Search results for: Sharon Chang
Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 602

Search results for: Sharon Chang

602 A Corpus Based Study of Eileen Chang’s Self-Translating Style: A Case Study on The Rice Sprout Song

Authors: Yi-Wei Huang

Abstract:

Eileen Chang is a well-known writer of modern Chinese literature. She is also a translator that publishes her self-translation The Rice Sprout Song. The purpose of the study is to identify the style of Eileen Chang’s self-translations by corpora, especially in the case of The Rice Sprout Song. The Rice Sprout Song is first written in English and then translated into Chinese by the author herself. The procedure of translation is complicated due to the bilingual transition by the same person. Therefore, the aim of the study is to identify Eileen Chang’s style on her self-translation by comparing her works The Old Man and the Sea, The Rice Sprout Song, and The Rouge of The North. The study uses computer-aided software like AntConc, Notepad++, StanfordCoreNLP, and Python to analyze the style of the works, especially focuses on reduplications and the composition of the sentences. Reduplications are commonly seen in Eileen Chang’s works, and they often appear with colors or onomatopoeia. With these criteria, the style of self-translating can be detected and analyzed.

Keywords: corpora, Eileen Chang, reduplications, self-translation

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
601 An Exploratory Study of Potential Cruisers Preferences Using Choice Experiment and Latent Class Modelling

Authors: Renuka Mahadevan, Sharon Chang

Abstract:

This exploratory study is based on potential cruisers’ monetary valuation of cruise attributes. Using choice experiment, monetary trade-offs between four different cruise attributes are examined with Australians as a case study. We found 50% of the sample valued variety of onboard cruise activities the least while 30% were willing to pay A$87 for cruise-organised activities per day, and the remaining 20% regarded an ocean view to be most valuable at A$125. Latent class modelling was then applied and results revealed that potential cruisers’ valuation of the attributes can be used to segment the market into adventurers, budget conscious and comfort lovers. Evidence showed that socio demographics are not as insightful as lifestyle preferences in developing cruise packages and pricing that would appeal to potential cruisers. Marketing also needs to counter the mindset of potential cruisers’ belief that cruises are often costly and that cruising can be done later in life.

Keywords: latent class modelling, choice experiment, potential cruisers, market segmentation, willingness to pay

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600 Research on the Landscape of Xi'an Ancient City Based on the Poetry Text of Tang Dynasty

Authors: Zou Yihui

Abstract:

The integration of the traditional landscape of the ancient city and the poet's emotions and symbolization into ancient poetry is the unique cultural gene and spiritual core of the historical city, and re-understanding the historical landscape pattern from the poetry is conducive to continuing the historical city context and improving the current situation of the gradual decline of the poetry of the modern historical urban landscape. Starting from Tang poetry uses semantic analysis methods、combined with text mining technology, entry mining, word frequency analysis, and cluster analysis of the landscape information of Tang Chang'an City were carried out, and the method framework for analyzing the urban landscape form based on poetry text was constructed. Nearly 160 poems describing the landscape of Tang Chang'an City were screened, and the poetic landscape characteristics of Tang Chang'an City were sorted out locally in order to combine with modern urban spatial development to continue the urban spatial context.

Keywords: Tang Chang'an City, poetic texts, semantic analysis, historical landscape

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599 The Microstructure of Aging ZnO, AZO, and GZO Films

Authors: Zue Chin Chang, Shih-Chang Liang

Abstract:

RF magnetron sputtering is used on the ceramic targets, each of which contains zinc oxide (ZnO), zinc oxide doped with aluminum (AZO) and zinc oxide doped with gallium (GZO). The electric conduction mechanism of the AZO and GZO films came mainly from the Al and Ga, the oxygen vacancies, Zn interstitial atoms, and Al and/or Ga interstitial atoms. AZO and GZO films achieved higher conduction than did ZnO film, it being ion vacant and nonstoichiometric. The XRD analysis showed a preferred orientation along the (002) plane for ZnO, AZO, and GZO films.

