RC4 algorithm for encrypting JPEG bit stream. Encryption key is acknowledged by framework user which, likewise, will be used at the time of decryption. We are executing enhanced least significant bit supplanting steganography by utilizing genetic algorithm. At first, the quantity of bits that must be installed in a guaranteed coefficient is versatile. By utilizing proper parameters, we can get high capacity while ensuring high security. We are utilizing logistic map for shuffling of bits and utilization GA (Genetic Algorithm) to find right parameters for the logistic map. Information embedding key is utilized at the time of information embedding. By utilizing precise picture encryption and information embedding key, the beneficiary can, without much of a stretch, concentrate the incorporated secure data and totally recoup the first picture and also the original secret information. At the point when the embedding key is truant, the first picture can be recouped pretty nearly with sufficient quality without getting the embedding key of interest.

Keywords: data embedding, decryption, encryption, reversible data hiding, steganography

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12 Spectroscopic Relation between Open Cluster and Globular Cluster

Authors: Robin Singh, Mayank Nautiyal, Priyank Jain, Vatasta Koul, Vaibhav Sharma

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The curiosity to investigate the space and its mysteries was dependably the main impetus of human interest, as the particle of livings exists from the "debut de l'Univers" (beginning of the Universe) typified with its few other living things. The sharp drive to uncover the secrets of stars and their unusual deportment was dependably an ignitor of stars investigation. As humankind lives in civilizations and states, stars likewise live in provinces named ‘clusters’. Clusters are separates into 2 composes i.e. open clusters and globular clusters. An open cluster is a gathering of thousand stars that were moulded from a comparable goliath sub-nuclear cloud and for the most part; contain Propulsion I (extremely metal-rich) and Propulsion II (mild metal-rich), where globular clusters are around gathering of more than thirty thousand stars that circles a galactic focus and basically contain Propulsion III (to a great degree metal-poor) stars. Futurology of this paper lies in the spectroscopic investigation of globular clusters like M92 and NGC419 and open clusters like M34 and IC2391 in different color bands by using software like VIREO virtual observatory, Aladin, CMUNIWIN, and MS-Excel. Assessing the outcome Hertzsprung-Russel (HR) diagram with exemplary cosmological models like Einstein model, De Sitter and Planck survey demonstrate for a superior age estimation of respective clusters. Colour-Magnitude Diagram of these clusters was obtained by photometric analysis in g and r bands which further transformed into BV bands which will unravel the idea of stars exhibit in the individual clusters.

Keywords: color magnitude diagram, globular clusters, open clusters, Einstein model

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11 Environment Management Practices at Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Hazira Gas Processing Complex

Authors: Ashish Agarwal, Vaibhav Singh

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Harmful emissions from oil and gas processing facilities have long remained a matter of concern for governments and environmentalists throughout the world. This paper analyses Oil and Natural Gas Corporation (ONGC) gas processing plant in Hazira, Gujarat, India. It is the largest gas-processing complex in the country designed to process 41MMSCMD sour natural gas & associated sour condensate. The complex, sprawling over an area of approximate 705 hectares is the mother plant for almost all industries at Hazira and enroute Hazira Bijapur Jagdishpur pipeline. Various sources of pollution from each unit starting from Gas Terminal to Dew Point Depression unit and Caustic Wash unit along the processing chain were examined with the help of different emission data obtained from ONGC. Pollution discharged to the environment was classified into Water, Air, Hazardous Waste and Solid (Non-Hazardous) Waste so as to analyze each one of them efficiently. To protect air environment, Sulphur recovery unit along with automatic ambient air quality monitoring stations, automatic stack monitoring stations among numerous practices were adopted. To protect water environment different effluent treatment plants were used with due emphasis on aquaculture of the nearby area. Hazira plant has obtained the authorization for handling and disposal of five types of hazardous waste. Most of the hazardous waste were sold to authorized recyclers and the rest was given to Gujarat Pollution Control Board authorized vendors. Non-Hazardous waste was also handled with an overall objective of zero negative impact on the environment. The effect of methods adopted is evident from emission data of the plant which was found to be well under Gujarat Pollution Control Board limits.

