Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4148

Search results for: associated linear equations ALEs

4148 Analysis of the Relationship between the Unitary Impulse Response for the nth-Volterra Kernel of a Duffing Oscillator System

Authors: Guillermo Manuel Flores Figueroa, Juan Alejandro Vazquez Feijoo, Jose Navarro Antonio


A continuous nonlinear system response may be obtained by an infinite sum of the so-called Volterra operators. Each operator is obtained from multidimensional convolution of nth-order between the nth-order Volterra kernel and the system input. These operators can also be obtained from the Associated Linear Equations (ALEs) that are linear models of subsystems which inputs and outputs are of the same nth-order. Each ALEs produces a particular nth-Volterra operator. As linear models a unitary impulse response can be obtained from them. This work shows the relationship between this unitary impulse responses and the corresponding order Volterra kernel.

Keywords: Volterra series, frequency response functions FRF, associated linear equations ALEs, unitary response function, Voterra kernel

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4147 System of Linear Equations, Gaussian Elimination

Authors: Rabia Khan, Nargis Munir, Suriya Gharib, Syeda Roshana Ali


In this paper linear equations are discussed in detail along with elimination method. Gaussian elimination and Gauss Jordan schemes are carried out to solve the linear system of equation. This paper comprises of matrix introduction, and the direct methods for linear equations. The goal of this research was to analyze different elimination techniques of linear equations and measure the performance of Gaussian elimination and Gauss Jordan method, in order to find their relative importance and advantage in the field of symbolic and numeric computation. The purpose of this research is to revise an introductory concept of linear equations, matrix theory and forms of Gaussian elimination through which the performance of Gauss Jordan and Gaussian elimination can be measured.

Keywords: direct, indirect, backward stage, forward stage

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4146 Second Order Analysis of Frames Using Modified Newmark Method

Authors: Seyed Amin Vakili, Sahar Sadat Vakili, Seyed Ehsan Vakili, Nader Abdoli Yazdi


The main purpose of this paper is to present the Modified Newmark Method as a method of non-linear frame analysis by considering the effect of the axial load (second order analysis). The discussion will be restricted to plane frameworks containing a constant cross-section for each element. In addition, it is assumed that the frames are prevented from out-of-plane deflection. This part of the investigation is performed to generalize the established method for the assemblage structures such as frameworks. As explained, the governing differential equations are non-linear and cannot be formulated easily due to unknown axial load of the struts in the frame. By the assumption of constant axial load, the governing equations are changed to linear ones in most methods. Since the modeling and the solutions of the non-linear form of the governing equations are cumbersome, the linear form of the equations would be used in the established method. However, according to the ability of the method to reconsider the minor omitted parameters in modeling during the solution procedure, the axial load in the elements at each stage of the iteration can be computed and applied in the next stage. Therefore, the ability of the method to present an accurate approach to the solutions of non-linear equations will be demonstrated again in this paper.

Keywords: nonlinear, stability, buckling, modified newmark method

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4145 Nonhomogeneous Linear Second Order Differential Equations and Resonance through Geogebra Program

Authors: F. Maass, P. Martin, J. Olivares


The aim of this work is the application of the program GeoGebra in teaching the study of nonhomogeneous linear second order differential equations with constant coefficients. Different kind of functions or forces will be considered in the right hand side of the differential equations, in particular, the emphasis will be placed in the case of trigonometrical functions producing the resonance phenomena. In order to obtain this, the frequencies of the trigonometrical functions will be changed. Once the resonances appear, these have to be correlationated with the roots of the second order algebraic equation determined by the coefficients of the differential equation. In this way, the physics and engineering students will understand resonance effects and its consequences in the simplest way. A large variety of examples will be shown, using different kind of functions for the nonhomogeneous part of the differential equations.