Keywords: ZnO, AZO, GZO, doped, sputtering

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598 Estimating Solar Irradiance on a Tilted Surface Using Artificial Neural Networks with Differential Outputs

Authors: Hsu-Yung Cheng, Kuo-Chang Hsu, Chi-Chang Chan, Mei-Hui Tseng, Chih-Chang Yu, Ya-Sheng Liu

Abstract:

Photovoltaics modules are usually not installed horizontally to avoid water or dust accumulation. However, the measured irradiance data on tilted surfaces are rarely available since installing pyranometers with various tilt angles induces high costs. Therefore, estimating solar irradiance on tilted surfaces is an important research topic. In this work, artificial neural networks (ANN) are utilized to construct the transfer model to estimate solar irradiance on tilted surfaces. Instead of predicting tilted irradiance directly, the proposed method estimates the differences between the horizontal irradiance and the irradiance on a tilted surface. The outputs of the ANNs in the proposed design are differential values. The experimental results have shown that the proposed ANNs with differential outputs can substantially improve the estimation accuracy compared to ANNs that estimate the titled irradiance directly.

Keywords: photovoltaics, artificial neural networks, tilted irradiance, solar energy

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597 Study on Hydrophilicity of Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates with TiO2-NTs

Authors: Yu-Wei Chang, Hsuan-Yu Ku, Jo-Shan Chiu, Shao-Fu Chang, Chien-Chon Chen

Abstract:

This paper aims to discuss the hydrophilicity about the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template with titania nanotubes (NTs). The AAO templates with pore size diameters of 20-250 nm were generated by anodizing 6061 aluminum alloy substrates in acid solution of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), oxalic acid (COOH)2, and phosphoric acid (H3PO4), respectively. TiO2-NTs were grown on AAO templates by the sol-gel deposition process successfully. The water contact angle on AAO/TiO2-NTs surface was lower compared to the water contact angle on AAO surface. So, the characteristic of hydrophilicity was significantly associated with the AAO pore size and what kinds of materials were immersed variables.

Keywords: AAO, nanotube, sol-gel, anodization, hydrophilicity

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596 Stray Light Reduction Methodology by a Sinusoidal Light Modulation and Three-Parameter Sine Curve Fitting Algorithm for a Reflectance Spectrometer

Authors: Hung Chih Hsieh, Cheng Hao Chang, Yun Hsiang Chang, Yu Lin Chang

Abstract:

In the applications of the spectrometer, the stray light that comes from the environment affects the measurement results a lot. Hence, environment and instrument quality control for the stray reduction is critical for the spectral reflectance measurement. In this paper, a simple and practical method has been developed to correct a spectrometer's response for measurement errors arising from the environment's and instrument's stray light. A sinusoidal modulated light intensity signal was incident on a tested sample, and then the reflected light was collected by the spectrometer. Since a sinusoidal signal modulated the incident light, the reflected light also had a modulated frequency which was the same as the incident signal. Using the three-parameter sine curve fitting algorithm, we can extract the primary reflectance signal from the total measured signal, which contained the primary reflectance signal and the stray light from the environment. The spectra similarity between the extracted spectra by this proposed method with extreme environment stray light is 99.98% similar to the spectra without the environment's stray light. This result shows that we can measure the reflectance spectra without the affection of the environment's stray light.

Keywords: spectrometer, stray light, three-parameter sine curve fitting, spectra extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 224
595 Derivative Usage, Ownership Structure, and Bank Value in European Countries

Authors: Chuang-Chang Chang, Keng-Yu Ho, Yu-Jen Hsiao, Hsin-Ni Yang

Abstract:

Using a sample of detailed ownership data of 1,032 listed commercial bank observations in 30 European countries from 2004 to 2010, we explore what categories of shareholder are more likely to use derivatives and how different types of owners affect the bank value. We find that a shift in equity from bank investors to either non-financial companies or institutional investors have increase incentives to use derivatives. Moreover, we have significant evidence that a shift in equity from bank investors to either family or manager shareholders who attend derivative activities will decrease bank value. However, a shift in equity from bank investors to non-financial companies who use derivative instrument will increase the bank value. Our results are also robustness to address for the potential endogeneity problems.

