Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

Search results for: Norberto C. S. Moura

26 The Role of Building Information Modeling as a Design Teaching Method in Architecture, Engineering and Construction Schools in Brazil

Authors: Aline V. Arroteia, Gustavo G. Do Amaral, Simone Z. Kikuti, Norberto C. S. Moura, Silvio B. Melhado

Abstract:

Despite the significant advances made by the construction industry in recent years, the crystalized absence of integration between the design and construction phases is still an evident and costly problem in building construction. Globally, the construction industry has sought to adopt collaborative practices through new technologies to mitigate impacts of this fragmented process and to optimize its production. In this new technological business environment, professionals are required to develop new methodologies based on the notion of collaboration and integration of information throughout the building lifecycle. This scenario also represents the industry’s reality in developing nations, and the increasing need for overall efficiency has demanded new educational alternatives at the undergraduate and post-graduate levels. In countries like Brazil, it is the common understanding that Architecture, Engineering and Building Construction educational programs are being required to review the traditional design pedagogical processes to promote a comprehensive notion about integration and simultaneity between the phases of the project. In this context, the coherent inclusion of computation design to all segments of the educational programs of construction related professionals represents a significant research topic that, in fact, can affect the industry practice. Thus, the main objective of the present study was to comparatively measure the effectiveness of the Building Information Modeling courses offered by the University of Sao Paulo, the most important academic institution in Brazil, at the Schools of Architecture and Civil Engineering and the courses offered in well recognized BIM research institutions, such as the School of Design in the College of Architecture of the Georgia Institute of Technology, USA, to evaluate the dissemination of BIM knowledge amongst students in post graduate level. The qualitative research methodology was developed based on the analysis of the program and activities proposed by two BIM courses offered in each of the above-mentioned institutions, which were used as case studies. The data collection instruments were a student questionnaire, semi-structured interviews, participatory evaluation and pedagogical practices. The found results have detected a broad heterogeneity of the students regarding their professional experience, hours dedicated to training, and especially in relation to their general knowledge of BIM technology and its applications. The research observed that BIM is mostly understood as an operational tool and not as methodological project development approach, relevant to the whole building life cycle. The present research offers in its conclusion an assessment about the importance of the incorporation of BIM, with efficiency and in its totality, as a teaching method in undergraduate and graduate courses in the Brazilian architecture, engineering and building construction schools.

Keywords: building information modeling (BIM), BIM education, BIM process, design teaching

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25 Educase–Intelligent System for Pedagogical Advising Using Case-Based Reasoning

Authors: Elionai Moura, José A. Cunha, César Analide

Abstract:

This work introduces a proposal scheme for an Intelligent System applied to Pedagogical Advising using Case-Based Reasoning, to find consolidated solutions before used for the new problems, making easier the task of advising students to the pedagogical staff. We do intend, through this work, introduce the motivation behind the choices for this system structure, justifying the development of an incremental and smart web system who learns bests solutions for new cases when it’s used, showing technics and technology.

Keywords: case-based reasoning, pedagogical advising, educational data-mining (EDM), machine learning

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24 A Petri Net Model to Obtain the Throughput of Unreliable Production Lines in the Buffer Allocation Problem

Authors: Joselito Medina-Marin, Alexandr Karelin, Ana Tarasenko, Juan Carlos Seck-Tuoh-Mora, Norberto Hernandez-Romero, Eva Selene Hernandez-Gress

Abstract:

A production line designer faces with several challenges in manufacturing system design. One of them is the assignment of buffer slots in between every machine of the production line in order to maximize the throughput of the whole line, which is known as the Buffer Allocation Problem (BAP). The BAP is a combinatorial problem that depends on the number of machines and the total number of slots to be distributed on the production line. In this paper, we are proposing a Petri Net (PN) Model to obtain the throughput in unreliable production lines, based on PN mathematical tools and the decomposition method. The results obtained by this methodology are similar to those presented in previous works, and the number of machines is not a hard restriction.

Keywords: buffer allocation problem, Petri Nets, throughput, production lines

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23 Modeling and Simulation of Flow Shop Scheduling Problem through Petri Net Tools

Authors: Joselito Medina Marin, Norberto Hernández Romero, Juan Carlos Seck Tuoh Mora, Erick S. Martinez Gomez

Abstract:

The Flow Shop Scheduling Problem (FSSP) is a typical problem that is faced by production planning managers in Flexible Manufacturing Systems (FMS). This problem consists in finding the optimal scheduling to carry out a set of jobs, which are processed in a set of machines or shared resources. Moreover, all the jobs are processed in the same machine sequence. As in all the scheduling problems, the makespan can be obtained by drawing the Gantt chart according to the operations order, among other alternatives. On this way, an FMS presenting the FSSP can be modeled by Petri nets (PNs), which are a powerful tool that has been used to model and analyze discrete event systems. Then, the makespan can be obtained by simulating the PN through the token game animation and incidence matrix. In this work, we present an adaptive PN to obtain the makespan of FSSP by applying PN analytical tools.

