Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: P. C. Tewari

17 Cellular Automata Modelling of Titanium Alloy

Authors: Jyoti Jha, Asim Tewari, Sushil Mishra


The alpha-beta Titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) is the most common alloy in the aerospace industry. The hot workability of Ti–6Al–4V has been investigated by means of hot compression tests carried out in the 750–950 °C temperature range and 0.001–10s-1 strain rate range. Stress-strain plot obtained from the Gleeble 3800 test results show the dynamic recrystallization at temperature 950 °C. The effect of microstructural characteristics of the deformed specimens have been studied and correlated with the test temperature, total strain and strain rate. Finite element analysis in DEFORM 2D has been carried out to see the effect of flow stress parameters in different zones of deformed sample. Dynamic recrystallization simulation based on Cellular automata has been done in DEFORM 2D to simulate the effect of hardening and recovery during DRX. Simulated results well predict the grain growth and DRX in the deformed sample.

Keywords: compression test, Cellular automata, DEFORM , DRX

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16 Role of Support, Experience and Education in Livelihood Resilience

Authors: Madhuri, H. R. Tewari, P. K. Bhowmick


The study attempts to find out the role of the community and the government support, flood experience, flood education, and education of the male-headed households in their livelihood resilience. The study is based on a randomly drawn sample of 472 households from the river basins of Ganga and Kosi in the district of Bhagalpur, Bihar. Structural equation modeling (SEM) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods are used to analyze the data. The findings of the study reveal that the role(s) of the community support though is found to be more significant in comparison to the government supports for its stand by position in rescue and livelihood resilience of the affected households whereas the government support arrives late and in far less quantity than what is required. However, the government's support is equally vital due its control over resources, which essentially needed in rescue and rehabilitation of the affected households. The study unravels the strategic value of households' indigenous knowledge and their flood experience in livelihood resilience.

Keywords: flood education, flood experience, livelihood resilience, community support, government support

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15 Availability Analysis of Milling System in a Rice Milling Plant

Authors: P. C. Tewari, Parveen Kumar


The paper describes the availability analysis of milling system of a rice milling plant using probabilistic approach. The subsystems under study are special purpose machines. The availability analysis of the system is carried out to determine the effect of failure and repair rates of each subsystem on overall performance (i.e. steady state availability) of system concerned. Further, on the basis of effect of repair rates on the system availability, maintenance repair priorities have been suggested. The problem is formulated using Markov Birth-Death process taking exponential distribution for probable failures and repair rates. The first order differential equations associated with transition diagram are developed by using mnemonic rule. These equations are solved using normalizing conditions and recursive method to drive out the steady state availability expression of the system. The findings of the paper are presented and discussed with the plant personnel to adopt a suitable maintenance policy to increase the productivity of the rice milling plant.

Keywords: availability modeling, Markov process, milling system, rice milling plant

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14 Performance Modeling and Availability Analysis of Yarn Dyeing System of a Textile Industry

Authors: P. C. Tewari, Rajiv Kumar, Dinesh Khanduja


This paper discusses the performance modeling and availability analysis of Yarn Dyeing System of a Textile Industry. The Textile Industry is a complex and repairable engineering system. Yarn Dyeing System of Textile Industry consists of five subsystems arranged in series configuration. For performance modeling and analysis of availability, a performance evaluating model has been developed with the help of mathematical formulation based on Markov-Birth-Death Process. The differential equations have been developed on the basis of Probabilistic Approach using a Transition Diagram. These equations have further been solved using normalizing condition in order to develop the steady state availability, a performance measure of the system concerned. The system performance has been further analyzed with the help of decision matrices. These matrices provide various availability levels for different combinations of failure and repair rates for various subsystems. The findings of this paper are, therefore, considered to be useful for the analysis of availability and determination of the best possible maintenance strategies which can be implemented in future to enhance the system performance.