Keywords: education, geogebra, ordinary differential equations, resonance

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4144 Modeling of a Small Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Ahmed Elsayed Ahmed, Ashraf Hafez, A. N. Ouda, Hossam Eldin Hussein Ahmed, Hala Mohamed ABD-Elkader


Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) are playing increasingly prominent roles in defense programs and defense strategies around the world. Technology advancements have enabled the development of it to do many excellent jobs as reconnaissance, surveillance, battle fighters, and communications relays. Simulating a small unmanned aerial vehicle (SUAV) dynamics and analyzing its behavior at the preflight stage is too important and more efficient. The first step in the UAV design is the mathematical modeling of the nonlinear equations of motion. In this paper, a survey with a standard method to obtain the full non-linear equations of motion is utilized,and then the linearization of the equations according to a steady state flight condition (trimming) is derived. This modeling technique is applied to an Ultrastick-25e fixed wing UAV to obtain the valued linear longitudinal and lateral models. At the end, the model is checked by matching between the behavior of the states of the non-linear UAV and the resulted linear model with doublet at the control surfaces.

Keywords: UAV, equations of motion, modeling, linearization

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4143 Parameter Estimation via Metamodeling

Authors: Sergio Haram Sarmiento, Arcady Ponosov


Based on appropriate multivariate statistical methodology, we suggest a generic framework for efficient parameter estimation for ordinary differential equations and the corresponding nonlinear models. In this framework classical linear regression strategies is refined into a nonlinear regression by a locally linear modelling technique (known as metamodelling). The approach identifies those latent variables of the given model that accumulate most information about it among all approximations of the same dimension. The method is applied to several benchmark problems, in particular, to the so-called ”power-law systems”, being non-linear differential equations typically used in Biochemical System Theory.

Keywords: principal component analysis, generalized law of mass action, parameter estimation, metamodels

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4142 On a Continuous Formulation of Block Method for Solving First Order Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs)

Authors: A. M. Sagir


The aim of this paper is to investigate the performance of the developed linear multistep block method for solving first order initial value problem of Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs). The method calculates the numerical solution at three points simultaneously and produces three new equally spaced solution values within a block. The continuous formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some selected points to obtain three discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. A stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations involving practical applications, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution. Furthermore, comparison of error analysis has been developed with the help of computer software.

Keywords: block method, first order ordinary differential equations, linear multistep, self-starting

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4141 Predicting Bridge Pier Scour Depth with SVM

Authors: Arun Goel


Prediction of maximum local scour is necessary for the safety and economical design of the bridges. A number of equations have been developed over the years to predict local scour depth using laboratory data and a few pier equations have also been proposed using field data. Most of these equations are empirical in nature as indicated by the past publications. In this paper, attempts have been made to compute local depth of scour around bridge pier in dimensional and non-dimensional form by using linear regression, simple regression and SVM (Poly and Rbf) techniques along with few conventional empirical equations. The outcome of this study suggests that the SVM (Poly and Rbf) based modeling can be employed as an alternate to linear regression, simple regression and the conventional empirical equations in predicting scour depth of bridge piers. The results of present study on the basis of non-dimensional form of bridge pier scour indicates the improvement in the performance of SVM (Poly and Rbf) in comparison to dimensional form of scour.

Keywords: modeling, pier scour, regression, prediction, SVM (Poly and Rbf kernels)

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4140 Multistage Adomian Decomposition Method for Solving Linear and Non-Linear Stiff System of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: M. S. H. Chowdhury, Ishak Hashim


In this paper, linear and non-linear stiff systems of ordinary differential equations are solved by the classical Adomian decomposition method (ADM) and the multi-stage Adomian decomposition method (MADM). The MADM is a technique adapted from the standard Adomian decomposition method (ADM) where standard ADM is converted into a hybrid numeric-analytic method called the multistage ADM (MADM). The MADM is tested for several examples. Comparisons with an explicit Runge-Kutta-type method (RK) and the classical ADM demonstrate the limitations of ADM and promising capability of the MADM for solving stiff initial value problems (IVPs).

Keywords: stiff system of ODEs, Runge-Kutta Type Method, Adomian decomposition method, Multistage ADM

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4139 Approximate Solution to Non-Linear Schrödinger Equation with Harmonic Oscillator by Elzaki Decomposition Method

Authors: Emad K. Jaradat, Ala’a Al-Faqih


Nonlinear Schrödinger equations are regularly experienced in numerous parts of science and designing. Varieties of analytical methods have been proposed for solving these equations. In this work, we construct an approximate solution for the nonlinear Schrodinger equations, with harmonic oscillator potential, by Elzaki Decomposition Method (EDM). To illustrate the effects of harmonic oscillator on the behavior wave function, nonlinear Schrodinger equation in one and two dimensions is provided. The results show that, it is more perfectly convenient and easy to apply the EDM in one- and two-dimensional Schrodinger equation.