Keywords: derivative usage, ownership structure, bank value

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594 Performance Variation of the TEES According to the Changes in Cold-Side Storage Temperature

Authors: Young-Jin Baik, Minsung Kim, Junhyun Cho, Ho-Sang Ra, Young-Soo Lee, Ki-Chang Chang

Abstract:

Surplus electricity can be converted into potential energy via pumped hydroelectric storage for future usage. Similarly, thermo-electric energy storage (TEES) uses heat pumps equipped with thermal storage to convert electrical energy into thermal energy; the stored energy is then converted back into electrical energy when necessary using a heat engine. The greatest advantage of this method is that, unlike pumped hydroelectric storage and compressed air energy storage, TEES is not restricted by geographical constraints. In this study, performance variation of the TEES according to the changes in cold-side storage temperature was investigated by simulation method.

Keywords: energy storage system, heat pump, fluid mechanics, thermodynamics

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593 Characteristics of PET-Based Conductive Fiber

Authors: Chung-Yang Chuang, Chi-Lung Chen, Hui-Min Wang, Chang-Jung Chang

Abstract:

Conductive fiber is the key material for e-textiles and wearable devices. However, the durability of the conductive fiber after the wash process is an important issue for conductive fiber applications in e-textiles. Therefore, it is necessary for conductive fiber with good performance on electrically conductive behavior during the product life cycle. In this research, the PET-based conductive fiber was prepared by silver conductive ink continuous coating. The conductive fiber showed low fiber resistance (10-¹~10Ω/cm), and the conductive behavior still had good performance (fiber resistance:10-¹~10Ω/cm, percentage of fiber resistance change:<60%) after the water wash durability test (AATCC-135, 30 times). This research provides a better solution to resolve the issues of resistance increase after the water wash process due to the damage to the conductive fiber structure.

Keywords: PET, conductive fiber, e-textiles, wearable devices

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592 Color Image Enhancement Using Multiscale Retinex and Image Fusion Techniques

Authors: Chang-Hsing Lee, Cheng-Chang Lien, Chin-Chuan Han

Abstract:

In this paper, an edge-strength guided multiscale retinex (EGMSR) approach will be proposed for color image contrast enhancement. In EGMSR, the pixel-dependent weight associated with each pixel in the single scale retinex output image is computed according to the edge strength around this pixel in order to prevent from over-enhancing the noises contained in the smooth dark/bright regions. Further, by fusing together the enhanced results of EGMSR and adaptive multiscale retinex (AMSR), we can get a natural fused image having high contrast and proper tonal rendition. Experimental results on several low-contrast images have shown that our proposed approach can produce natural and appealing enhanced images.

Keywords: image enhancement, multiscale retinex, image fusion, EGMSR

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591 Evaluation of Duncan-Chang Deformation Parameters of Granular Fill Materials Using Non-Invasive Seismic Wave Methods

Authors: Ehsan Pegah, Huabei Liu

Abstract:

Characterizing the deformation properties of fill materials in a wide stress range always has been an important issue in geotechnical engineering. The hyperbolic Duncan-Chang model is a very popular model of stress-strain relationship that captures the nonlinear deformation of granular geomaterials in a very tractable manner. It consists of a particular set of the model parameters, which are generally measured from an extensive series of laboratory triaxial tests. This practice is both time-consuming and costly, especially in large projects. In addition, undesired effects caused by soil disturbance during the sampling procedure also may yield a large degree of uncertainty in the results. Accordingly, non-invasive geophysical seismic approaches may be utilized as the appropriate alternative surveys for measuring the model parameters based on the seismic wave velocities. To this end, the conventional seismic refraction profiles were carried out in the test sites with the granular fill materials to collect the seismic waves information. The acquired shot gathers are processed, from which the P- and S-wave velocities can be derived. The P-wave velocities are extracted from the Seismic Refraction Tomography (SRT) technique while S-wave velocities are obtained by the Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW) method. The velocity values were then utilized with the equations resulting from the rigorous theories of elasticity and soil mechanics to evaluate the Duncan-Chang model parameters. The derived parameters were finally compared with those from laboratory tests to validate the reliability of the results. The findings of this study may confidently serve as the useful references for determination of nonlinear deformation parameters of granular fill geomaterials. Those are environmentally friendly and quite economic, which can yield accurate results under the actual in-situ conditions using the surface seismic methods.