Keywords: sulphur recovery unit, effluent treatment plant, hazardous waste, sour gas

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10 Electrophoretic Deposition of Ultrasonically Synthesized Nanostructured Conducting Poly(o-phenylenediamine)-Co-Poly(1-naphthylamine) Film for Detection of Glucose

Authors: Vaibhav Budhiraja, Chandra Mouli Pandey

Abstract:

The ultrasonic synthesis of nanostructured conducting copolymer is an effective technique to synthesize polymer with desired chemical properties. This tailored nanostructure, shows tremendous improvement in sensitivity and stability to detect a variety of analytes. The present work reports ultrasonically synthesized nanostructured conducting poly(o-phenylenediamine)-co-poly(1-naphthylamine) (POPD-co-PNA). The synthesized material has been characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and cyclic voltammetry. FTIR spectroscopy confirmed random copolymerization, while UV-visible studies reveal the variation in polaronic states upon copolymerization. High crystallinity was achieved via ultrasonic synthesis which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction, and the controlled morphology of the nanostructures was confirmed by transmission electron microscopy analysis. Cyclic voltammetry shows that POPD-co-PNA has rather high electrochemical activity. This behavior was explained on the basis of variable orientations adopted by the conducting polymer chains. The synthesized material was electrophoretically deposited at onto indium tin oxide coated glass substrate which is used as cathode and parallel platinum plate as the counter electrode. The fabricated bioelectrode was further used for detection of glucose by crosslinking of glucose oxidase in the PODP-co-PNA film. The bioelectrode shows a surface-controlled electrode reaction with the electron transfer coefficient (α) of 0.72, charge transfer rate constant (ks) of 21.77 s⁻¹ and diffusion coefficient 7.354 × 10⁻¹⁵ cm²s⁻¹.

Keywords: conducting, electrophoretic, glucose, poly (o-phenylenediamine), poly (1-naphthylamine), ultrasonic

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9 High-Performance Computing Based Scalable Deep Fuzzy Clustering Algorithms and Its Application to Real-Life Soybean Protein Sequences

Authors: Preeti Jha, Aruna Tiwari, Neha Bharill, Milind Ratnaparkhe, Om Prakash Patel, Vaibhav Anand, Sudhanshu Arya, Tanmay Singh

Abstract:

Fuzzy clustering is a common way to divide data into groups. Even though it has improved, fuzzy clustering still has problems while clustering real high-dimensional big data with complicated latent distributions. To solve this problem, this study comes up with a way to represent the data in a feature space that was built from a scalable deep neural network using Apache Spark on High-Performance Computing (HPC). In this paper, we proposed SDnnRSIO-FCM, a Scalable Deep Neural Network Random Sampling Iterative Optimization-FCM clustering algorithm, and the SDnnLFCM, a scalable version of the Deep Neural Network Literal Fuzzy c-Means algorithm. We focus on designing and implementing the proposed SDnnRSIO-FCM and SDnnLFCM algorithms using the Apache Spark cluster in an HPC environment by representing the data in a feature space produced by the neural network to handle Big Data. First, data is mapped into a new feature space to aid in the reconstruction of the original data by providing a good representation. Second, scalable fuzzy clustering is embedded with neural networks to propose deep fuzzy clustering methods. The experimental results conducted on two huge benchmark datasets show that the SDnnRSIO-FCM algorithm outperforms the SDnnLFCM algorithm in terms of Normalized Mutual Information (NMI), Adjusted Rand Index (ARI), and F-score. Furthermore, the proposed SDnnRSIO-FCM applied to massive soybean protein sequences in comparison with SDnnLFCM shows a significant improvement in terms of Silhouette index (SI), Davies-Bouldin index (DBI), and Calinski-Harabasz index (CHI).