Keywords: flow-shop scheduling problem, makespan, Petri nets, state equation

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22 Computational Tool for Surface Electromyography Analysis; an Easy Way for Non-Engineers

Authors: Fabiano Araujo Soares, Sauro Emerick Salomoni, Joao Paulo Lima da Silva, Igor Luiz Moura, Adson Ferreira da Rocha

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This paper presents a tool developed in the Matlab platform. It was developed to simplify the analysis of surface electromyography signals (S-EMG) in a way accessible to users that are not familiarized with signal processing procedures. The tool receives data by commands in window fields and generates results as graphics and excel tables. The underlying math of each S-EMG estimator is presented. Setup window and result graphics are presented. The tool was presented to four non-engineer users and all of them managed to appropriately use it after a 5 minutes instruction period.

Keywords: S-EMG estimators, electromyography, surface electromyography, ARV, RMS, MDF, MNF, CV

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21 Low Cost Surface Electromyographic Signal Amplifier Based on Arduino Microcontroller

Authors: Igor Luiz Bernardes de Moura, Luan Carlos de Sena Monteiro Ozelim, Fabiano Araujo Soares

Abstract:

The development of a low cost acquisition system of S-EMG signals which are reliable, comfortable for the user and with high mobility shows to be a relevant proposition in modern biomedical engineering scenario. In the study, the sampling capacity of the Arduino microcontroller Atmel Atmega328 with an A/D converter with 10-bit resolution and its reconstructing capability of a signal of surface electromyography are analyzed. An electronic circuit to capture the signal through two differential channels was designed, signals from Biceps Brachialis of a healthy man of 21 years was acquired to test the system prototype. ARV, MDF, MNF and RMS estimators were used to compare de acquired signals with physiological values. The Arduino was configured with a sampling frequency of 1.5 kHz for each channel, and the tests with the circuit designed offered a SNR of 20.57dB.

Keywords: electromyography, Arduino, low-cost, atmel atmega328 microcontroller

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20 Study of The Ballistic Impact at Low Speed on Angle-Ply Fibrous Structures

Authors: Daniel Barros, Carlos Mota, Raul Fangueiro, Pedro Rosa, Gonçalo Domingos, Alfredo Passanha, Norberto Almeida

Abstract:

The main aim of the work was to compare the ballistic performance of developed composites using different types of fiber woven fabrics [0,90] and different layers orientation (Angle-ply). The ballistic laminate composites were developed using E-glass, S-glass and aramid fabrics impregnated with thermosetting epoxy resin and using different layers orientation (0,0)º and (0,15)º. The idea of the study is to compare the ballistic performance of each laminate produced by studying the velocity loss of the fragment fired into the laminate surface. There are present some mechanical properties for laminates produced using the different types of fiber, where tensile, flexural and impact Charpy properties were studied. Overall, the angle-ply laminates produced using orientations of (0,15)º, despite the slight loss of mechanical properties compared to the (0,0)º orientation, presents better ballistic resistance and dissipation of energy, for lower ballistic impact velocities (under 290 m/s-1). After treatment of ballistic impact results, the S-Glass with (0,15)º laminate presents better ballistic perforce compared to the other combinations studied.

Keywords: ballistic impact, angle-ply, ballistic composite, s-glass fiber, aramid fiber, fabric fiber, energy dissipation, mechanical performance

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19 Biodiversity and Biotechnology: Some Considerations about the International Regulation of Agriculture and the International Legal System on Access to Genetic Resources

Authors: Leandro Moura da Silva

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The international community has strived to create legal mechanisms to protect their biodiversity, but this can represent, sometimes, particularly in the case of regulatory regime on access to genetic resources, an excessive nationalism which transforms itself into a significant obstacle to scientific progress causing damages to the country and to local farmers. Although it has been poorly publicized in the media, the international legal system was marked, in 2014, by the entry into force of the Nagoya Protocol, which regulates the access and benefit sharing of genetic resources of the States Party to that legal instrument. However, it’s not reasonable to think of regulating access to genetic resources without reflecting on the links of this important subject with other related issues, such as family farming and agribusiness, food safety, food security, intellectual property rights (on seeds, genetic material, new plant varieties, etc.), environmental sustainability, biodiversity, and biosafety.

Keywords: international law, regulation on agriculture, agronomy techniques, sustainability, genetic resources and new crop varieties, CBD, Nagoya Protocol, ITPGRFA

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18 Preparation on Sentimental Analysis on Social Media Comments with Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Gated Recurrent Unit and Model Glove in Portuguese

Authors: Leonardo Alfredo Mendoza, Cristian Munoz, Marco Aurelio Pacheco, Manoela Kohler, Evelyn Batista, Rodrigo Moura

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Natural Language Processing (NLP) techniques are increasingly more powerful to be able to interpret the feelings and reactions of a person to a product or service. Sentiment analysis has become a fundamental tool for this interpretation but has few applications in languages other than English. This paper presents a classification of sentiment analysis in Portuguese with a base of comments from social networks in Portuguese. A word embedding's representation was used with a 50-Dimension GloVe pre-trained model, generated through a corpus completely in Portuguese. To generate this classification, the bidirectional long short-term memory and bidirectional Gated Recurrent Unit (GRU) models are used, reaching results of 99.1%.