Keywords: Duncan-Chang deformation parameters, granular fill materials, seismic waves velocity, multichannel analysis of surface waves, seismic refraction tomography

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590 Monitoring and Analysis of Bridge Crossing Ground Fissures

Authors: Zhiqing Zhang, Xiangong Zhou, Zihan Zhou

Abstract:

Ground fissures can be seen in some cities all over the world. As a special urban geological disaster, ground fissures in Xi'an have caused great harm to infrastructure. Chang'an Road Interchange in Xi'an City is a bridge across ground fissures. The damage to Chang'an Road interchange is the most serious and typical. To study the influence of ground fissures on the bridge, we established a bridge monitoring system. The main monitoring items include elevation monitoring, structural displacement monitoring, etc. The monitoring results show that the typical failure is mainly reflected in the bridge deck damage caused by horizontal tension and vertical dislocation. For the construction of urban interchange spanning ground fissures, the interchange should be divided reasonably, a simple support structure with less restriction should be adopted, and the monitoring of supports should be strengthened to prevent the occurrence of beam falling.

Keywords: bridge monitoring, ground fissures, typical disease, structural displacement

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589 Impact of Education on Levels of Physical Activity and Depression in Taiwanese Vegetarians and Omnivores

Authors: Ya-Lin Chang, Chia Chen Chang, Yu-Ru Liang, Joyce Chen, You-Kang Chang, Tina Chiu

Abstract:

Physical activity and mental health status are important for health. The purpose of this study was to examine levels of physical activities and depression in Taiwanese vegetarians (VEG) and omnivores (OMNI). Sixty-three vegetarians (20 males) and 56 omnivores (23 males) with an average age of 51 years were recruited for a food frequency validation study at Taipei Tzu Chi Hospital from July to September in 2016. Participants filled out a validated Chinese version international physical activity questionnaire-short-form (IPAQ), Beck Depression Inventory-II-Chinese version (BDI), food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and a questionnaire on demographics and medical history upon recruitment. Total BDI scores were calculated for depression and the metabolic equivalent of task (MET) was calculated for physical activity levels. Mann-Whitney U tests and Chi-square test were used to compare demographics, physical activity levels and depression scores. VEG and OMNI did not differ significantly on MET (1441.9 ± 3387.3 vs. 1605.8 ± 2486.1. p=0.2652, respectively). VEG scored slightly lower on BDI compared to OMNI without statistical significance (5.6 ± 5.7 vs. 7.4 ± 6.3. p=0.06). In addition, we found that regardless of diet practice, those who held a college degree and above scored better on MET (1788.1 ± 2532.6 vs. 1215.5 ± 3425.5. p=0.0014) and BDI (5.2 ± 5.1 vs. 7.8 ± 6.7. p=0.03). In this cross-sectional study, Taiwanese vegetarians and omnivores scored comparatively on physical activity levels and depression. However, education is a significant determinant of physical activity and depression.

Keywords: BDI, diet, education, physical activity

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588 Impact of Climate Change on Water Resource Systems in Taiwan

Authors: Chia-Ling Chang, Hao-Bo Chang

Abstract:

Global climate change alters rainfall characteristics, while the variation of these characteristics further influences environmental conditions, such as hydrologic responses, landslide areas, and the amounts of diffuse pollution. The variations of environmental conditions may impact the stability of water resource systems. The objective of this study is to assess the present conditions of major water resource systems in Taiwan. The impact of climate change on each system is also discussed herein. Compared to the water resource systems in northern Taiwan, the ratio of the precipitation during the rainy season to that during the dry season has a larger increase in southern Taiwan. This variation of hydrologic condition impacts the stability of water resource systems and increases the risk of normal water supply. The findings in this work can be important references for water resource management.