Keywords: performance modeling, markov process, steady state availability, availability analysis

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13 Identification and Quantification of Phenolic Compounds In Cassia tora Collected from Three Different Locations Using Ultra High Performance Liquid Chromatography – Electro Spray Ionization – Mass Spectrometry (UHPLC-ESI-MS-MS)

Authors: Shipra Shukla, Gaurav Chaudhary, S. K. Tewari, Mahesh Pal, D. K. Upreti


Cassia tora L. is widely distributed in tropical Asian countries, commonly known as sickle pod. Various parts of the plant are reported for their medicinal value due to presence of anthraquinones, phenolic compounds, emodin, β-sitosterol, and chrysophanol. Therefore a sensitive analytical procedure using UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of five phenolic compounds in leaf, stem and root extracts of Cassia tora. Rapid chromatographic separation of compounds was achieved on Acquity UHPLC BEH C18 column (50 mm×2.1 mm id, 1.7µm) column in 2.5 min. Quantification was carried out using negative electrospray ionization in multiple-reaction monitoring mode. The method was validated as per ICH guidelines and showed good linearity (r2 ≥ 0.9985) over the concentration range of 0.5-200 ng/mL. The intra- and inter-day precisions and accuracy were within RSDs ≤ 1.93% and ≤ 1.90%, respectively. The developed method was applied to investigate variation of five phenolic compounds in the three geographical collections. Results indicated significant variation among analyzed samples collected from different locations in India.

Keywords: Cassia tora, phenolic compounds, quantification, UHPLC-ESI-MS/MS

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12 Sectoral Energy Consumption in South Africa and Its Implication for Economic Growth

Authors: Kehinde Damilola Ilesanmi, Dev Datt Tewari


South Africa is in its post-industrial era moving from the primary and secondary sector to the tertiary sector. The study investigated the impact of the disaggregated energy consumption (coal, oil, and electricity) on the primary, secondary and tertiary sectors of the economy between 1980 and 2012 in South Africa. Using vector error correction model, it was established that South Africa is an energy dependent economy, and that energy (especially electricity and oil) is a limiting factor of growth. This implies that implementation of energy conservation policies may hamper economic growth. Output growth is significantly outpacing energy supply, which has necessitated load shedding. To meet up the excess energy demand, there is a need to increase the generating capacity which will necessitate increased investment in the electricity sector as well as strategic steps to increase oil production. There is also need to explore more renewable energy sources, in order to meet the growing energy demand without compromising growth and environmental sustainability. Policy makers should also pursue energy efficiency policies especially at sectoral level of the economy.

Keywords: causality, economic growth, energy consumption, hypothesis, sectoral output

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11 Measuring Business Strategy and Information Systems Alignment

Authors: Amit Saraswat, Ruchi Tewari


Purpose: The research paper aims at understanding the alignment of business and IT in the Indian context and the business value attached to such an alignment. Methodology: The study is conducted in two stages. Stage one: Bibliographic research was conducted to evolve the parameters for defining alignment. Stage two: Evolving a model for strategic alignment to conduct an empirical study. The model is defined in terms of four fundamental domains of strategic management choice – business strategy, information strategy, organizational structure, and information technology structure. A survey through a questionnaire was conducted across organizations from 4 different industries and Structure Equation Modelling (SEM) technique is used for validating the model. Findings: In the Indian scenario all the subscales of alignment could not be validated. It could be validated that organizational strategy impacts information strategy and information technology structure. Research Limitations: The study is limited to the Indian context. Business IT alignment may be culture dependent so further research is required to validate the model in other cultures. Originality/Value: In the western world several models of alignment of business strategy and information systems is available but they do not measure the extent of alignment which the current study in the Indian context. Findings of the study can be used by managers in strategizing and understanding their business and information systems needs holistically and cohesively leading to efficient use of resources and output.

Keywords: business strategy, information technology (IT), business IT alignment, SEM

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10 Ranking of Inventory Policies Using Distance Based Approach Method

Authors: Gupta Amit, Kumar Ramesh, P. C. Tewari


Globalization is putting enormous pressure on the business organizations specially manufacturing one to rethink the supply chain in innovative manners. Inventory consumes major portion of total sale revenue. Effective and efficient inventory management plays a vital role for the successful functioning of any organization. Selection of inventory policy is one of the important purchasing activities. This paper focuses on selection and ranking of alternative inventory policies. A deterministic quantitative model-based on Distance Based Approach (DBA) method has been developed for evaluation and ranking of inventory policies. We have employed this concept first time for this type of the selection problem. Four inventory policies Economic Order Quantity (EOQ), Just in Time (JIT), Vendor Managed Inventory (VMI) and monthly policy are considered. Improper selection could affect a company’s competitiveness in terms of the productivity of its facilities and quality of its products. The ranking of inventory policies is a multi-criteria problem. There is a need to first identify the selection criteria and then processes the information with reference to relative importance of attributes for comparison. Criteria values for each inventory policy can be obtained either analytically or by using a simulation technique or they are linguistic subjective judgments defined by fuzzy sets, like, for example, the values of criteria. A methodology is developed and applied to rank the inventory policies.