Keywords: non-linear Schrodinger equation, Elzaki decomposition method, harmonic oscillator, one and two-dimensional Schrodinger equation

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4138 Electromagnetic Wave Propagation Equations in 2D by Finite Difference Method

Authors: N. Fusun Oyman Serteller


In this paper, the techniques to solve time dependent electromagnetic wave propagation equations based on the Finite Difference Method (FDM) are proposed by comparing the results with Finite Element Method (FEM) in 2D while discussing some special simulation examples.  Here, 2D dynamical wave equations for lossy media, even with a constant source, are discussed for establishing symbolic manipulation of wave propagation problems. The main objective of this contribution is to introduce a comparative study of two suitable numerical methods and to show that both methods can be applied effectively and efficiently to all types of wave propagation problems, both linear and nonlinear cases, by using symbolic computation. However, the results show that the FDM is more appropriate for solving the nonlinear cases in the symbolic solution. Furthermore, some specific complex domain examples of the comparison of electromagnetic waves equations are considered. Calculations are performed through Mathematica software by making some useful contribution to the programme and leveraging symbolic evaluations of FEM and FDM.

Keywords: finite difference method, finite element method, linear-nonlinear PDEs, symbolic computation, wave propagation equations

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4137 Numerical Solution of Space Fractional Order Linear/Nonlinear Reaction-Advection Diffusion Equation Using Jacobi Polynomial

Authors: Shubham Jaiswal


During modelling of many physical problems and engineering processes, fractional calculus plays an important role. Those are greatly described by fractional differential equations (FDEs). So a reliable and efficient technique to solve such types of FDEs is needed. In this article, a numerical solution of a class of fractional differential equations namely space fractional order reaction-advection dispersion equations subject to initial and boundary conditions is derived. In the proposed approach shifted Jacobi polynomials are used to approximate the solutions together with shifted Jacobi operational matrix of fractional order and spectral collocation method. The main advantage of this approach is that it converts such problems in the systems of algebraic equations which are easier to be solved. The proposed approach is effective to solve the linear as well as non-linear FDEs. To show the reliability, validity and high accuracy of proposed approach, the numerical results of some illustrative examples are reported, which are compared with the existing analytical results already reported in the literature. The error analysis for each case exhibited through graphs and tables confirms the exponential convergence rate of the proposed method.

Keywords: space fractional order linear/nonlinear reaction-advection diffusion equation, shifted Jacobi polynomials, operational matrix, collocation method, Caputo derivative

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4136 Numerical Treatment of Block Method for the Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir


Discrete linear multistep block method of uniform order for the solution of first order Initial Value Problems (IVPs) in Ordinary Differential Equations (ODEs) is presented in this paper. The approach of interpolation and collocation approximation are adopted in the derivation of the method which is then applied to first order ordinary differential equations with associated initial conditions. The continuous hybrid formulations enable us to differentiate and evaluate at some grids and off – grid points to obtain four discrete schemes, which were used in block form for parallel or sequential solutions of the problems. Furthermore, a stability analysis and efficiency of the block method are tested on ordinary differential equations, and the results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: block method, first order ordinary differential equations, hybrid, self-starting

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4135 Modified Newton's Iterative Method for Solving System of Nonlinear Equations in Two Variables

Authors: Sara Mahesar, Saleem M. Chandio, Hira Soomro


Nonlinear system of equations in two variables is a system which contains variables of degree greater or equal to two or that comprises of the transcendental functions. Mathematical modeling of numerous physical problems occurs as a system of nonlinear equations. In applied and pure mathematics it is the main dispute to solve a system of nonlinear equations. Numerical techniques mainly used for finding the solution to problems where analytical methods are failed, which leads to the inexact solutions. To find the exact roots or solutions in case of the system of non-linear equations there does not exist any analytical technique. Various methods have been proposed to solve such systems with an improved rate of convergence and accuracy. In this paper, a new scheme is developed for solving system of non-linear equation in two variables. The iterative scheme proposed here is modified form of the conventional Newton’s Method (CN) whose order of convergence is two whereas the order of convergence of the devised technique is three. Furthermore, the detailed error and convergence analysis of the proposed method is also examined. Additionally, various numerical test problems are compared with the results of its counterpart conventional Newton’s Method (CN) which confirms the theoretic consequences of the proposed method.