Keywords: fuzzy clustering, deep learning, big data, neural network, scalable algorithms

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8 Potentiodynamic Polarization Behavior of Surface Mechanical Attrition Treated AA7075

Authors: Vaibhav Pandey, K. Chattopadhyay, N. C. Santhi Srinivas, Vakil Singh

Abstract:

Aluminium alloy 7075 consist of different intermetallic precipitate particles MgZn2, CuAl2, which result in heterogeneity of micro structure and influence the corrosion properties of the alloy. Artificial ageing was found to enhance the strength properties, but highly susceptible to stress-corrosion cracking. Various conventional surface modification techniques are developed for improving corrosion properties of aluminum alloys. This led to development of novel surface mechanical attrition treatment (SMAT) technique the so called ultrasonic shot peening which gives nano-grain structure at surface. In the present investigation the influence of surface mechanical attrition treatment on corrosion behavior of aluminum alloy 7075 was studied in 3.5wt% NaCl solution. Two different size of 1 mm and 3 mm steel balls are used as peening media and SMAT was carried out for different time intervals 5, 15 and 30 minutes. Surface nano-grains/nano-crystallization was observed after SMAT. The formation of nano-grain structure was observed for larger size balls with time of treatment and consequent increase in micro strain. As-SMATed sample with 1 mm balls exhibits better corrosion resistance as compared to that of un-SMATed sample. The enhancement in corrosion resistance may be due to formation of surface nano-grain structure which reduced the electron release rate. In contrast the samples treated with 3 mm balls showed very poor corrosion resistance. A decrease in corrosion resistance was observed with increase in the time of peening. The decrease in corrosion resistance in the shotpeened samples with larger diameter balls may due to increase in microstrain and defect density.

Keywords: aluminum alloy 7075, corrosion, SMAT, ultrasonic shot peening, surface nano-grains

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7 Different Orientations of Shape Memory Alloy Wire in Automotive Sector Product

Authors: Srishti Bhatt, Vaibhav Bhavsar, Adil Hussain, Aashay Mhaske, S. C. Bali, T. S. Srikanth

Abstract:

Shape Memory Alloys (SMA) are widely known for their unique shape recovery properties. SMA based actuation systems have high-force to weight ratio, light weight and also bio-compatible material. Which is why they are being used in different fields of aerospace, robotics, automotive and biomedical industries. However, in the automotive industry plenty of patents are available but commercially viable products are very few in market. This could be due to SMA material limitations like small stroke, direct dependability of lifecycle on stroke, pull load of the wire and high cycle time. In automotive sector, SMA being considered as an actuator which is required to have high stroke and constraint arises to accommodate a long length of wire (to compensate maximum 4 % strain as per better fatigue life cycle) not only increases complexity but also adds on the cost. More than 200 different types of actuators are used in an automobile, few of them whose efficiency can highly increase by replacing them with SMA based actuators which include latch lock mechanism, glove box, Head lamp leveling, side mirror and rear mirror leveling, tailgate opener and fuel lid cap actuator. To overcome the limitation of available space for required stroke of an actuator which leads to study the effect of different loading positions on SMA wires, different orientations of SMA wire by using pulleys and lever based systems to achieve maximum stroke. This investigation summarizes the loading under the V shape orientation the required stroke and carrying load capacity in more compact in comparison with straight orientation of wire. Similarly, the U shape orientation its showing higher load carrying capacity but reduced stroke which is aligned with concept of bundled wire method. Life-cycle of these orientations were also evaluated.

Keywords: actuators, automotive, nitinol, shape memory alloy, SMA wire orientations

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6 Juvenile Justice System in India: Pre and Post Nirbhaya Case

Authors: Vaibhav Singh Parihar

Abstract:

Incidents of serious offenses being committed by children are increasing day by day thereby becoming a matter of great concern. The involvement of a 17-year-old boy in the incident that took place on 16th December 2012 (most commonly known as ‘Nirbhaya Case’)wherein a 23-year-old girl was brutally gang-raped and thrown out of the moving bus, took the entire nation by shock. Previously, the legislation dealing with juvenile delinquency in India considered a child to be juvenile if he/she was below the age of 18 years. As a consequence, the accused who was just six months short of attaining the age of 18 years was convicted for only three years. The primary objective of the study is to understand the gravity as to why the need for distinguishing a child and juvenile arose in this time and to what extent legislations are successful in this regard. It initially explains the history and evolution of juvenile legislation in India and the provisions contained in the Indian Constitution. It then goes on to explain the causes of juvenile delinquency in India. Further, the study focuses on the latest trends that have developed in juvenile delinquency, explaining how the Nirbhaya Case led to the amendments made to the Juvenile Justice Act, 2010. Also, it focuses on the Child Rights and Child Protection and the stand taken by the National Human Rights Commission and the international community. An attempt has been made to settle the debate as to whether the juvenile justice system in India is reformative or punitive. The need for amendment in the Juvenile Justice Act is also highlighted. The outcome of the study suggests that the legislation relating to juvenile delinquency have not been able to achieve the desired results. The age determination method in our system has been given paramount importance. The maximum punishment prescribed, even for heinous crimes, is only three years. Also, the reformative style of punishment is not adequate and more emphasis should be laid on penalization. Finally, the author concludes that the legislation has failed at creating a deterrent effect. It is suggested to strengthen the role of government authorities and to sensitize people in this regard to increase community participation. A non-doctrinal and analytical approach has been adopted and secondary sources of data have been relied upon by the author for conducting the research for the study.

Keywords: child, delinquency, juvenile, Nirbhaya case

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5 Metagenomic Analysis and Pharmacokinetics of Phage Therapy in the Treatment of Bovine Subclinical Mastitis

Authors: Vaibhav D. Bhatt, Anju P. Kunjadia, D. S. Nauriyal, Bhumika J. Joshi, Chaitanya G. Joshi

Abstract:

Metagenomic analysis of milk samples collected from local cattle breed, kankrej (Bos indicus), Gir (Bos indicus) and Crossbred (Bos indicus X Bos taurus) cattle harbouring subclinical mastitis was carried out by next-generation sequencing (NGS) 454 GS-FLX technology. Around 56 different species including members of Enterobacteriales, Pseudomonadales, Bacillales and Lactobacillales with varying abundance were detected in infected milk. The interesting presence of bacteriophages against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter and Yersinia species were observed, especially Enterobacteria and E. coli phages (0∙32%) in Kankrej, Enterobacteria and Staphylococcus phages (1∙05%) in Gir and Staphylococcus phages (2∙32%) in crossbred cattle. NGS findings suggest that phages may be involved in imparting natural resistance of the cattle against pathogens. Further infected milk samples were subjected for bacterial isolation. Fourteen different isolates were identified, and DNA was extracted. Genes (Tet-K, Msr-A, and Mec-A) providing antibiotic resistance to the bacteria were screened by Polymerase Chain Reaction and results were validated with traditional antibiotic assay. Total 3 bacteriophages were isolated from nearby environment of the cattle farm. The efficacy of phages was checked against multi-drug resistant bacteria, identified by PCR. In-vivo study was carried out for phage therapy in mammary glands of female rats “Wister albino”. Mammary glands were infused with MDR isolates for 3 consecutive days. Recovery was observed in infected rats after intramammary infusion of sterile phage suspension. From day 4th onwards, level of C-reactive protein was significant increases up to day 12th . However, significant reduction was observed between days 12th to 18th post treatment. Bacteriophages have significant potential as antibacterial agents and their ability to replicate exponentially within their hosts and their specificity, make them ideal candidates for more sustainable mastitis control.