Keywords: inventory policy, ranking, DBA, selection criteria

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9 The Politics of Cinema: Representation of Rising Nationalism in Indian Cinema in the Election Year of 2019

Authors: Paawani Tewari, Oishik Dasgupta


Cinema and politics have often intertwined in India. Movies have become a mainstream method of communication with audiences and voters subliminally and directly. Indian film industry on average produces over a thousand films in a year, and during the election year of 2019, India witnessed the release of several highly political movies. Movies such as Uri: The Surgical Strike, Accidental Prime Minister, and PM Modi, et cetera, which are the sample of this study have tried to depict an ideal character of political stalwart leaders with the plausibility to inspire and aiming to change ideological orientations of viewers and the potent voters. This study tries to understand the major links between nationalism, its representation, and its manifestation in Indian cinema and how it is instrumental in shaping the character and orientations of its citizens towards nation, nationalism, and nationhood. Our work aims to highlight how nationalistic assumptions that are swaddled in the Hindi movies released during January 2019 – May 2019 affect the political mood of the nation and, in totality, the democratic system. The authors also try to throw light on how films being a powerful tool, are now being used to shape ideas, brainwashing and swaying opinions for political mileage. Hence it becomes essential for us to explore the dynamics between the quintessential definitions of what nationalism is for a common man in India versus of what has been represented in cinema, especially during the time of the elections.

Keywords: political governance and political analysis, political and public administration, election, public choice

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8 Investigating the Determinants and Growth of Financial Technology Depth of Penetration among the Heterogeneous Africa Economies

Authors: Tochukwu Timothy Okoli, Devi Datt Tewari


The high rate of Fintech adoption has not transmitted to greater financial inclusion and development in Africa. This problem is attributed to poor Fintech diversification and usefulness in the continent. This concept is referred to as the Fintech depth of penetration in this study. The study, therefore, assessed its determinants and growth process in a panel of three emergings, twenty-four frontiers and five fragile African economies disaggregated with dummies over the period 2004-2018 to allow for heterogeneity between groups. The System Generalized Method of Moments (GMM) technique reveals that the average depth of Mobile banking and automated teller machine (ATM) is a dynamic heterogeneity process. Moreover, users' previous experiences/compatibility, trial-ability/income, and financial development were the major factors that raise its usefulness, whereas perceived risk, financial openness, and inflation rate significantly limit its usefulness. The growth rate of Mobile banking, ATM, and Internet banking in 2018 is, on average 41.82, 0.4, and 20.8 per cent respectively greater than its average rates in 2004. These greater averages after the 2009 financial crisis suggest that countries resort to Fintech as a risk-mitigating tool. This study, therefore, recommends greater Fintech diversification through improved literacy, institutional development, financial liberalization, and continuous innovation.

Keywords: depth of fintech, emerging Africa, financial technology, internet banking, mobile banking

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7 Cost Effective Intraoperative Mri for Cranial and Spinal Cases Using Pre-Existing Three Side Open Mri-Adjacent to Operation Theater = Since-2005

Authors: V. K. Tewari, M. Hussain, H. K. D.Gupta


Aims/Background: The existing Intraoperative-MRI(IMRI) of developed countries is too costly to be utilized in any developing country. We have used the preexisting 3-side open 0.2-tesla MRI for IMRI in India so that the maximum benefit of the goal of IMRI is attained with cost effective state of the art surgeries. Material/Methods: We have operated 36-cases since 13thNov2005 via IMRI to till date. The table of MRI is used as an operating table which can be taken to the P3 level and as and when we require MRI to be done then the table can slide to P1 level so that the intraoperative monitoring can be done. The oxygen/nitrous tubes were taken out from vent made in the wall of the MRI room to outside. The small handy Boyel’s trolley was taken inside the MRI room with a small monitor. Anesthesia is been given in the MRI room itself. Usual skin markings were given with the help of scout MRI fields so the preciseness is increased. Craniotomy flap raised or the laminectomy and the dura opened in the similar fashion by same instruments as for the non IMRI case. Now corticectomy is planned after the T1 contrast image to localize and minimize the cortical resection. Staged and multiple P3 to P1 position and vice versa is planned respectively so that the resection is optimized to around 0.5 mm for radiotherapy. Immediate preclosure hematoma and edemas can be differentiated and cared for it. Results: Same MRI images as compared to highly expensive MRI of western world are achieved. Conclusion: 0.2 tesla Intraoperative MRI can be used for operative work for cranial and spinal cases easily with highly cost effectiveness.