Keywords: conventional Newton’s method, modified Newton’s method, order of convergence, system of nonlinear equations

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4134 Numerical Solutions of Fredholm Integral Equations by B-Spline Wavelet Method

Authors: Ritu Rani


In this paper, we apply minimalistically upheld linear semi-orthogonal B-spline wavelets, exceptionally developed for the limited interim to rough the obscure function present in the integral equations. Semi-orthogonal wavelets utilizing B-spline uniquely developed for the limited interim and these wavelets can be spoken to in a shut frame. This gives a minimized help. Semi-orthogonal wavelets frame the premise in the space L²(R). Utilizing this premise, an arbitrary function in L²(R) can be communicated as the wavelet arrangement. For the limited interim, the wavelet arrangement cannot be totally introduced by utilizing this premise. This is on the grounds that backings of some premise are truncated at the left or right end purposes of the interim. Subsequently, an uncommon premise must be brought into the wavelet development on the limited interim. These functions are alluded to as the limit scaling functions and limit wavelet functions. B-spline wavelet method has been connected to fathom linear and nonlinear integral equations and their systems. The above method diminishes the integral equations to systems of algebraic equations and afterward these systems can be illuminated by any standard numerical methods. Here, we have connected Newton's method with suitable starting speculation for solving these systems.

Keywords: semi-orthogonal, wavelet arrangement, integral equations, wavelet development

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4133 Approximations of Fractional Derivatives and Its Applications in Solving Non-Linear Fractional Variational Problems

Authors: Harendra Singh, Rajesh Pandey


The paper presents a numerical method based on operational matrix of integration and Ryleigh method for the solution of a class of non-linear fractional variational problems (NLFVPs). Chebyshev first kind polynomials are used for the construction of operational matrix. Using operational matrix and Ryleigh method the NLFVP is converted into a system of non-linear algebraic equations, and solving these equations we obtained approximate solution for NLFVPs. Convergence analysis of the proposed method is provided. Numerical experiment is done to show the applicability of the proposed numerical method. The obtained numerical results are compared with exact solution and solution obtained from Chebyshev third kind. Further the results are shown graphically for different fractional order involved in the problems.

Keywords: non-linear fractional variational problems, Rayleigh-Ritz method, convergence analysis, error analysis

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4132 Symbolic Computation on Variable-Coefficient Non-Linear Dispersive Wave Equations

Authors: Edris Rawashdeh, I. Abu-Falahah, H. M. Jaradat


The variable-coefficient non-linear dispersive wave equation is investigated with the aid of symbolic computation. By virtue of a newly developed simplified bilinear method, multi-soliton solutions for such an equation have been derived. Effects of the inhomogeneities of media and nonuniformities of boundaries, depicted by the variable coefficients, on the soliton behavior are discussed with the aid of the characteristic curve method and graphical analysis.

Keywords: dispersive wave equations, multiple soliton solution, Hirota Bilinear Method, symbolic computation

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4131 Long Term Love Relationships Analyzed as a Dynamic System with Random Variations

Authors: Nini Johana Marín Rodríguez, William Fernando Oquendo Patino


In this work, we model a coupled system where we explore the effects of steady and random behavior on a linear system like an extension of the classic Strogatz model. This is exemplified by modeling a couple love dynamics as a linear system of two coupled differential equations and studying its stability for four types of lovers chosen as CC='Cautious- Cautious', OO='Only other feelings', OP='Opposites' and RR='Romeo the Robot'. We explore the effects of, first, introducing saturation, and second, adding a random variation to one of the CC-type lover, which will shape his character by trying to model how its variability influences the dynamics between love and hate in couple in a long run relationship. This work could also be useful to model other kind of systems where interactions can be modeled as linear systems with external or internal random influence. We found the final results are not easy to predict and a strong dependence on initial conditions appear, which a signature of chaos.

