Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2032

Search results for: female spectators

2032 The Approach of Male and Female Spectators about the Presence of Female Spectators in Sport Stadiums of Iran

Authors: Mohammad Reza Boroumand Devlagh, Seyed Mohammad Hosein Razavi, Fatemeh Ahmadi, Azam Fazli Darzi

Abstract:

The issue of female presence in Iran stadiums has long been considered and debated by governmental experts and authorities, however, no conclusion is yielded yet. Thus, the present study has been done with the aim of investigating the approach of male and female spectators about the presence of female spectators in Iranian stadiums. The statistical population of the study includes all male and female spectators who have not experienced the live watching of male championship matches in stadiums. 224 subjects from the statistical population have selected through stratified random sampling as the sample of the study. For data collection, researcher-made questionnaire has been used whose validity has been confirmed by the university professors and its reliability has been studied and confirmed through an preliminary study. (r= 0.81). Data analysis has been done using descriptive and referential statistics in P< 0.05. The results of the study showed that male and female were meaningfully agreed with the female presence in stadiums and there is no meaningful difference between male and female approaches concerning the female spectators’ presence in sport stadiums of Iran (sig= 0.867).

Keywords: male, female spectators, Iran, sport stadiums, population

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2031 Multidimensional Sports Spectators Segmentation and Social Media Marketing

Authors: B. Schmid, C. Kexel, E. Djafarova

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Understanding consumers is elementary for practitioners in marketing. Consumers of sports events, the sports spectators, are a particularly complex consumer crowd. In order to identify and define their profiles different segmentation approaches can be found in literature, one of them being multidimensional segmentation. Multidimensional segmentation models correspond to the broad range of attitudes, behaviours, motivations and beliefs of sports spectators, other than earlier models. Moreover, in sports there are some well-researched disciplines (e.g. football or North American sports) where consumer profiles and marketing strategies are elaborate and others where no research at all can be found. For example, there is almost no research on athletics spectators. This paper explores the current state of research on sports spectators segmentation. An in-depth literature review provides the framework for a spectators segmentation in athletics. On this basis, additional potential consumer groups and implications for social media marketing will be explored. The findings are the basis for further research.

Keywords: multidimensional segmentation, social media, sports marketing, sports spectators segmentation

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2030 Using Motives of Sports Consumption to Explain Team Identity: A Comparison between Football Fans across the Pond

Authors: G. Scremin, I. Y. Suh, S. Doukas

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Spectators follow their favorite sports teams for different reasons. While some attend a sporting event simply for its entertainment value, others do so because of the personal sense of achievement and accomplishment their connection with a sports team creates. Moreover, the level of identity spectators feel toward their favorite sports team falls in a broad continuum. Some are mere spectators. For those spectators, their association to a sports team has little impact on their self-image. Others are die-hard fans who are proud of their association with their team and whose connection with that team is an important reflection of who they are. Several motives for sports consumption can be used to explain the level of spectator support in a variety of sports. Those motives can also be used to explain the variance in the identification, attachment, and loyalty spectators feel toward their favorite sports team. Motives for sports consumption can be used to discriminate the degree of identification spectators have with their favorite sports team. In this study, motives for sports consumption was used to discriminate the level of identity spectators feel toward their sports team. It was hypothesized that spectators with a strong level of team identity would report higher rates of interest in player, interest in sports, and interest in team than spectators with a low level of team identity. And spectators with a low level of team identity would report higher rates for entertainment value, bonding with friends or family, and wholesome environment. Football spectators in the United States and England were surveyed about their motives for football consumption and their level of identification with their favorite football team. To assess if the motives of sports fans differed by level of team identity and allegiance to an American or English football team, a Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) under the General Linear Model (GLM) procedure found in SPSS was performed. The independent variables were level of team identity and allegiance to an American or English football team, and the dependent variables were the sport fan motives. A tripartite split (low, moderate, high) was used on a composite measure for team identity. Preliminary results show that effect of team identity is statistically significant (p < .001) for at least nine of the 17 motives for sports consumption assessed in this investigation. These results indicate that the motives of spectators with a strong level of team identity differ significantly from spectators with a low level of team identity. Those differences can be used to discriminate the degree of identification spectators have with their favorite sports team. Sports marketers can use these methods and results to develop identity profiles of spectators and create marketing strategies specifically designed to attract those spectators based on their unique motives for consumption and their level of team identification.