Keywords: intraoperative MRI, 0.2 tesla intraoperative MRI, cost effective intraoperative MRI, medical and health sciences

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6 Trajectories of Depression Anxiety and Stress among Breast Cancer Patients: Assessment at First Year of Diagnosis

Authors: Jyoti Srivastava, Sandhya S. Kaushik, Mallika Tewari, Hari S. Shukla


Little information is available about the development of psychological well being over time among women who have been undergoing treatment for breast cancer. The aim of this study was to identify the trajectories of depression anxiety and stress among women with early-stage breast cancer. Of the 48 Indian women with newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer recruited from surgical oncology unit, 39 completed an interview and were assessed for depression anxiety and stress (Depression Anxiety Stress Scale-DASS 21) before their first course of chemotherapy (baseline) and follow up interviews at 3, 6 and 9 months thereafter. Growth mixture modeling was used to identify distinct trajectories of Depression Anxiety and Stress symptoms. Logistic Regression analysis was used to evaluate the characteristics of women in distinct groups. Most women showed mild to moderate level of depression and anxiety (68%) while normal to mild level of stress (71%). But one in 11 women was chronically anxious (9%) and depressed (9%). Young age, having a partner, shorter education and receiving chemotherapy but not radiotherapy might characterize women whose psychological symptoms remain strong nine months after diagnosis. By looking beyond the mean, it was found that several socio-demographic and treatment factors characterized the women whose depression, anxiety and stress level remained severe even nine months after diagnosis. The results suggest that support provided to cancer patients should have a special focus on a relatively small group of patient most in need.

Keywords: psychological well being, growth mixture modeling, logistic regression analysis, socio-demographic factors

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5 The 10,000 Fold Effect Retrograde Neurotransmission: A Newer Concept for Paraplegia’s Physiological Revival by the Use of Intrathecal Sodium Nitroprusside

Authors: V. K. Tewari, M. Hussain, H. K. D. Gupta


B-Methylprednisolone-level-1-benefit (20%) usually given in paraplegia (but within 8hrs). Patients wait-long-duration for physiological-recovery. Intrathecal-Sodium-Nitroprusside(ITSNP) has been used-in vasospasm-due-to-subarachnoid-hemorrhage. ITSNP-has been studied-here for wide-window-period-range for-treatment, fast-recovery/affordability. 2- for acute-cases-and 1-mechanism-for chronic-cases, which-are-interrelated, are being-proposed-for-physiological-recovery. retrograde-neurotransmission, vasospasm and long-term-potentiation-(ltp) mechanisms are proposed here for recovery. It’s a case-control-prospective-study. 82paraplegia-patients(10patients taken as control-no superfusion or dextrose5% superfusion and 72patients as ITSNP-group). The mean time for superfusion was 14.11 days. ITSNP administered at a dosage of 0.2 mg/kg bo wt. Pre/post ITSNP monitored by SSEP/MEP. After-2-Hours in ITSNP-group Mean-Change-From-Baseline-Asia Motor/Sensory-Score 13.84%/13.10%, after-24-hours MOTOR-1.27-points decrease(3.77%) and SENSORY 10.5points-increase(6.22%)as compared to Control-group no-change noted upto 24-hours, At-7days ITSNP motor/sensory;11.56%/6.22% as compared to Control-group 7.60/4.48%, At-2-months in ITSNP 27.69%/6.22% as compared to Control-group 16.02/4.5%. SSEP/MEP-documented-improvements-noted. ITSNP, a-swift-acting-drug in treatment-of-paraplegia, is effective within-two-hours(mean-change-MOTOR-13.84% and SENSORY-13.10%) on-mean14.11th postparaplegia-day with a small-detrimental-response after-24-hours which-recovers-fast.