Keywords: bacteriophages, c-reactive protein, mastitis, metagenomic analysis

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4 Ecosystem Services and Human Well-Being: Case Study of Tiriya Village, Bastar India

Authors: S. Vaibhav Kant Sahu, Surabhi Bipin Seth

Abstract:

Human well-being has multiple constituents including the basic material for a good life, freedom and choice, health, good social relations, and security. Poverty is also multidimensional and has been defined as the pronounced deprivation of well-being. Dhurwa tribe of Bastar (India) have symbiotic relation with nature, it provisions ecosystem service such as food, fuel and fiber; regulating services such as climate regulation and non-material benefits such as spiritual or aesthetic benefits and they are managing their forest from ages. The demand for ecosystem services is now so great that trade-off among services become rule. Aim of study to explore evidences for linkages between ecosystem services and well-being of indigenous community, how much it helps them in poverty reduction and interaction between them. Objective of study was to find drivers of change and evidence concerning link between ecosystem, human development and sustainability, evidence in decision making does it opt for multi sectoral objectives. Which means human well-being as the central focus for assessment, while recognizing that biodiversity and ecosystems also have intrinsic value. Ecosystem changes that may have little impact on human well-being over days or weeks may have pronounced impacts over years or decades; so assessments needed to be conducted at spatial and temporal scales under social, political, economic scales to have high-resolution data. Researcher used framework developed by Millennium ecosystem assessment; since human action now directly or unknowingly virtually alter ecosystem. Researcher used ethnography study to get primary qualitative data, secondary data collected from panchayat office. The responses were transcribed and translated into English, as interview held in Hindi and local indigenous language. Focus group discussion were held with group of 10 women at Tiriya village. Researcher concluded with well-being is not just gap between ecosystem service supply but also increases vulnerability. Decision can have consequences external to the decision framework these consequences are called externalities because they are not part of the decision-making calculus.

Keywords: Bastar, Dhurwa tribe, ecosystem services, millennium ecosystem assessment, sustainability

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3 Construction and Demolition Waste Management in Indian Cities

Authors: Vaibhav Rathi, Soumen Maity, Achu R. Sekhar, Abhijit Banerjee

Abstract:

Construction sector in India is extremely resource and carbon intensive. It contributes to significantly to national greenhouse emissions. At the resource end the industry consumes significant portions of the output from mining. Resources such as sand and soil are most exploited and their rampant extraction is becoming constant source of impact on environment and society. Cement is another resource that is used in abundance in building and construction and has a direct impact on limestone resources. Though India is rich in cement grade limestone resource, efforts have to be made for sustainable consumption of this resource to ensure future availability. Use of these resources in high volumes in India is a result of rapid urbanization. More cities have grown to a population of million plus in the last decade and million plus cities are growing further. To cater to needs of growing urban population of construction activities are inevitable in the coming future thereby increasing material consumption. Increased construction will also lead to substantial increase in end of life waste generation from Construction and Demolition (C&D). Therefore proper management of C&D waste has the potential to reduce environmental pollution as well as contribute to the resource efficiency in the construction sector. The present study deals with estimation, characterisation and documenting current management practices of C&D waste in 10 Indian cities of different geographies and classes. Based on primary data the study draws conclusions on the potential of C&D waste to be used as an alternative to primary raw materials. The estimation results show that India generates 716 million tons of C&D waste annually, placing the country as second largest C&D waste generator in the world after China. The study also aimed at utilization of C&D waste in to building materials. The waste samples collected from various cities have been used to replace 100% stone aggregates in paver blocks without any decrease in strength. However, management practices of C&D waste in cities still remains poor instead of notification of rules and regulations notified for C&D waste management. Only a few cities have managed to install processing plant and set up management systems for C&D waste. Therefore there is immense opportunity for management and reuse of C&D waste in Indian cities.

Keywords: building materials, construction and demolition waste, cities, environmental pollution, resource efficiency

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2 Unusual Weld Failures of Rotary Compressor during Hydraulic Tests: Analysis revealed Boron Induced Cracking in Fusion Zone

Authors: Kaushal Kishore, Vaibhav Jain, Hrishikesh Jugade, Saurabh Hadas, Manashi Adhikary, Goutam Mukhopadhyay, Sandip Bhattacharyya

Abstract:

Rotary air compressors in air conditioners are used to suck excessive volume of air from the atmosphere in a small space to provide drive to the components attached to them. Hydraulic test is one of the most important methods to decide the suitability of these components for usage. In the present application, projection welding is used to join the hot rolled steel sheets after forming for manufacturing of air compressors. These sheets belong to two different high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel grades. It was observed that one batch of compressors made of a particular grade was cracking from the weld, whereas those made of another grade were passing the hydraulic tests. Cracking was repeatedly observed from the weld location. A detailed comparative study of the compressors which failed and successfully passed pressure tests has been presented. Location of crack initiation was identified to be the interface of fusion zone/heat affected zone. Shear dimples were observed on the fracture surface confirming the ductile mode of failure. Hardness profile across the weld revealed a sharp rise in hardness in the fusion zone. This was attributed to the presence of untempered martensitic lath in the fusion zone. A sharp metallurgical notch existed at the heat affected zone/fusion zone interface due to transition in microstructure from acicular ferrite and bainite in HAZ to untempered martensite in the fusion zone. In contrast, welds which did not fail during the pressure tests showed a smooth hardness profile with no abnormal rise in hardness in the fusion zone. The bainitic microstructure was observed in the fusion zone of successful welds. This difference in microstructural constituents in the fusion zone was attributed to the presence of a small amount of boron (0.002 wt. %) in the sheets which were cracking. Trace amount of boron is known to substantially increase the hardenability of HSLA steel, and cooling rate during resolidification in the fusion zone is sufficient to form martensite. Post-weld heat treatment was recommended to transform untempered martensite to tempered martensite with lower hardness.

Keywords: compressor, cracking, martensite, weld, boron, hardenability, high strength low alloy steel

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1 Evaluation of Wheat Varieties for Water Use Efficiency under Staggering Sowing Times and Variable Irrigation Regimes under Timely and Late Sown Conditions

Authors: Vaibhav Baliyan, S. S. Parihar

Abstract:

With the rise in temperature during reproductive phase and moisture stress, winter wheat yields are likely to decrease because of limited plant growth, higher rate of night respiration, higher spikelet sterility or number of grains per spike and restricted embryo development thereby reducing grain number. Crop management practices play a pivotal role in minimizing adverse effects of terminal heat stress on wheat production. Amongst various agronomic management practices, adjusting sowing date, crop cultivars and irrigation scheduling have been realized to be simple yet powerful, implementable and eco-friendly mitigation strategies to sustain yields under elevated temperature conditions. Taking into account, large variability in wheat production in space and time, a study was conducted to identify the suitable wheat varieties under both early and late planting with suitable irrigation schedule for minimizing terminal heat stress effect and thereby improving wheat production. Experiments were conducted at research farms of Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India, separately for timely and late sown conditions with suitable varieties with staggering dates of sowing from 1st November to 30th November in case of timely sown and from 1st December to 31st December for late sown condition. The irrigation schedule followed for both the experiments were 100% of ETc (evapotranspiration of crop), 80% of ETc and 60% of ETc. Results of the timely sown experiment indicated that 1st November sowing resulted in higher grain yield followed by 10th November. However, delay in sowing thereafter resulted in gradual decrease in yield and the maximum reduction was noticed under 30th November sowing. Amongst the varieties, HD3086 produced higher grain yield compared to other varieties. Irrigation applied based on 100% of ETc gave higher yield comparable to 80% of ETc but both were significantly higher than 60% of ETc. It was further observed that even liberal irrigation under 100% of ETc could not compensate the yield under delayed sowing suggesting that rise in temperature beyond January adversely affected the growth and development of crop as well as forced maturity resulting in significant reduction of yield attributing characters due to terminal heat stress. Similar observations were recorded under late sown experiment too. Planting on 1st December along with 100% ETc of irrigation schedule resulted in significantly higher grain yield as compared to other dates and irrigation regimes. Further, it was observed that reduction in yield under late sown conditions was significantly large than the timely sown conditions irrespective of the variety grown and irrigation schedule followed. Delayed sowing resulted in reducing crop growth period and forced maturity in turn led to significant deterioration in all the yield attributing characters and there by reduction in yield suggesting that terminal heat stress had greater impact on yield under late sown crop than timely sown due to temperature rise coinciding with reproductive phase of the crop.

Keywords: climate, irrigation, mitigation, wheat

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