Keywords: fan identification, market segmentation of sports fans, motives for sports consumption, team identity

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2029 Performing a Chamber Theatre Adaptation of Nick Joaquin's 'the Summer Solstice'

Authors: Allen B. Baylosis

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Chamber Theatre has been one of the least articulated staging devices in the field of theatre and performance studies. This creative exploratory-descriptive study responds to this gap by employing the staging technique in a Chamber Theatre production based on Nick Joaquin’s The Summer Solstice. Specifically, this study opts to understand three processes involved in the Chamber Theatre creative thesis production of The Summer Solstice as performance: performance of the theatre-maker, performance of the spect-actors, and performance of the spectators. For this purpose, the theatre-maker describes the creative process of transforming The Summer Solstice text to a Chamber Theatre production—from text to staging. The theatre-maker also analyzes the performers’ experiences and the spectators’ responses as they participate in a Chamber Theatre performance. In doing so, the theatre-maker collects qualitative data from seventeen (17) performers and qualitative feedback from twenty (20) spectators. For the mode of data analysis, this study employed Ranciere’s concept on the Emancipated Spectator (2008) and Schechner’s Performance Theory (1988). The study’s findings examine how the theatre-maker, the performers, and the spectators become distant viewers of their respective restored behavior performances. Through these viewed performances, this study implies that it is possible to ascertain a reasonable definition of purpose for Chamber Theatre. Hence, despite the existence of other modern staging devices in the field of theatre and performance studies, this study concludes that Chamber Theatre remains to be a relevant staging technique.

Keywords: adaptation of text, chamber theatre, experimental theater, oral interpretation

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2028 Characteristics of Football Spectators Using Second Screen

Authors: Florian Pfeffel, Christoph A. Kexel, Peter Kexel, Maria Ratz

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The parallel usage of different media channels has increased recently owing to technological advances. Second Screen describes the use of a second device by television viewers to consume further content which is related to the program they are watching. This study analysed the characteristics of football spectators regarding their media consumption in relation to Second Screen usage while watching a football match on TV. The existing literature on Second Screen usage is still very limited, especially in the context of particular broadcasting settings such as sport or even more specific such as football matches. Therefore, the primary research objective was to reveal first insights into the user behaviour of football spectators regarding Second Screen services. The survey, which was conducted among German football supporters in 2015, revealed some characteristics such as the identification and involvement into the sports which are related to an increased use of Second Screen services. One important finding for football supporters was that at the time of a match they have a lower parallel media usage compared to other TV broadcastings. Nevertheless, if supporters used a second device while watching a match on TV, then they were using specific Second Screen services. This means they searched for more content related information. The findings on the habits and characteristics of people who are using Second Screen services are relevant for future developments in that area as well as for marketing decisions.

Keywords: media consumption, second screen, sport marketing, user behaviour

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2027 Literature Review of Female Migrant Entrepreneurship Research

Authors: Dike Ike

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Migrants foster innovation and economic development in host nations through their entrepreneurial activities. Female migrant entrepreneurship is gaining more attention from the research community, with several studies being conducted in the field. This paper presents a standalone (scoping) systematic literature review of academic literature related to female migrant entrepreneurship and focuses on their entrepreneurial experiences, strategies, outcomes, resources, and context. For this purpose, 13 articles published in research journals are studied based on their (a) objective, (b) research methods. Based on the review, several gaps in the literature were identified, and suggestions were made to fill the gaps in future research to expand the scientific knowledge on female migrant entrepreneurship.