Keywords: paraplegias, intrathecal sodium nitroprusside, retrograde transmission, the 10, 000 fold effect, perforators, vasodilatations, long term potenciations

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4 Performance Analysis of Modified Solar Water Heating System for Climatic Condition of Allahabad, India

Authors: Kirti Tewari, Rahul Dev


Solar water heating is a thermodynamic process of heating water using sunlight with the help of solar water heater. Thus, solar water heater is a device used to harness solar energy. In this paper, a modified solar water heating system (MSWHS) has been proposed over flat plate collector (FPC) and Evacuated tube collector (ETC). The modifications include selection of materials other than glass, and glass wool which are conventionally used for fabricating FPC and ETC. Some modifications in design have also been proposed. Its collector is made of double layer of semi-cylindrical acrylic tubes and fibre reinforced plastic (FRP) insulation base. Water tank is made of double layer of acrylic sheet except base and north wall. FRP is used in base and north wall of the water tank. A concept of equivalent thickness has been utilised for calculating the dimensions of collector plate, acrylic tube and tank. A thermal model for the proposed design of MSWHS is developed and simulation is carried out on MATLAB for the capacity of 200L MSWHS having collector area of 1.6 m2, length of acrylic tubes of 2m at an inclination angle 25° which is taken nearly equal to the latitude of the given location. Latitude of Allahabad is 24.45° N. The results show that the maximum temperature of water in tank and tube has been found to be 71.2°C and 73.3°C at 17:00hr and 16:00hr respectively in March for the climatic data of Allahabad. Theoretical performance analysis has been carried out by varying number of tubes of collector, the tank capacity and climatic data for given months of winter and summer.

Keywords: acrylic, fibre reinforced plastic, solar water heating, thermal model, conventional water heaters

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3 A Policy Strategy for Building Energy Data Management in India

Authors: Shravani Itkelwar, Deepak Tewari, Bhaskar Natarajan


The energy consumption data plays a vital role in energy efficiency policy design, implementation, and impact assessment. Any demand-side energy management intervention's success relies on the availability of accurate, comprehensive, granular, and up-to-date data on energy consumption. The Building sector, including residential and commercial, is one of the largest consumers of energy in India after the Industrial sector. With economic growth and increasing urbanization, the building sector is projected to grow at an unprecedented rate, resulting in a 5.6 times escalation in energy consumption till 2047 compared to 2017. Therefore, energy efficiency interventions will play a vital role in decoupling the floor area growth and associated energy demand, thereby increasing the need for robust data. In India, multiple institutions are involved in the collection and dissemination of data. This paper focuses on energy consumption data management in the building sector in India for both residential and commercial segments. It evaluates the robustness of data available through administrative and survey routes to estimate the key performance indicators and identify critical data gaps for making informed decisions. The paper explores several issues in the data, such as lack of comprehensiveness, non-availability of disaggregated data, the discrepancy in different data sources, inconsistent building categorization, and others. The identified data gaps are justified with appropriate examples. Moreover, the paper prioritizes required data in order of relevance to policymaking and groups it into "available," "easy to get," and "hard to get" categories. The paper concludes with recommendations to address the data gaps by leveraging digital initiatives, strengthening institutional capacity, institutionalizing exclusive building energy surveys, and standardization of building categorization, among others, to strengthen the management of building sector energy consumption data.

Keywords: energy data, energy policy, energy efficiency, buildings

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2 Is Brain Death Reversal Possible in Near Future: Intrathecal Sodium Nitroprusside (SNP) Superfusion in Brain Death Patients=The 10,000 Fold Effect

Authors: Vinod Kumar Tewari, Mazhar Husain, Hari Kishan Das Gupta


Background: Primary or secondary brain death is also accompanied with vasospasm of the perforators other than tissue disruption & further exaggerates the anoxic damage, in the form of neuropraxia. In normal conditions the excitatory impulse propagates as anterograde neurotransmission (ANT) and at the level of synapse, glutamate activates NMDA receptors on postsynaptic membrane. Nitric oxide (NO) is produced by Nitric oxide Synthetase (NOS) in postsynaptic dendride or cell body and travels backwards across a chemical synapse to bind to the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron for regulation of ANT this process is called as the retrograde neurotransmission (RNT). Thus the primary function of NO is RNT and the purpose of RNT is regulation of chemical neurotransmission at synapse. For this reason, RNT allows neural circuits to create feedback loops. The haem is the ligand binding site of NO receptor (sGC) at presynaptic membrane. The affinity of haem exhibits > 10,000-fold excess for NO than Oxygen (THE 10,000 FOLD EFFECT). In pathological conditions ANT, normal synaptic activity including RNT is absent. NO donors like sodium nitroprusside (SNP) releases NO by activating NOS at the level of postsynaptic area. NO now travels backwards across a chemical synapse to bind to the haem of NO receptor at axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron as in normal condition. NO now acts as impulse generator (at presynaptic membrane) thus bypasses the normal ANT. Also the arteriolar perforators are having Nitric Oxide Synthetase (NOS) at the adventitial side (outer border) on which sodium nitroprusside (SNP) acts; causing release of Nitric Oxide (NO) which vasodilates the perforators causing gush of blood in brain’s tissue and reversal of brain death. Objective: In brain death cases we only think for various transplantations but this study being a pilot study reverses some criteria of brain death by vasodilating the arteriolar perforators. To study the effect of intrathecal sodium nitroprusside (IT SNP) in cases of brain death in which: 1. Retrograde transmission = assessed by the hyperacute timings of reversal 2. The arteriolar perforator vasodilatation caused by NO and the maintenance of reversal of brain death reversal. Methods: 35 year old male, who became brain death after head injury and has not shown any signs of improvement after every maneuver for 6 hours, a single superfusion done by SNP via transoptic canal route for quadrigeminal cistern and cisternal puncture for IV ventricular with SNP done. Results: He showed spontaneous respiration (7 bouts) with TCD studies showing start of pulsations of various branches of common carotid arteries. Conclusions: In future we can give this SNP via transoptic canal route and in IV ventricle before declaring the body to be utilized for transplantations or dead or in broader way we can say that in near future it is possible to revert back from brain death or we have to modify our criterion.