Keywords: differential equations, dynamical systems, linear system, love dynamics

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4130 On the Algorithmic Iterative Solutions of Conjugate Gradient, Gauss-Seidel and Jacobi Methods for Solving Systems of Linear Equations

Authors: Hussaini Doko Ibrahim, Hamilton Cyprian Chinwenyi, Henrietta Nkem Ude


In this paper, efforts were made to examine and compare the algorithmic iterative solutions of the conjugate gradient method as against other methods such as Gauss-Seidel and Jacobi approaches for solving systems of linear equations of the form Ax=b, where A is a real n×n symmetric and positive definite matrix. We performed algorithmic iterative steps and obtained analytical solutions of a typical 3×3 symmetric and positive definite matrix using the three methods described in this paper (Gauss-Seidel, Jacobi, and conjugate gradient methods), respectively. From the results obtained, we discovered that the conjugate gradient method converges faster to exact solutions in fewer iterative steps than the two other methods, which took many iterations, much time, and kept tending to the exact solutions.

Keywords: conjugate gradient, linear equations, symmetric and positive definite matrix, gauss-seidel, Jacobi, algorithm

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4129 Nonhomogeneous Linear Fractional Differential Equations Will Bessel Functions of the First Kind Giving Hypergeometric Functions Solutions

Authors: Fernando Maass, Pablo Martin, Jorge Olivares


Fractional derivatives have become very important in several areas of Engineering, however, the solutions of simple differential equations are not known. Here we are considering the simplest first order nonhomogeneous differential equations with Bessel regular functions of the first kind, in this way the solutions have been found which are hypergeometric solutions for any fractional derivative of order α, where α is rational number α=m/p, between zero and one. The way to find this result is by using Laplace transform and the Caputo definitions of fractional derivatives. This method is for values longer than one. However for α entire number the hypergeometric functions are Kumer type, no integer values of alpha, the hypergeometric function is more complicated is type ₂F₃(a,b,c, t2/2). The argument of the hypergeometric changes sign when we go from the regular Bessel functions to the modified Bessel functions of the first kind, however it integer seems that using precise values of α and considering no integers values of α, a solution can be obtained in terms of two hypergeometric functions. Further research is required for future papers in order to obtain the general solution for any rational value of α.

Keywords: Caputo, fractional calculation, hypergeometric, linear differential equations

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4128 On the Approximate Solution of Continuous Coefficients for Solving Third Order Ordinary Differential Equations

Authors: A. M. Sagir


This paper derived four newly schemes which are combined in order to form an accurate and efficient block method for parallel or sequential solution of third order ordinary differential equations of the form y^'''= f(x,y,y^',y^'' ), y(α)=y_0,〖y〗^' (α)=β,y^('' ) (α)=μ with associated initial or boundary conditions. The implementation strategies of the derived method have shown that the block method is found to be consistent, zero stable and hence convergent. The derived schemes were tested on stiff and non-stiff ordinary differential equations, and the numerical results obtained compared favorably with the exact solution.

Keywords: block method, hybrid, linear multistep, self-starting, third order ordinary differential equations

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4127 Linear fractional differential equations for second kind modified Bessel functions

Authors: Jorge Olivares, Fernando Maass, Pablo Martin


Fractional derivatives have been considered recently as a way to solve different problems in Engineering. In this way, second kind modified Bessel functions are considered here. The order α fractional differential equations of second kind Bessel functions, Kᵥ(x), are studied with simple initial conditions. The Laplace transform and Caputo definition of fractional derivatives are considered. Solutions have been found for ν=1/3, 1/2, 2/3, -1/3, -1/2 and (-2/3). In these cases, the solutions are the sum of two hypergeometric functions. The α fractional derivatives have been for α=1/3, 1/2 and 2/3, and the above values of ν. No convergence has been found for the integer values of ν Furthermore when α has been considered as a rational found m/p, no general solution has been found. Clearly, this case is more difficult to treat than those of first kind Bessel Function.