Keywords: female migrant entrepreneurship, systematic literature review, female migrant entrepreneurship outcomes, female migrant entrepreneurship experiences, female migrant entrepreneurship strategies

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2026 Female Entrepreneurship and Cultural Influence in Emerging Economy: The Case of Bangladesh

Authors: Nawreen Sobhan, Abeer Hassan, Dina Nziku

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There has been a dramatic rise in the percentage of female entrepreneurship in both developed and developing countries as it is now considering as an important source of economic growth. Therefore, there has been a growing research interest in female entrepreneurship as they represent an unrecognized engine for economic growth especially in transition economy. This study will determine the role of cultural influence on female entrepreneurship in the growth of economic development which will add new dimensions to the field of female entrepreneurial studies in informal sector of Bangladesh. A systematic literature review has been conducted on female entrepreneurship and cultural studies in both developed and developing country in this research study. There is lack of research on this field as most of the cultural studies on female entrepreneurship have been conducted globally and most of them are either comparative or based on single developed country. This study addresses this gap by using North’s institutional theory to investigate the influence of socio cultural factors on the development of businesses run by female entrepreneurs in Bangladesh. The study, therefore, has practical implications for policy makers and enhancing micro business performance by female entrepreneurs and contributes to the on-going theoretical understanding of cultural influence in female entrepreneurship in an Asian context.

Keywords: culture, socio cultural factors, female entrepreneurship, informal sectors, formal and informal institution and sustainable economic development

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2025 The Role of Female Population as a Consumer in Modern Marketing Strategy and Management

Authors: Jana Aleksić, Marijana Petković

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Female population has an increasing role when it comes to purchase. Consequently, the female population has a greater role in modern marketing. Although it is thought that women buy more than men, marketing strategy was not directed specifically towards women. The thing that has changed regarding women’s role in modern marketing is the fact that the female population has a leading position when it comes to decision making in various fields and various sectors, which was not the case in the past. Marketing should be directed towards women but it should be done in the right way. Compared to men, women buy in a different way, and they look for more various advantages in the product itself, than men do. This paper aims to show the importance of the female role in the modern marketing and management and to redirect marketing in some way towards female population through new marketing strategies and management systems. Hypothesis is that women have an important role in marketing, and marketing strategy of modern society could and should be based on and directed towards female population and their tastes when it comes to purchasing. It is necessary and desirable to apply marketing strategy with a special strategy that has an emphasis on women and their purchase or in a word to apply WS- woman strategy. This research was carried out as a random sample research, where were obtained 212 valid surveys whose results serve as a basis for drawing conclusions about the research as well as to verify the formulated hypotheses. The research was carried out during 2011 and 2012. The study has shown a significant role of the female population in the marketing process.

Keywords: marketing, management, female, purchase, strategy

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2024 The Stereotypes of Female Roles in TV Drama of Taiwan and Japan

Authors: Ya Ting Tang

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Social learning theory has told us that the cognitions of gender roles come from learning. Thus, the images of gender roles which media describes will shape our cognitions. Taiwan and Japan are both in the East Asian cultural Sphere, and more or less influenced by the traditional Chinese culture. But our social structure and changes must be different. Others, the study also concerns that, with the rise of female consciousness in society, whether the female stereotype in drama of Taiwan and Japan are improved. This research first uses content analysis to analyze drama of Taiwan and Japan in 2003 and 2013 on how to shape female roles. Then use text analysis to conduct a qualitative analysis. Result of this study showed that drama on how to depict women indeed have changed, women are no longer just talk about love, but can serve as president or doctor, and show its mettle in the workplace. In Japanese drama, the female roles have diverse occupation than Taiwanese drama, and not just a background character set. But in most Taiwanese drama, female roles are given a career, but it always put emphasis on women emotionally. To include, although the stereotype in the drama of Taiwan and Japan are improved, female will still be derided due to their ages, love or marriage situations. Taiwanese drama must depict the occupation of female more diverse and let the female roles have more space to play, rather than focusing on romance which women of any occupation can have.

Keywords: female images, stereotype, TV drama, gender roles

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2023 Pursuing Professional Status in Women’s Football: A Qualitative Analysis of Empowerment and Social Independence

Authors: G. Obrentri, C. Whajah, E. Yeboah Acheampong

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Professional status for African male players guarantees them socioeconomic benefits that may not necessarily be the case for female footballers. The study’s rationale is to understand how female footballers achieve professional status abroad. That contributes to analyzing how female players from Africa especially, Ghana, manage their professional status to improve their family’s social welfare and the community. Relying on football migration and feminization, we identify their migration process and its relevance to their social mobility in society. Analysis through interviews with some female footballers revealed the importance of playing professional abroad that goes to increase their social status and national identity. Findings show that some female footballers with secondary education achieved career empowerment and social independence via their profession. Thus becoming medical doctors and nurses, sports administrators, football coaches and welfare officers for clubs. These achievements of the female footballers can provide useful information and lessons for young female African players aspiring to play professionally abroad.