Keywords: natural processing language, sentiment analysis, bidirectional long short-term memory, BI-LSTM, gated recurrent unit, GRU

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17 A Proposal of Ontology about Brazilian Government Transparency Portal

Authors: Estela Mayra de Moura Vianna, Thiago José Tavares Ávila, Bruno Morais Silva, Diego Henrique Bezerra, Paulo Henrique Gomes Silva, Alan Pedro da Silva

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The Brazilian Federal Constitution defines the access to information as a crucial right of the citizen and the Law on Access to Public Information, which regulates this right. Accordingly, the Fiscal Responsibility Act, 2000, amended in 2009 by the “Law of Transparency”, began demanding a wider disclosure of public accounts for the society, including electronic media for public access. Thus, public entities began to create "Transparency Portals," which aim to gather a diversity of data and information. However, this information, in general, is still published in formats that do not simplify understanding of the data by citizens and that could be better especially available for audit purposes. In this context, a proposal of ontology about Brazilian Transparency Portal can play a key role in how these data will be better available. This study aims to identify and implement in ontology, the data model about Transparency Portal ecosystem, with emphasis in activities that use these data for some applications, like audits, press activities, social government control, and others.

Keywords: audit, government transparency, ontology, public sector

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16 Effects of Convective Momentum Transport on the Cyclones Intensity: A Case Study

Authors: José Davi Oliveira De Moura, Chou Sin Chan

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In this study, the effect of convective momentum transport (CMT) on the life of cyclone systems and their organization is analyzed. A case of strong precipitation, in the southeast of Brazil, was simulated using Eta model with two kinds of convective parameterization: Kain-Fritsch without CMT and Kain-fritsch with CMT. Reanalysis data from CFSR were used to compare Eta model simulations. The Wind, mean sea level pressure, rain and temperature are included in analysis. The rain was evaluated by Equitable Threat Score (ETS) and Bias Index; the simulations were compared among themselves to detect the influence of CMT displacement on the systems. The result shows that CMT process decreases the intensity of meso cyclones (higher pressure values on nuclei) and change the positions and production of rain. The decrease of intensity in meso cyclones should be caused by the dissolution of momentum from lower levels from up levels. The rain production and rain distribution were altered because the displacement of the larger systems scales was changed. In addition, the inclusion of CMT process is very important to improve the simulation of life time of meteorological systems.

Keywords: convection, Kain-Fritsch, momentum, parameterization

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15 Simultaneous Determination of Bisphenol a, Phtalates and Its Metabolites in Human Urine, by Tandem SPE Coupled to GC-MS

Authors: L. Correia-Sá, S. Norberto, Conceição Calhau, C. Delerue-Matos, V. F. Domingues

Abstract:

Endocrine disruptor chemicals (EDCs) are synthetic compounds that even though being initially designed for a specific function are now being linked with a wide range of side effects. The list of possible EDCs is growing and includes phthalates and bisphenol A (BPA). Phthalates are one of the most widely used plasticizers to improve the extensibility, elasticity and workability of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinyl acetates, etc. Considered non-toxic and harmless additives for polymers, they were used unrestrainedly all over the world for several decades. However, recent studies have indicated that some phthalates and their metabolic products are reproductive and developmental toxicants in animals and suspected endocrine disruptors in humans. BPA (2,2-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)propane) is a high production volume chemical mainly used in the production of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. Although BPA was initially considered to be a weak environmental estrogen, nowadays it is known that this compound can stimulate several cellular responses at very low levels of concentrations. The aim of this study was to develop a method based on tandem SPE to evaluate the presence of phthalates, metabolites and BPA in human urine samples. The analyzed compounds included: dibutyl phthalate (DBP) and di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), BPA, mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobutyl phthalate (MBP) and. mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) (MEOHP). Two SPE cartridges were applied both from Phenomenex, the strata X polymeric reversed phase and the strata X A (Strong anion). Chromatographic analyses were carried out in a Thermo GC ULTRA GC-MS/MS. Good recoveries and linear calibration curves were obtained. After validation, the methodology was applied to human urine samples for phthalates, metabolites and BPA evaluation.

Keywords: Bisphenol A (BPA), gas chromatography, metabolites, phtalates, SPE, tandem mode

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14 Dynamics of the Landscape in the Different Colonization Models Implemented in the Legal Amazon

Authors: Valdir Moura, FranciléIa De Oliveira E. Silva, Erivelto Mercante, Ranieli Dos Anjos De Souza, Jerry Adriani Johann

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Several colonization projects were implemented in the Brazilian Legal Amazon in the 1970s and 1980s. Among all of these colonization projects, the most prominent were those with the Fishbone and Topographic models. Within this scope, the projects of settlements known as Anari and Machadinho were created, which stood out because they are contiguous areas with different models and structure of occupation and colonization. The main objective of this work was to evaluate the dynamics of Land-Use and Land-Cover (LULC) in two different colonization models, implanted in the State of Rondonia in the 1980s. The Fishbone and Topographic models were implanted in the Anari and Machadinho settlements respectively. The understanding of these two forms of occupation will help in future colonization programs of the Brazilian Legal Amazon. These settlements are contiguous areas with different occupancy structures. A 32-year Landsat time series (1984-2016) was used to evaluate the rates and trends in the LULC process in the different colonization models. In the different occupation models analyzed, the results showed a rapid loss of primary and secondary forests (deforestation), mainly due to the dynamics of use, established by the Agriculture/Pasture (A/P) relation and, with heavy dependence due to road construction.