Keywords: basin management, climate change, water resource system, water resource management

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587 Local Activities of the Membranes Associated with Glycosaminoglycan-Chitosan Complexes in Bone Cells

Authors: Chih-Chang Yeh, Min-Fang Yang, Hsin-I Chang

Abstract:

Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide derived from the partial deacetylation of chitin. Hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparin (HP) are anionic glycosaminoglycans (GCGs) which can regulate osteogenic activity. In this study, chitosan membranes were prepared by glutaraldehyde crosslinking reaction and then complexed with three different types of GCGs. 7F2 osteoblasts-like cells and macrophages Raw264.7 were used as models to study the influence of chitosan membranes on osteometabolism. Although chitosan membranes are highly hydrophilic, the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes showed about 60-70% cell attachment. Furthermore, the membranes associated with HP-chitosan complexes could increase ALP activity in comparison with chitosan films only. Three types of the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes could significantly inhibit LPS induced-nitric oxide expression. In addition, chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA can down-regulate tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity but not CS-chitosan complexes. Based on these results, we conclude that chitosan membranes associated with HP can increase ALP activity in osteoblasts and chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA reduce TRAP activity in osteoclasts.

Keywords: osteoblast, osteoclast, chitosan, glycosaminoglycan

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586 Unsteady Simulation of Burning Off Carbon Deposition in a Coke Oven

Authors: Uzu-Kuei Hsu, Keh-Chin Chang, Joo-Guan Hang, Chang-Hsien Tai

Abstract:

Carbon Deposits are often occurred inside the industrial coke oven during the coking process. Accumulation of carbon deposits may cause a big issue, which seriously influences the coking operation. The carbon is burning off by injecting fresh air through pipes into coke oven which is an efficient way practically operated in industries. The burning off carbon deposition in coke oven performed by Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) method has provided an evaluation of the feasibility study. A three-dimensional, transient, turbulent reacting flow simulation has performed with three different injecting air flow rate and another kind of injecting configuration. The result shows that injection higher air flow rate would effectively reduce the carbon deposits. In the meantime, the opened charging holes would suck extra oxygen from the atmosphere to participate in reactions. In term of coke oven operating limits, the wall temperatures are monitored to prevent over-heating of the adiabatic walls during the burn-off process.

Keywords: coke oven, burning off, carbon deposits, carbon combustion, CFD

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585 Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) Fabrics Decoloring for PET Textile Recycle

Authors: Chung-Yang Chuang, Hui-Min Wang, Min-Yan Dong, Chang-Jung Chang

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PET fiber is the most widely used fiber worldwide. This man-made fiber is prepared from petroleum chemicals, which may cause environmental pollution and resource exhausting issues, such as the use of non-renewable sources, greenhouse gas emission and discharge of wastewater. Therefore, the textile made by recycle-PET is the trend in the future. Recycle-PET fiber, compared with petroleum-made PET, shows lower carbon emissions and resource exhaustion. However, “fabric decoloring” is the key barrier to textile recycling. The dyes existing in the fabrics may cause PET chain degradation and appearance drawbacks during the textile recycling process. In this research, the water-based decoloring agent was used to remove the dispersed dye in the PET fabrics in order to obtain the colorless PET fabrics after the decoloring process. The decoloring rate of PET fabrics after the decoloring process was up to 99.0%. This research provides a better solution to resolve the issues of appearance and physical properties degradation of fabrics-recycle PET materials due to the residual dye. It may be possible to convert waste PET textiles into new high-quality PET fiber and build up the loop of PET textile recycling.

Keywords: PET, decoloring, disperse dye, textile recycle

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584 Microplastics Found in Salmon and Bivalves from the Salish Sea

Authors: Sharon L. Gillies, Dario Jereb, Blayne Stam, Deji Arojojoye

Abstract:

Plastic contamination of the oceans has become a global concern. Created during the breakdown of plastic or direct production, microplastic can be ingested by animals. This study aimed to assess the abundance of microplastic contamination in native salmon and bivalve species collected from the Salish Sea near the mouth of the Fraser River. Samples collected from May 2022 to September 2023 show that microplastic contamination was present in both salmon and bivalves. The most common were coloured microfibers, making up about 85% of the total microplastics, and the rest were uncoloured fibers and a few irregularly shaped microplastics.