Keywords: empowerment, female footballers, football migration, professional status, social independence

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2022 Overuse Equals to Low Proficiency Level in English: A Corpus-Based Study on the Use of Linking Adverbials between Male and Female Speakers

Authors: Tsungming Wu

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The present paper investigates the use of linking adverbials between native male speakers and female speakers in their presentation. From previous studies, overuse of linking adverbials may be an indicator of the low proficiency level in English. In this study, female speakers are found to use more linking adverbials in general. However, the overuse of linking adverbials found in female speakers’ speeches does not imply female speakers’ lower English proficiency, but imply different approaches that male and female speakers adopt in dealing with their presentation tasks. Female speakers are found to be more interactional, leading to their more uses of interactive devices in the presenting process. On the other hand, male speakers take different approaches in dealing with their tasks. Male speakers try to be authoritative and amicable at the same time, resulting in the uses of both interactive devices and distancing devices in their speeches. The paper specifically presents and compares the use of the linking adverbial items, actually and so, in male speakers’ and female speakers’ speeches.

Keywords: LAs, linking adverbial, low proficiency, overuse

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2021 Understanding the ‘Third Gender’: A Qualitative Study of the Perception of Being a Leftover Woman among Chinese Female Ph.D. Students

Authors: Qian Wang

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In recent years, a growing number of Chinese women choose to pursue Ph.D. education. Except for the male and female, women with PhD degrees are stigmatized as the ‘third gender’ in Chinese society. People, especially most men, believe that female PhD students challenge the traditional image and gender role of Chinese women. This gender stereotype causes a range of difficulties in finding partners in marriage market for Chinese female PhD students. In this study, the author conducted in-depth interviews with 15 participants who are currently doing their PhD studies in Chinese universities to explore their perceptions of being leftover women on the basis of their experience. All the participants are single. Based on the analysis of qualitative data, this study found that the ‘leftover women’ phenomenon among Chinese female PhD students is the result of the contradictions generated between Chinese patriarchal society and them. Although Chinese female PhD students is an attention-attracting group, the studies about them are very limited in China. This study could not only contribute to the understanding of the ‘third gender’ phenomenon and the ‘leftover women’ studies in China, but also, in practical level, could give some guidance for governments to resolve the social problems of female PhD students.

Keywords: Chinese female Ph.D. students, the ‘leftover women’, the Chinese patriarchal society, gender role, Chinese culture

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2020 The Benefits of Using Hijab Syar'i against Female Sexual Abuse

Authors: Catur Sigit Hartanto, Anggraeni Anisa Wara Rahmayanti

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Objective: This research is aimed to assess the benefits of using hijab syar'i against female sexual abuse. Method: This research uses a quantitative study. The population is students in Semarang State University who wear hijab syar’i. The sampling technique uses the method of conformity. The retrieving data uses questionnaire on 30 female students as the sample. The data analysis uses descriptive analysis. Result: Using hijab syar’i provides benefits in preventing and minimizing female sexual abuse. Limitation: Respondents were limited to only 30 people.

Keywords: hijab syar’i, female, sexual abuse, student of Semarang State University

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2019 Trans-Gendered Female Characters: A Comparative Study of Two Female Characters in English and Persian Literature - Lady Macbeth and Gord Afarid

Authors: Seyedeh Azadeh Johari

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For thousand years, the literature of the world has been mostly composed of men, and in all different forms of it, men have tried to propose their masculine desires, ideologies, and beliefs. What has been less written about or studied, however, was the role that female desire plays in the predominantly masculine society, and mostly the role of male desires was the key point in literature. Male writers have mostly shown their female characters either as stereotypes and void of dynamic characters, images of a meek person who bent to the will of her male superiors or as wicked or villains. The only exception was the kind of strong and courageous women who have mostly been masculinized by their authors, mostly male authors, as showing the valuable or important features of men, instead of women’s. These characters are transgendered by the author and have a gender identity or expression that differs from the sex to which they were assigned. This is the issue that is discussed in this project. We will refer to some examples of female characters who show masculine traits and characteristics.