Keywords: land-cover, deforestation, rate fragments, remote sensing, secondary succession

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13 Pilot Induced Oscillations Adaptive Suppression in Fly-By-Wire Systems

Authors: Herlandson C. Moura, Jorge H. Bidinotto, Eduardo M. Belo

Abstract:

The present work proposes the development of an adaptive control system which enables the suppression of Pilot Induced Oscillations (PIO) in Digital Fly-By-Wire (DFBW) aircrafts. The proposed system consists of a Modified Model Reference Adaptive Control (M-MRAC) integrated with the Gain Scheduling technique. The PIO oscillations are detected using a Real Time Oscillation Verifier (ROVER) algorithm, which then enables the system to switch between two reference models; one in PIO condition, with low proneness to the phenomenon and another one in normal condition, with high (or medium) proneness. The reference models are defined in a closed loop condition using the Linear Quadratic Regulator (LQR) control methodology for Multiple-Input-Multiple-Output (MIMO) systems. The implemented algorithms are simulated in software implementations with state space models and commercial flight simulators as the controlled elements and with pilot dynamics models. A sequence of pitch angles is considered as the reference signal, named as Synthetic Task (Syntask), which must be tracked by the pilot models. The initial outcomes show that the proposed system can detect and suppress (or mitigate) the PIO oscillations in real time before it reaches high amplitudes.

Keywords: adaptive control, digital Fly-By-Wire, oscillations suppression, PIO

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12 City Image of Rio De Janeiro as the Host City of 2016 Olympic Games

Authors: Luciana Brandao Ferreira, Janaina de Moura Engracia Giraldi, Fabiana Gondim Mariutti, Marina Toledo de Arruda Lourencao

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Developing countries, such as BRICS (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) are hosting sports mega-events to promote socio-economic development and image enhancement. Thus, this paper aims to verify the image of Rio de Janeiro, in Brazil, as the host city of 2016 Olympic Games, considering the main cognitive and affective image dimensions. The research design uses exploratory factorial analysis to find the most important factors highlighted in the city image dimensions. The data were collected by structured questionnaires with an international respondents sample (n=274) with high international travel experience. The results show that Rio’s image as a sport mega-event host city has two main factors in each dimension: Cognitive ('General Infrastructure'; 'Services and Attractions') and Affective ('Positive Feelings'; 'Negative Feelings'). The most important factor related to cognitive dimension was 'Services and Attractions' which is more related to tourism activities. In the affective dimension 'Positive Feelings' was the most important factor, which means a good result considering that is a city in an emerging country with many unmet social demands.

Keywords: Rio de Janeiro, 2016 olympic games, host city image, cognitive image dimension, affective image dimension

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11 Artificial Neural Network Approach for Modeling and Optimization of Conidiospore Production of Trichoderma harzianum

Authors: Joselito Medina-Marin, Maria G. Serna-Diaz, Alejandro Tellez-Jurado, Juan C. Seck-Tuoh-Mora, Eva S. Hernandez-Gress, Norberto Hernandez-Romero, Iaina P. Medina-Serna

Abstract:

Trichoderma harzianum is a fungus that has been utilized as a low-cost fungicide for biological control of pests, and it is important to determine the optimal conditions to produce the highest amount of conidiospores of Trichoderma harzianum. In this work, the conidiospore production of Trichoderma harzianum is modeled and optimized by using Artificial Neural Networks (AANs). In order to gather data of this process, 30 experiments were carried out taking into account the number of hours of culture (10 distributed values from 48 to 136 hours) and the culture humidity (70, 75 and 80 percent), obtained as a response the number of conidiospores per gram of dry mass. The experimental results were used to develop an iterative algorithm to create 1,110 ANNs, with different configurations, starting from one to three hidden layers, and every hidden layer with a number of neurons from 1 to 10. Each ANN was trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt backpropagation algorithm, which is used to learn the relationship between input and output values. The ANN with the best performance was chosen in order to simulate the process and be able to maximize the conidiospores production. The obtained ANN with the highest performance has 2 inputs and 1 output, three hidden layers with 3, 10 and 10 neurons in each layer, respectively. The ANN performance shows an R2 value of 0.9900, and the Root Mean Squared Error is 1.2020. This ANN predicted that 644175467 conidiospores per gram of dry mass are the maximum amount obtained in 117 hours of culture and 77% of culture humidity. In summary, the ANN approach is suitable to represent the conidiospores production of Trichoderma harzianum because the R2 value denotes a good fitting of experimental results, and the obtained ANN model was used to find the parameters to produce the biggest amount of conidiospores per gram of dry mass.

Keywords: Trichoderma harzianum, modeling, optimization, artificial neural network

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10 Impact of Drainage Defect on the Railway Track Surface Deflections; A Numerical Investigation

Authors: Shadi Fathi, Moura Mehravar, Mujib Rahman

Abstract:

The railwaytransportation network in the UK is over 100 years old and is known as one of the oldest mass transit systems in the world. This aged track network requires frequent closure for maintenance. One of the main reasons for closure is inadequate drainage due to the leakage in the buried drainage pipes. The leaking water can cause localised subgrade weakness, which subsequently can lead to major ground/substructure failure.Different condition assessment methods are available to assess the railway substructure. However, the existing condition assessment methods are not able to detect any local ground weakness/damageand provide details of the damage (e.g. size and location). To tackle this issue, a hybrid back-analysis technique based on artificial neural network (ANN) and genetic algorithm (GA) has been developed to predict the substructurelayers’ moduli and identify any soil weaknesses. At first, afinite element (FE) model of a railway track section under Falling Weight Deflection (FWD) testing was developed and validated against field trial. Then a drainage pipe and various scenarios of the local defect/ soil weakness around the buried pipe with various geometriesand physical properties were modelled. The impact of the soil local weaknesson the track surface deflection wasalso studied. The FE simulations results were used to generate a database for ANN training, and then a GA wasemployed as an optimisation tool to optimise and back-calculate layers’ moduli and soil weakness moduli (ANN’s input). The hybrid ANN-GA back-analysis technique is a computationally efficient method with no dependency on seed modulus values. The modelcan estimate substructures’ layer moduli and the presence of any localised foundation weakness.