Keywords: Caputo, modified Bessel functions, hypergeometric, linear fractional differential equations, transform Laplace

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4126 On Algebraic Structure of Improved Gauss-Seide Iteration

Authors: O. M. Bamigbola, A. A. Ibrahim


Analysis of real life problems often results in linear systems of equations for which solutions are sought. The method to employ depends, to some extent, on the properties of the coefficient matrix. It is not always feasible to solve linear systems of equations by direct methods, as such the need to use an iterative method becomes imperative. Before an iterative method can be employed to solve a linear system of equations there must be a guaranty that the process of solution will converge. This guaranty, which must be determined a priori, involve the use of some criterion expressible in terms of the entries of the coefficient matrix. It is, therefore, logical that the convergence criterion should depend implicitly on the algebraic structure of such a method. However, in deference to this view is the practice of conducting convergence analysis for Gauss-Seidel iteration on a criterion formulated based on the algebraic structure of Jacobi iteration. To remedy this anomaly, the Gauss-Seidel iteration was studied for its algebraic structure and contrary to the usual assumption, it was discovered that some property of the iteration matrix of Gauss-Seidel method is only diagonally dominant in its first row while the other rows do not satisfy diagonal dominance. With the aid of this structure we herein fashion out an improved version of Gauss-Seidel iteration with the prospect of enhancing convergence and robustness of the method. A numerical section is included to demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results obtained for the improved Gauss-Seidel method.

Keywords: linear algebraic system, Gauss-Seidel iteration, algebraic structure, convergence

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4125 Representation of the Solution of One Dynamical System on the Plane

Authors: Kushakov Kholmurodjon, Muhammadjonov Akbarshox


This present paper is devoted to a system of second-order nonlinear differential equations with a special right-hand side, exactly, the linear part and a third-order polynomial of a special form. It is shown that for some relations between the parameters, there is a second-order curve in which trajectories leaving the points of this curve remain in the same place. Thus, the curve is invariant with respect to the given system. Moreover, this system is invariant under a non-degenerate linear transformation of variables. The form of this curve, depending on the relations between the parameters and the eigenvalues of the matrix, is proved. All solutions of this system of differential equations are shown analytically.

Keywords: dynamic system, ellipse, hyperbola, Hess system, polar coordinate system

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4124 Determination of the Axial-Vector from an Extended Linear Sigma Model

Authors: Tarek Sayed Taha Ali


The dependence of the axial-vector coupling constant gA on the quark masses has been investigated in the frame work of the extended linear sigma model. The field equations have been solved in the mean-field approximation. Our study shows a better fitting to the experimental data compared with the existing models.

Keywords: extended linear sigma model, nucleon properties, axial coupling constant, physic

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4123 Traction Behavior of Linear Piezo-Viscous Lubricants in Rough Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Contacts

Authors: Punit Kumar, Niraj Kumar


The traction behavior of lubricants with the linear pressure-viscosity response in EHL line contacts is investigated numerically for smooth as well as rough surfaces. The analysis involves the simultaneous solution of Reynolds, elasticity and energy equations along with the computation of lubricant properties and surface temperatures. The temperature modified Doolittle-Tait equations are used to calculate viscosity and density as functions of fluid pressure and temperature, while Carreau model is used to describe the lubricant rheology. The surface roughness is assumed to be sinusoidal and it is present on the nearly stationary surface in near-pure sliding EHL conjunction. The linear P-V oil is found to yield much lower traction coefficients and slightly thicker EHL films as compared to the synthetic oil for a given set of dimensionless speed and load parameters. Besides, the increase in traction coefficient attributed to surface roughness is much lower for the former case. The present analysis emphasizes the importance of employing realistic pressure-viscosity response for accurate prediction of EHL traction.

Keywords: EHL, linear pressure-viscosity, surface roughness, traction, water/glycol

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4122 Nano Liquid Thin Film Flow over an Unsteady Stretching Sheet

Authors: Prashant G. Metri


A numerical model is developed to study nano liquid film flow over an unsteady stretching sheet in the presence of hydromagnetic have been investigated. Similarity transformations are used to convert unsteady boundary layer equations to a system of non-linear ordinary differential equations. The resulting non-linear ordinary differential equations are solved numerically using Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg and Newton-Raphson schemes. A relationship between film thickness β and the unsteadiness parameter S is found, the effect of unsteadiness parameter S, and the hydromagnetic parameter S, on the velocity and temperature distributions are presented. The present analysis shows that the combined effect of magnetic field and viscous dissipation has a significant influence in controlling the dynamics of the considered problem. Comparison with known results for certain particular cases is in excellent agreement.