Keywords: comparative literature, female, masculinized, transgendered

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2018 The Impact of the Religious and Cultural Factors on Saudi Female Studying in Western Institutions

Authors: Sahar S. Moursi

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Due to the unique background of the Saudi female international students who study in western institutes, they face tough challenges as English as a second language (ESL) learners. This paper draws on a Ph.D. study that examines a wide range of challenges faced by Saudi female international students when they study the English language and other academic subjects in a new culture. This research project followed the phenomenological approach and, more specifically, used the in-depth interview to provide an opportunity to the seven female participants to make their voices heard through telling their stories. The data analysis indicated that the Saudi female international students who study in western institutes are faced with religious and cultural challenges that impact their academic performance. This study is significant for the authorities in Saudi Arabia and the hosting universities as it gives essential recommendations to both sides of the aisle. It also provides the Saudi female international students with vital recommendations to better cope with those challenges.

Keywords: English language learners, religious and cultural background, Saudi female students, tough challenges

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2017 ‘Undressed Star’, Sexual Scenes and Discourses in Mass Media: Exploring 1980s Taiwan Female Film Stars’ Onscreen Erotic Acting

Authors: Xinchen Zhu

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In the history of Chinese-language film, female stars’ acting is connected with issues of national ideology, consumerism, and sexual politics. In the 1980s, Taiwan entered a period of ‘soft authoritarianism’ in which the economy prospered politics became more democratic, and mass culture became more diverse. Film censorship was more flexible and sexual scenes were increasingly shown on screen. Female stars’ bodies were eroticized and commercialized through sexual and nude scenes and, by challenging conservative film censorship and social taboos, became the focus of mass media. This article will explore how discourses in mass media constructed the erotic images of female stars and, conversely, impacted film censorship, filmmakers and film actresses in 1980s’ Taiwan. This article will regard the eroticized female film stars’ acting as a ‘field’ of internal interaction and continuous reproduction, where the ideology of male dominance and voices of female film stars conflict with each other. Based on textual analysis of female stars’ sexual acting and the debate in mass media, the argument is that the eroticized female bodies were gazed upon on and off the screen. In the discourses of mass media, the artistry of actresses’ erotic acting was not only ignored, devalued and delegitimized, these stars were also labelled as ‘undressed star’ or ‘nude star’ and construed as victims of the film industry. However, the female stars were able to speak through mass media platforms, emphasizing their efforts in erotic acting and highlighting modern female subjectivity.

Keywords: sexual scenes, Taiwan female stars, erotic acting, discourses in mass media, female subjectivity

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2016 Investigating the Glass Ceiling Phenomenon: An Empirical Study of Glass Ceiling's Effects on Selection, Promotion and Female Effectiveness

Authors: Sharjeel Saleem

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The glass ceiling has been a burning issue for many researchers. In this research, we examine gender of the BOD, training and development, workforce diversity, positive attitude towards women, and employee acts as antecedents of glass ceiling. Furthermore, we also look for effects of glass ceiling on likelihood of female selection and promotion and on female effectiveness. Multiple linear regression conducted on data drawn from different public and private sector organizations support our hypotheses. The research, however, is limited to Faisalabad city and only females from minority group are targeted here.

Keywords: glass ceiling, stereotype attitudes, female effectiveness

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2015 Gender Equality and Career Opportunities among Female Civil Servants for Better Public Services in West Java, Indonesia

Authors: Nefi Aris Ambar Asmara

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This paper discusses gender equality and career opportunities among female civil servants for better public services in a regency in West Java, Indonesia. Those two areas have not been considered comprehensively in terms of the goals of gender equality and career opportunities. The purposes of this paper are to describe (1) the number of available positions in relation to the number of female civil servants, (2) the socio-cultural outlook on female civil servants in relation to gender equality and career opportunities, and (3) socio-cultural views on gender equality and a career in politics. To achieve these three objectives, this paper used a qualitative approach with survey and interview techniques. The results showed that (1) only 37% of the official positions were presided by female civil servants. In contrast, male civil servants occupy 63% of the available positions, (2) the sociocultural view of female civil servants affirms that they are still regarded as male companions; (3) in addition, female civil servants do not need to compete with gender opponents, including the fact that women enter politics because the political world is considered dirty for women.