Keywords: finite element (FE) model, drainage defect, falling weight deflectometer (FWD), hybrid ANN-GA

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9 Soil/Phytofisionomy Relationship in Southeast of Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil

Authors: Marcelo Araujo da Nóbrega, Ariel Moura Vilas Boas

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This study aims to characterize the physicochemical aspects of the soils of southeastern Chapada Diamantina - Bahia related to the phytophysiognomies of this area, rupestrian field, small savanna (savanna fields), small dense savanna (savanna fields), savanna (Cerrado), dry thorny forest (Caatinga), dry thorny forest/savanna, scrub (Carrasco - ecotone), forest island (seasonal semi-deciduous forest - Capão) and seasonal semi-deciduous forest. To achieve the research objective, soil samples were collected in each plant formation and analyzed in the soil laboratory of ESALQ - USP in order to identify soil fertility through the determination of pH, organic matter, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, potential acidity, sum of bases, cation exchange capacity and base saturation. The composition of soil particles was also checked; that is, the texture, step made in the terrestrial ecosystems laboratory of the Department of Ecology of USP and in the soil laboratory of ESALQ. Another important factor also studied was to show the variations in the vegetation cover in the region as a function of soil moisture in the different existing physiographic environments. Another study carried out was a comparison between the average soil moisture data with precipitation data from three locations with very different phytophysiognomies. The soils found in this part of Bahia can be classified into 5 classes, with a predominance of oxisols. All of these classes have a great diversity of physical and chemical properties, as can be seen in photographs and in particle size and fertility analyzes. The deepest soils are located in the Central Pediplano of Chapada Diamantina where the dirty field, the clean field, the executioner and the semideciduous seasonal forest (Capão) are located, and the shallower soils were found in the rupestrian field, dry thorny forest, and savanna fields, the latter located on a hillside. As for the variations in water in the region's soil, the data indicate that there were large spatial variations in humidity in both the rainy and dry periods.

Keywords: Bahia, Brazil, chapada diamantina, phytophysiognomies, soils

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8 Analysis of Genic Expression of Honey Bees Exposed to Sublethal Pesticides Doses Using the Transcriptome Technique

Authors: Ricardo de Oliveira Orsi, Aline Astolfi, Daniel Diego Mendes, Isabella Cristina de Castro Lippi, Jaine da Luz Scheffer, Yan Souza Lima, Juliana Lunardi, Giovanna do Padro Ribeiro, Samir Moura Kadri

Abstract:

NECTAR Brazilian group (Center of Education, Science, and Technology in Rational Beekeeping) conducted studies on the pesticides honey bees effects using the transcriptome sequencing (RNA-Seq) analyzes for gene expression studies. In this way, we analyzed the effects of Pyraclostrobin and Fipronil on the honey bees with 21 old-days (forager) in laboratory conditions. For this, frames containing sealed brood were removed from the beehives and maintenance on the stove (32°C and 75% humidity) until the bees were born. So, newly emerged workers were marked on the pronotum with a non-toxic pen and reintroduced into their original hives. After 21 days, 120 marked bees were collected with an entomological forces and immediately stored in Petri dishes, perforated to ensure ventilation, and kept fasted for 3 hours. These honeybees were exposed to food contaminated or not with the sublethal dose of Pyraclostrobin (850 ppb/bee) or Fipronil (2.5 ppb/bee). After four hours of exposure, 15 bees from each treatment were referred to transcriptome analysis. Total RNA analysis was extracted from the brain pools (03 brains per pool) using the TRIzol® reagent protocol according to the manufacturer's instructions. cDNA libraries were constructed, and the FASTQC program was used to check adapter content and assess the quality of raw reads. Differential expression analysis was performed with the DESeq2 package. Genes that had an adjusted value of less than 0.05 were considered to be significantly up-regulated. Regarding the Pyraclostrobin, alterations were observed in the pattern of 17 gene related to of antioxidant system, cellular respiration, glucose metabolism, and regulation of juvenile hormone and the hormone insulin. Glyphosate altered the 10 gene related to the digestive system, exoskeleton composition, vitamin E transport, and antioxidant system. The results indicate that the necessity of studies using the sublethal doses to evaluate the pesticides uses and risks on crops and its effects on the honey bees.