Keywords: brain death, intrathecal sodium nitroprusside, TCD studies, perforators, vasodilatations, retrograde transmission, 10, 000 fold effect

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1 The 10,000 Fold Effect of Retrograde Neurotransmission: A New Concept for Cerebral Palsy Revival by the Use of Nitric Oxide Donars

Authors: V. K. Tewari, M. Hussain, H. K. D. Gupta


Background: Nitric Oxide Donars (NODs) (intrathecal sodium nitroprusside (ITSNP) and oral tadalafil 20mg post ITSNP) has been studied in this context in cerebral palsy patients for fast recovery. This work proposes two mechanisms for acute cases and one mechanism for chronic cases, which are interrelated, for physiological recovery. a) Retrograde Neurotransmission (acute cases): 1) Normal excitatory impulse: at the synaptic level, glutamate activates NMDA receptors, with nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) on the postsynaptic membrane, for further propagation by the calcium-calmodulin complex. Nitric oxide (NO, produced by NOS) travels backward across the chemical synapse and binds the axon-terminal NO receptor/sGC of a presynaptic neuron, regulating anterograde neurotransmission (ANT) via retrograde neurotransmission (RNT). Heme is the ligand-binding site of the NO receptor/sGC. Heme exhibits > 10,000-fold higher affinity for NO than for oxygen (the 10,000-fold effect) and is completed in 20 msec. 2) Pathological conditions: normal synaptic activity, including both ANT and RNT, is absent. A NO donor (SNP) releases NO from NOS in the postsynaptic region. NO travels backward across a chemical synapse to bind to the heme of a NO receptor in the axon terminal of a presynaptic neuron, generating an impulse, as under normal conditions. b) Vasopasm: (acute cases) Perforators show vasospastic activity. NO vasodilates the perforators via the NO-cAMP pathway. c) Long-Term Potentiation (LTP): (chronic cases) The NO–cGMP-pathway plays a role in LTP at many synapses throughout the CNS and at the neuromuscular junction. LTP has been reviewed both generally and with respect to brain regions specific for memory/learning. Aims/Study Design: The principles of “generation of impulses from the presynaptic region to the postsynaptic region by very potent RNT (10,000-fold effect)” and “vasodilation of arteriolar perforators” are the basis of the authors’ hypothesis to treat cerebral palsy cases. Case-control prospective study. Materials and Methods: The experimental population included 82 cerebral palsy patients (10 patients were given control treatments without NOD or with 5% dextrose superfusion, and 72 patients comprised the NOD group). The mean time for superfusion was 5 months post-cerebral palsy. Pre- and post-NOD status was monitored by Gross Motor Function Classification System for Cerebral Palsy (GMFCS), MRI, and TCD studies. Results: After 7 days in the NOD group, the mean change in the GMFCS score was an increase of 1.2 points mean; after 3 months, there was an increase of 3.4 points mean, compared to the control-group increase of 0.1 points at 3 months. MRI and TCD documented the improvements. Conclusions: NOD (ITSNP boosts up the recovery and oral tadalafil maintains the recovery to a well-desired level) acts swiftly in the treatment of CP, acting within 7 days on 5 months post-cerebral palsy either of the three mechanisms.

Keywords: cerebral palsy, intrathecal sodium nitroprusside, oral tadalafil, perforators, vasodilations, retrograde transmission, the 10, 000-fold effect, long-term potantiation

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