Keywords: microplastics, microplastics in bivalves, microplastics in salmon, Salish Sea

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583 Study Case of Spacecraft Instruments in Structural Modelling with Nastran-Patran

Authors: Francisco Borja de Lara, Ali Ravanbakhsh, Robert F. Wimmer-Schweingruber, Lars Seimetz, Fermín Navarro

Abstract:

The intense structural loads during the launch of a spacecraft represent a challenge for the space structure designers because enough resistance has to be achieved while maintaining at the same time the mass and volume within the allowable margins of the mission requirements and inside the limits of the budget project. In this conference, we present the structural analysis of the Lunar Lander Neutron Dosimetry (LND) experiment on the Chang'E4 mission, the first probe to land on the moon’s far side included in the Chinese’ Moon Exploration Program by the Chinese National Space Administration. To this target, the software Nastran/Patran has been used: a structural model in Patran and a structural analysis through Nastran have been realized. Next, the results obtained are used both for the optimization process of the spacecraft structure, and as input parameters for the model structural test campaign. In this way, the feasibility of the lunar instrument structure is demonstrated in terms of the modal modes, stresses, and random vibration and a better understanding of the structural tests design is provided by our results.

Keywords: Chang’E4, Chinese national space administration, lunar lander neutron dosimetry, nastran-patran, structural analysis

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582 An Extended Basic Period and Power-of-Two Policy for Economic Lot-Size Batch-Shipment Scheduling Problem

Authors: Wen-Tsung Ho, Ku-Kuang Chang, Hsin-Yuan Chang

Abstract:

In this study, we consider an economic lot-size batch-shipment scheduling problem (ELBSP) with extended basic period (EBP) and power-of-two (PoT) policies. In this problem, the supplier using a single facility to manufacture multiple products and equally sized batches are then delivered by the supplier to buyers over an infinite planning horizon. Further, the extended basic period (EBP) and power-of-two (PoT) policy are utilized. Relaxing the production schedule converts the ELBSP to an economic lot-size batch-shipment problem (ELBP) with EBP and PoT policies, and a nonlinear integer programming model of the ELBP is constructed. Using the replenishment cycle division and recursive tightening methods, optimal solutions are then solved separately for each product. The sum of these optimal solutions is the lower bound of the ELBSP. A proposed heuristic method with polynomial complexity is then applied to figure out the near-optimal solutions of the ELBSP. Numerical example is presented to confirm the efficacy of the proposed method.

Keywords: economic lot-size scheduling problem, extended basic period, replenishment cycle division, recursive tightening, power-of-two

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581 Estimating X-Ray Spectra for Digital Mammography by Using the Expectation Maximization Algorithm: A Monte Carlo Simulation Study

Authors: Chieh-Chun Chang, Cheng-Ting Shih, Yan-Lin Liu, Shu-Jun Chang, Jay Wu

Abstract:

With the widespread use of digital mammography (DM), radiation dose evaluation of breasts has become important. X-ray spectra are one of the key factors that influence the absorbed dose of glandular tissue. In this study, we estimated the X-ray spectrum of DM using the expectation maximization (EM) algorithm with the transmission measurement data. The interpolating polynomial model proposed by Boone was applied to generate the initial guess of the DM spectrum with the target/filter combination of Mo/Mo and the tube voltage of 26 kVp. The Monte Carlo N-particle code (MCNP5) was used to tally the transmission data through aluminum sheets of 0.2 to 3 mm. The X-ray spectrum was reconstructed by using the EM algorithm iteratively. The influence of the initial guess for EM reconstruction was evaluated. The percentage error of the average energy between the reference spectrum inputted for Monte Carlo simulation and the spectrum estimated by the EM algorithm was -0.14%. The normalized root mean square error (NRMSE) and the normalized root max square error (NRMaSE) between both spectra were 0.6% and 2.3%, respectively. We conclude that the EM algorithm with transmission measurement data is a convenient and useful tool for estimating x-ray spectra for DM in clinical practice.