Keywords: beekeeping, honey bees, pesticides, transcriptome

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7 Comparison of On-Site Stormwater Detention Real Performance and Theoretical Simulations

Authors: Pedro P. Drumond, Priscilla M. Moura, Marcia M. L. P. Coelho

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The purpose of On-site Stormwater Detention (OSD) system is to promote the detention of addition stormwater runoff caused by impervious areas, in order to maintain the peak flow the same as the pre-urbanization condition. In recent decades, these systems have been built in many cities around the world. However, its real efficiency continues to be unknown due to the lack of research, especially with regard to monitoring its real performance. Thus, this study aims to compare the water level monitoring data of an OSD built in Belo Horizonte/Brazil with the results of theoretical methods simulations, usually adopted in OSD design. There were made two theoretical simulations, one using the Rational Method and Modified Puls method and another using the Soil Conservation Service (SCS) method and Modified Puls method. The monitoring data were obtained with a water level sensor, installed inside the reservoir and connected to a data logger. The comparison of OSD performance was made for 48 rainfall events recorded from April/2015 to March/2017. The comparison of maximum water levels in the OSD showed that the results of the simulations with Rational/Puls and SCS/Puls methods were, on average 33% and 73%, respectively, lower than those monitored. The Rational/Puls results were significantly higher than the SCS/Puls results, only in the events with greater frequency. In the events with average recurrence interval of 5, 10 and 200 years, the maximum water heights were similar in both simulations. Also, the results showed that the duration of rainfall events was close to the duration of monitored hydrograph. The rising time and recession time of the hydrographs calculated with the Rational Method represented better the monitored hydrograph than SCS Method. The comparison indicates that the real discharge coefficient value could be higher than 0.61, adopted in Puls simulations. New researches evaluating OSD real performance should be developed. In order to verify the peak flow damping efficiency and the value of the discharge coefficient is necessary to monitor the inflow and outflow of an OSD, in addition to monitor the water level inside it.

Keywords: best management practices, on-site stormwater detention, source control, urban drainage

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6 Evaluation of Commercial Back-analysis Package in Condition Assessment of Railways

Authors: Shadi Fathi, Moura Mehravar, Mujib Rahman

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Over the years,increased demands on railways, the emergence of high-speed trains and heavy axle loads, ageing, and deterioration of the existing tracks, is imposing costly maintenance actions on the railway sector. The need for developing a fast andcost-efficient non-destructive assessment method for the structural evaluation of railway tracksis therefore critically important. The layer modulus is the main parameter used in the structural design and evaluation of the railway track substructure (foundation). Among many recently developed NDTs, Falling Weight Deflectometer (FWD) test, widely used in pavement evaluation, has shown promising results for railway track substructure monitoring. The surface deflection data collected by FWD are used to estimate the modulus of substructure layers through the back-analysis technique. Although there are different commerciallyavailableback-analysis programs are used for pavement applications, there are onlya limited number of research-based techniques have been so far developed for railway track evaluation. In this paper, the suitability, accuracy, and reliability of the BAKFAAsoftware are investigated. The main rationale for selecting BAKFAA as it has a relatively straightforward user interfacethat is freely available and widely used in highway and airport pavement evaluation. As part of the study, a finite element (FE) model of a railway track section near Leominsterstation, Herefordshire, UK subjected to the FWD test, was developed and validated against available field data. Then, a virtual experimental database (including 218 sets of FWD testing data) was generated using theFE model and employed as the measured database for the BAKFAA software. This database was generated considering various layers’ moduli for each layer of track substructure over a predefined range. The BAKFAA predictions were compared against the cone penetration test (CPT) data (available from literature; conducted near to Leominster station same section as the FWD was performed). The results reveal that BAKFAA overestimatesthe layers’ moduli of each substructure layer. To adjust the BAKFA with the CPT data, this study introduces a correlation model to make the BAKFAA applicable in railway applications.

Keywords: back-analysis, bakfaa, railway track substructure, falling weight deflectometer (FWD), cone penetration test (CPT)

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5 Landsat Data from Pre Crop Season to Estimate the Area to Be Planted with Summer Crops

Authors: Valdir Moura, Raniele dos Anjos de Souza, Fernando Gomes de Souza, Jose Vagner da Silva, Jerry Adriani Johann

Abstract:

The estimate of the Area of Land to be planted with annual crops and its stratification by the municipality are important variables in crop forecast. Nowadays in Brazil, these information’s are obtained by the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE) and published under the report Assessment of the Agricultural Production. Due to the high cloud cover in the main crop growing season (October to March) it is difficult to acquire good orbital images. Thus, one alternative is to work with remote sensing data from dates before the crop growing season. This work presents the use of multitemporal Landsat data gathered on July and September (before the summer growing season) in order to estimate the area of land to be planted with summer crops in an area of São Paulo State, Brazil. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and digital image processing techniques were applied for the treatment of the available data. Supervised and non-supervised classifications were used for data in digital number and reflectance formats and the multitemporal Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) images. The objective was to discriminate the tracts with higher probability to become planted with summer crops. Classification accuracies were evaluated using a sampling system developed basically for this study region. The estimated areas were corrected using the error matrix derived from these evaluations. The classification techniques presented an excellent level according to the kappa index. The proportion of crops stratified by municipalities was derived by a field work during the crop growing season. These proportion coefficients were applied onto the area of land to be planted with summer crops (derived from Landsat data). Thus, it was possible to derive the area of each summer crop by the municipality. The discrepancies between official statistics and our results were attributed to the sampling and the stratification procedures. Nevertheless, this methodology can be improved in order to provide good crop area estimates using remote sensing data, despite the cloud cover during the growing season.