Keywords: boundary layer flow, nanoliquid, thin film, unsteady stretching sheet

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4121 Study and Solving High Complex Non-Linear Differential Equations Applied in the Engineering Field by Analytical New Approach AGM

Authors: Mohammadreza Akbari, Sara Akbari, Davood Domiri Ganji, Pooya Solimani, Reza Khalili


In this paper, three complicated nonlinear differential equations(PDE,ODE) in the field of engineering and non-vibration have been analyzed and solved completely by new method that we have named it Akbari-Ganji's Method (AGM) . As regards the previous published papers, investigating this kind of equations is a very hard task to do and the obtained solution is not accurate and reliable. This issue will be emerged after comparing the achieved solutions by Numerical Method. Based on the comparisons which have been made between the gained solutions by AGM and Numerical Method (Runge-Kutta 4th), it is possible to indicate that AGM can be successfully applied for various differential equations particularly for difficult ones. Furthermore, It is necessary to mention that a summary of the excellence of this method in comparison with the other approaches can be considered as follows: It is noteworthy that these results have been indicated that this approach is very effective and easy therefore it can be applied for other kinds of nonlinear equations, And also the reasons of selecting the mentioned method for solving differential equations in a wide variety of fields not only in vibrations but also in different fields of sciences such as fluid mechanics, solid mechanics, chemical engineering, etc. Therefore, a solution with high precision will be acquired. With regard to the afore-mentioned explanations, the process of solving nonlinear equation(s) will be very easy and convenient in comparison with the other methods. And also one of the important position that is explored in this paper is: Trigonometric and exponential terms in the differential equation (the method AGM) , is no need to use Taylor series Expansion to enhance the precision of the result.

Keywords: new method (AGM), complex non-linear partial differential equations, damping ratio, energy lost per cycle

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4120 Classification of Equations of Motion

Authors: Amritpal Singh Nafria, Rohit Sharma, Md. Shami Ansari


Up to now only five different equations of motion can be derived from velocity time graph without needing to know the normal and frictional forces acting at the point of contact. In this paper we obtained all possible requisite conditions to be considering an equation as an equation of motion. After that we classified equations of motion by considering two equations as fundamental kinematical equations of motion and other three as additional kinematical equations of motion. After deriving these five equations of motion, we examine the easiest way of solving a wide variety of useful numerical problems. At the end of the paper, we discussed the importance and educational benefits of classification of equations of motion.

Keywords: velocity-time graph, fundamental equations, additional equations, requisite conditions, importance and educational benefits

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4119 Analytical Solution of Non–Autonomous Discrete Non-Linear Schrodinger Equation With Saturable Non-Linearity

Authors: Mishu Gupta, Rama Gupta


It has been elucidated here that non- autonomous discrete non-linear Schrödinger equation is associated with saturable non-linearity through photo-refractive media. We have investigated the localized solution of non-autonomous saturable discrete non-linear Schrödinger equations. The similarity transformation has been involved in converting non-autonomous saturable discrete non-linear Schrödinger equation to constant-coefficient saturable discrete non-linear Schrödinger equation (SDNLSE), whose exact solution is already known. By back substitution, the solution of the non-autonomous version has been obtained. We have analysed our solution for the hyperbolic and periodic form of gain/loss term, and interesting results have been obtained. The most important characteristic role is that it helps us to analyse the propagation of electromagnetic waves in glass fibres and other optical wave mediums. Also, the usage of SDNLSE has been seen in tight binding for Bose-Einstein condensates in optical mediums. Even the solutions are interrelated, and its properties are prominently used in various physical aspects like optical waveguides, Bose-Einstein (B-E) condensates in optical mediums, Non-linear optics in photonic crystals, and non-linear kerr–type non-linearity effect and photo refracting medium.

Keywords: B-E-Bose-Einstein, DNLSE-Discrete non linear schrodinger equation, NLSE-non linear schrodinger equation, SDNLSE - saturable discrete non linear Schrodinger equation

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