Keywords: digital mammography, expectation maximization algorithm, X-Ray spectrum, X-Ray

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580 Operator Splitting Scheme for the Inverse Nagumo Equation

Authors: Sharon-Yasotha Veerayah-Mcgregor, Valipuram Manoranjan

Abstract:

A backward or inverse problem is known to be an ill-posed problem due to its instability that easily emerges with any slight change within the conditions of the problem. Therefore, only a limited number of numerical approaches are available to solve a backward problem. This paper considers the Nagumo equation, an equation that describes impulse propagation in nerve axons, which also models population growth with the Allee effect. A creative operator splitting numerical scheme is constructed to solve the inverse Nagumo equation. Computational simulations are used to verify that this scheme is stable, accurate, and efficient.

Keywords: inverse/backward equation, operator-splitting, Nagumo equation, ill-posed, finite-difference

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579 Lower Risk of Ischemic Stroke in Hormone Therapy Users with Use of Chinese Herbal Medicine

Authors: Shu-Hui Wen, Wei-Chuan Chang, Hsien-Chang Wu

Abstract:

Background: Little is known about the benefits and risks of use of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in conditions related to hormone therapy (HT) use on the risk of ischemic stroke (IS). The aim of this study is to explore the risk of IS in menopausal women treated with HT and CHM. Materials and methods: A total of 32,441 menopausal women without surgical menopause aged 40- 65 years were selected from 2003 to 2010 using the 2-million random samples of the National Health Insurance Research Database in Taiwan. According to the medication usage of HT and CHM, we divided the current and recent users into two groups: an HT use-only group (n = 4,989) and an HT/CHM group (n = 9,265). Propensity-score matching samples (4,079 pairs) were further created to deal with confounding by indication. The adjusted hazard ratios (HR) of IS during HT or CHM treatment were estimated by the robust Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The incidence rate of IS in the HT/CHM group was significantly lower than in the HT group (4.5 vs. 12.8 per 1000 person-year, p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis results indicated that additional CHM use was significant with a lower risk of IS (HR = 0.3; 95% confidence interval, 0.21-0.43). Further subgroup analyses and sensitivity analyses had similar findings. Conclusion: We found that combined use of HT and CHM was associated with a lower risk for IS than HT use only. Further study is needed to examine possible mechanism underlying this association.

Keywords: Chinese herbal medicine, hormone therapy, ischemic stroke, menopause

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578 Investigation of Enhanced Recovery After Surgery Protocol Outcome on Post Colectomy Patients

Authors: Sharon Baoas, Toni Beninato, Michael Zenilman, Gokhan Ozuner

Abstract:

Background An enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol was implemented to improve quality and cost effectiveness of surgical care in elective colorectal procedures. Results A total of 109 patients, 55 (pre-ERAS) and 54 (post-ERAS) are included in the final analysis. There were no differences in complications were recorded (p = 0.37) and 30-day readmissions (p = 0.785). The mean hospital stay was 5.89 ± 2.62 days in pre-ERAS and 4.94 ± 2.27 days in post-ERAS group which was statistically significant (p = 0.047). Conclusions An ERAS protocol for colorectal surgery harmonised perioperative care and decreased length of stay.

Keywords: 30-day readmission, lenght of stay, Enhanced Recovery after surgery, Surgical site infection

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577 The Interplay of Communication and Critical Thinking in the Mathematics Classroom

Authors: Sharon K. O'Kelley

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At the heart of mathematics education is the concept of communication which many teachers envision as the influential dialogue they conduct with their students. However, communication in the mathematics classroom operates in different forms at different levels, both externally and internally. Specifically, it can be a central component in the building of critical thinking skills that requires students not only to know how to communicate their solutions to others but that they also be able to navigate their own thought processes in search of those solutions. This paper provides a review of research on the role of communication in the building of critical thinking skills in mathematics with a focus on the problem-solving process and the implications this interplay has for the teaching and learning of mathematics.