Keywords: area intended for summer culture, estimated area planted, agriculture, Landsat, planting schedule

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4 Obtainment of Systems with Efavirenz and Lamellar Double Hydroxide as an Alternative for Solubility Improvement of the Drug

Authors: Danilo A. F. Fontes, Magaly A. M.Lyra, Maria L. C. Moura, Leslie R. M. Ferraz, Salvana P. M. Costa, Amanda C. Q. M. Vieira, Larissa A. Rolim, Giovanna C. R. M. Schver, Ping I. Lee, Severino Alves-Júnior, José L. Soares-Sobrinho, Pedro J. Rolim-Neto

Abstract:

Efavirenz (EFV) is a first-choice drug in antiretroviral therapy with high efficacy in the treatment of infection by Human Immunodeficiency Virus, which causes Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). EFV has low solubility in water resulting in a decrease in the dissolution rate and, consequently, in its bioavailability. Among the technological alternatives to increase solubility, the Lamellar Double Hydroxides (LDH) have been applied in the development of systems with poorly water-soluble drugs. The use of analytical techniques such as X-Ray Diffraction (XRD), Infrared Spectroscopy (IR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) allowed the elucidation of drug interaction with the lamellar compounds. The objective of this work was to characterize and develop the binary systems with EFV and LDH in order to increase the solubility of the drug. The LDH-CaAl was synthesized by the method of co-precipitation from salt solutions of calcium nitrate and aluminum nitrate in basic medium. The systems EFV-LDH and their physical mixtures (PM) were obtained at different concentrations (5-60% of EFV) using the solvent technique described by Takahashi & Yamaguchi (1991). The characterization of the systems and the PM’s was performed by XRD techniques, IR, DSC and dissolution test under non-sink conditions. The results showed improvements in the solubility of EFV when associated with LDH, due to a possible change in its crystal structure and formation of an amorphous material. From the DSC results, one could see that the endothermic peak at 173°C, temperature that correspond to the melting process of EFZ in the crystal form, was present in the PM results. For the EFZ-LDH systems (with 5, 10 and 30% of drug loading), this peak was not observed. XRD profiles of the PM showed well-defined peaks for EFV. Analyzing the XRD patterns of the systems, it was found that the XRD profiles of all the systems showed complete attenuation of the characteristic peaks of the crystalline form of EFZ. The IR technique showed that, in the results of the PM, there was the appearance of one band and overlap of other bands, while the IR results of the systems with 5, 10 and 30% drug loading showed the disappearance of bands and a few others with reduced intensity. The dissolution test under non-sink conditions showed that systems with 5, 10 and 30% drug loading promoted a great increase in the solubility of EFV, but the system with 10% of drug loading was the only one that could keep substantial amount of drug in solution at different pHs.

Keywords: Efavirenz, Lamellar Double Hydroxides, Pharmaceutical Techonology, Solubility

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3 Evaluation of Occupational Doses in Interventional Radiology

Authors: Fernando Antonio Bacchim Neto, Allan Felipe Fattori Alves, Maria Eugênia Dela Rosa, Regina Moura, Diana Rodrigues De Pina

Abstract:

Interventional Radiology is the radiology modality that provides the highest dose values to medical staff. Recent researches show that personal dosimeters may underestimate dose values in interventional physicians, especially in extremities (hands and feet) and eye lens. The aim of this work was to study radiation exposure levels of medical staff in different interventional radiology procedures and estimate the annual maximum numbers of procedures (AMN) that each physician could perform without exceed the annual limits of dose established by normative. For this purpose LiF:Mg,Ti (TLD-100) dosimeters were positioned in different body regions of the interventional physician (eye lens, thyroid, chest, gonads, hand and foot) above the radiological protection vests as lead apron and thyroid shield. Attenuation values for lead protection vests were based on international guidelines. Based on these data were chosen as 90% attenuation of the lead vests and 60% attenuation of the protective glasses. 25 procedures were evaluated: 10 diagnostics, 10 angioplasty, and 5-aneurysm treatment. The AMN of diagnostic procedures was 641 for the primary interventional radiologist and 930 for the assisting interventional radiologist. For the angioplasty procedures, the AMN for primary interventional radiologist was 445 and for assisting interventional radiologist was 1202. As for the procedures of aneurism treatment, the AMN for the primary interventional radiologist was 113 and for the assisting interventional radiologist were 215. All AMN were limited by the eye lens doses already considering the use of protective glasses. In all categories evaluated, the higher dose values are found in gonads and in the lower regions of professionals, both for the primary interventionist and for the assisting, but the eyes lens dose limits are smaller than these regions. Additional protections as mobile barriers, which can be positioned between the interventionist and the patient, can decrease the exposures in the eye lens, providing a greater protection for the medical staff. The alternation of professionals to perform each type of procedure can reduce the dose values received by them over a period. The analysis of dose profiles proposed in this work showed that personal dosimeters positioned in chest might underestimate dose values in other body parts of the interventional physician, especially in extremities and eye lens. As each body region of the interventionist is subject to different levels of exposure, dose distribution in each region provides a better approach to what actions are necessary to ensure the radiological protection of medical staff.

Keywords: interventional radiology, radiation protection, occupationally exposed individual, hemodynamic

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2 Effects of Oxidized LDL in M2 Macrophages: Implications in Atherosclerosis

Authors: Fernanda Gonçalves, Karla Alcântara, Vanessa Moura, Patrícia Nolasco, Jorge Kalil, Maristela Hernandez

Abstract:

Introduction: Atherosclerosis is a chronic disease where two striking features are observed: retention of lipids and inflammation. Understanding the interaction between immune cells and lipoproteins involved in atherogenesis are urgent challenges, since cardiovascular diseases are the leading cause of death worldwide. Macrophages are critical to the development of atherosclerotic plaques and in the perpetuation of inflammation in these lesions. These cells are also directly involved in unstable plaque rupture. Recently different populations of macrophages are being identified in atherosclerotic lesions. Although the presence of M2 macrophages (macrophages activated by the alternative pathway, eg. The IL-4) has been identified, the function of these cells in atherosclerosis is not yet defined. M2 macrophages have a high endocytic capacity, they promote remodeling of tissues and to have anti-inflammatory activity. However, in atherosclerosis, especially unstable plaques, severe inflammatory reaction, accumulation of cellular debris and intense degradation of the tissue is observed. Thus, it is possible that the M2 macrophages have altered function (phenotype) in atherosclerosis. Objective: Our aim is to evaluate if the presence of oxidized LDL alters the phenotype and function of M2 macrophages in vitro. Methods: For this, we will evaluate whether the addition of lipoprotein in M2 macrophages differentiated in vitro with IL -4 induces 1) a reduction in the secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines (CBA and ELISA), 2) secretion of inflammatory cytokines (CBA and ELISA), 3) expression of cell activation markers (Flow cytometry), 4) alteration in gene expression of molecules adhesion and extracellular matrix (Real-Time PCR) and 5) Matrix degradation (confocal microscopy). Results: In oxLDL stimulated M2 macrophages cultures we did not find any differences in the expression of the cell surface markers tested, including: HLA-DR, CD80, CD86, CD206, CD163 and CD36. Also, cultures stimulated with oxLDL had similar phagocytic capacity when compared to unstimulated cells. However, in the supernatant of these cultures an increase in the secretion of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8 was detected. No significant changes where observed in IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 and IL-1b levels. The culture supernatant also induced massive extracellular matrix (produced by mouse embryo fibroblast) filaments degradation. When evaluating the expression of 84 extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules genes, we observed that the stimulation of oxLDL in M2 macrophages decreased 47% of the genes and increased the expression of only 3% of the genes. In particular we noted that oxLDL inhibit the expression of 60% of the genes constituents of extracellular matrix and collagen expressed by these cells, including fibronectin1 and collagen VI. We also observed a decrease in the expression of matrix protease inhibitors, such as TIMP 2. On the opposite, the matricellular protein thrombospondin had a 12 fold increase in gene expression. In the presence of native LDL 90% of the genes had no altered expression. Conclusion: M2 macrophages stimulated with oxLDL secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-8, have an altered extracellular matrix constituents gene expression, and promote the degradation of extracellular matrix. M2 macrophages may contribute to the perpetuation of inflammation in atherosclerosis and to plaque rupture.

Keywords: atherosclerosis, LDL, macrophages, m2

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1 Comparison of On-Site Stormwater Detention Policies in Australian and Brazilian Cities

Authors: Pedro P. Drumond, James E. Ball, Priscilla M. Moura, Márcia M. L. P. Coelho

Abstract:

In recent decades, On-site Stormwater Detention (OSD) systems have been implemented in many cities around the world. In Brazil, urban drainage source control policies were created in the 1990’s and were mainly based on OSD. The concept of this technique is to promote the detention of additional stormwater runoff caused by impervious areas, in order to maintain pre-urbanization peak flow levels. In Australia OSD, was first adopted in the early 1980’s by the Ku-ring-gai Council in Sydney’s northern suburbs and Wollongong City Council. Many papers on the topic were published at that time. However, source control techniques related to stormwater quality have become to the forefront and OSD has been relegated to the background. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the current regulations regarding OSD, the existing policies were compared in Australian cities, a country considered experienced in the use of this technique, and in Brazilian cities where OSD adoption has been increasing. The cities selected for analysis were Wollongong and Belo Horizonte, the first municipalities to adopt OSD in their respective countries, and Sydney and Porto Alegre, cities where these policies are local references. The Australian and Brazilian cities are located in Southern Hemisphere of the planet and similar rainfall intensities can be observed, especially in storm bursts greater than 15 minutes. Regarding technical criteria, Brazilian cities have a site-based approach, analyzing only on-site system drainage. This approach is criticized for not evaluating impacts on urban drainage systems and in rare cases may cause the increase of peak flows downstream. The city of Wollongong and most of the Sydney Councils adopted a catchment-based approach, requiring the use of Permissible Site Discharge (PSD) and Site Storage Requirements (SSR) values based on analysis of entire catchments via hydrograph-producing computer models. Based on the premise that OSD should be designed to dampen storms of 100 years Average Recurrence Interval (ARI) storm, the values of PSD and SSR in these four municipalities were compared. In general, Brazilian cities presented low values of PSD and high values of SSR. This can be explained by site-based approach and the low runoff coefficient value adopted for pre-development conditions. The results clearly show the differences between approaches and methodologies adopted in OSD designs among Brazilian and Australian municipalities, especially with regard to PSD values, being on opposite sides of the scale. However, lack of research regarding the real performance of constructed OSD does not allow for determining which is best. It is necessary to investigate OSD performance in a real situation, assessing the damping provided throughout its useful life, maintenance issues, debris blockage problems and the parameters related to rain-flow methods. Acknowledgments: The authors wish to thank CNPq - Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (Chamada Universal – MCTI/CNPq Nº 14/2014), FAPEMIG - Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais, and CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior for their financial support.

Keywords: on-site stormwater detention, source control, stormwater, urban drainage

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