Keywords: communication in mathematics, critical thinking skills, mathematics education, problem-solving process

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576 Feels Like Home: A Study Of The Role Of Material Culture In Older Adults' Transition To A Retirement Village

Authors: Sharon Ganzer

Abstract:

Older adults want choices about where they ‘age-in-place’ and express the desire to remain in their home for as long as possible because it maintains feelings of independence and autonomy, perpetuates a sense of identity, enable people to have space for their belongings and supports connections and social engagement. When circumstances change, and alternative living arrangements are required, more and more older adults are considering a transition to a retirement village – the liminal space between home and residential care. This qualitative study explores the lived experience of older adults who relocate to a retirement village in Queensland, Australia, and the role that material culture plays in this process.

Keywords: material culture, social gerontology, concepts of home, retirement villages

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575 Optimization of Human Hair Concentration for a Natural Rubber Based Composite

Authors: Richu J. Babu, Sony Mathew, Sharon Rony Jacob, Soney C. George, Jibin C. Jacob

Abstract:

Human hair is a non-biodegradable waste available in plenty throughout the world but is rarely explored for applications in engineering fields. Tensile strength of human hair ranges from 170 to 220 MPa. This property of human hair can be made use in the field of making bio-composites[1]. The composite is prepared by commixing the human hair and natural rubber in a two roll mill along with additives followed by vulcanization. Here the concentration of the human hair is varied by fine-tuning the fiber length as 20 mm and sundry tests like tensile, abrasion, tear and hardness were conducted. While incrementing the fiber length up to a certain range the mechanical properties shows superior amendments.

Keywords: human hair, natural rubber, composite, vulcanization, fiber loading

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574 Mediated and Moderated Effects of Insecure Attachment Style and Depressions

Authors: Li-Ting Chen, Chih-Tao Cheng, I-Ping Huang, Jen-Ho Chang, Nien-Tzu Chang, Fei-Hsiu Hsiao

Abstract:

Background: Insecurity adult attachment style may be triggered by cancer threat, which in turn influences depression symptoms. Dispositional mindfulness may have benefits of insecure attachment on depression for colorectal patient transfer to survivor. Objective: This study examined the mediating and moderating effects of quality of life (QOL) and dispositional mindfulness on the relationship between insecure attachment style and depression symptoms. Methods: A cross-sectional study design was used. Data were collected using the QOL functional and symptoms (EORTC-C30 and EORTC CR29), dispositional mindfulness (FFMQ), Short form of Experience in Close Relationships Revised Questionnaire (SF-ECRRQ), and depressive symptoms (BDI-II scale). Results: Of the 90 CRC survivors who participated, the indirect effect of both ECR anxiety (β=0.23, CI=0.05-0.44) and ECR avoidance (β=0.12, CI=0.02-0.24) on depression were significantly mediated through EORTC-C29 colorectal symptoms. Three components of dispositional mindfulness (i.e., acting of awareness, non-judging, non-reactivity) as the moderator in the relationship between ECR anxiety and depressive symptoms. Acting of awareness was a moderator in the relationship between ECR avoidance and depressive symptoms. Conclusions: There are two pathways from insecure attachment to depression: through the mediator of colorectal symptoms and the moderator of dispositional mindfulness. Cancer symptom management and mindfulness practices could improve the impact of insecure attachment on depression among CRC patients in a post-treatment transition period.

Keywords: acting of awareness, attachment style, colorectal cancer, disposisitonal mindfulness, depression

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573 The Effects of Dual-Enrollment Programs on Students’ Post-Secondary Academic Performance

Authors: Cody Kirby, Kaustav Misra, Arundhati Bagchi Misra, Sharon P. Cox

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the relationship that dual-enrollment programs have on academic performance and retention. Both performance and retention are significant issues in higher education. The first, performance, is a goal of higher education, having an impact on students’ lives. The second, retention, is key to the viability of any college or university. This paper uses survey research methodology to examine factors that lead to positive student academic performance, which leads to retention, specifically in dual-enrollment programs. The data show several characteristics that lead to a positive impact on GPA. These include the following; age, Caucasian race, full-time status, students in STEM programs, and finally dual enrollment participation.

Keywords: dual enrollment, early college, retention, undergraduate education

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