Keywords: gender equality, career opportunities, female civil servants, Indonesia

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2014 A Study of Parameters That Have an Influence on Fabric Prints in Judging the Attractiveness of a Female Body Shape

Authors: Man N. M. Cheung

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In judging the attractiveness of female body shape, visual sense is one of the important means. The ratio and proportion of body shape influence the perception of female physical attractiveness. This study aims to examine visual perception of digital textile prints on a virtual 3D model in judging the attractiveness of the body shape. Also, investigate the influences when using different shape parameters and their relationships. Participants were asked to conduct a set of questionnaires with images to rank the attractiveness of the female body shape. Results showed that morphing the fabric prints with a certain ratio and combination of shape parameters - waist and hip, can enhance the attractiveness of the female body shape.

Keywords: digital printing, 3D body modeling, fashion print design, body shape attractiveness

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2013 The Cut, the Blood and Her Stained Femininity- an Analysis of Female Genital Mutilation

Authors: Indu Poornima

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This paper aims at understanding the Socio-historical, political and economic dimensions of Female Genital Mutilation in Africa. After throwing light on the definition of FGM and scrutinizing the misconceptions associated with it, the paper progresses to analyze the following questions. a) How do communities performing FGM rationalize their act? b) Are the victims (women) themselves the strongest proponents of FGM ? and c) Are legislations against FGM by international organizations counter-productive?

Keywords: female genital mutilation, Africa, rationalizing the act, international legislations

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2012 A Study of Competition Anxiety among Male and Female Volleyball Players of Gujarat

Authors: Mukesh R. Goswami

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Sports Competition Anxiety test (SCAT) constructed and standardized by Martens was Administrated on 30 National level (15 male, 15 female) Volleyball players of Gujarat. The age of subjects ranged between 19 to 22 years. The purpose of the study was to compare the level of Anxiety between male and female national level Volleyball players of Gujarat. Statistical analysis has been done by T-test and the significance of the result was seen on 0.05 level. The t-test showed that there was no significant difference found in mean difference among the male and the female National level Volleyball players in relation to sports competition anxiety.

Keywords: competition, anxiety, male and female volleyball players, sports

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2011 Female Entrepreneurship in Egypt: Barriers and Challenges in the Aftermath of the Arab Spring

Authors: Kate Ebere Maduforo

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Examining the constraints faced by female entrepreneurs is an important subject which most literature on female entrepreneurship is centered on. However, the majority of the existing literature has focused on studying female entrepreneurs in developed societies. Recently, a sense of urgency that has emerged in trying to understand the challenges and motivations of female entrepreneurs in developing countries. The arousal of such interest has been attributed to women entrepreneurs in developing countries being identified as catalysts of economic development at a national level and champions of poverty eradication at the domestic level. This paper, therefore, examines the peculiar constraints faced by women-owned businesses in the mist of political chaos and instability. In this case, the issues experienced by female entrepreneurs in Egypt during the aftermath of the Arab Spring is the focus. Using the logit and probit regression models, data from the World Bank Middle East North Africa Enterprise Survey (MENA ES) are analyzed. The results identified that female entrepreneurs still lack business funding through financial institutions, but get significant funding assistance from family, friends, and money lenders. In addition, women-owned businesses promote and hire mostly women. Female entrepreneurs showed a preference for an impartial judicial system as a contributor to business growth.

Keywords: female entrepreneurship, development, Middle East, developing countries

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2010 Future Prospects of Female Journalists in Mass Media of Bangladesh

Authors: M. Nurus Safa, Jiang Jinzhang, Akter Tahera

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This study explores the female are overcoming the odds and doing well as journalist during the last decade in Bangladesh. Female journalists are contributing to the society for economic prosperity and changing the attitude towards the development concept and process. But the path is not smooth for involving women in journalism. The findings are female journalist facing many barriers like family pressure, Society problem, pay-allowances, gender discrimination, sexual harassment and even lack of workplace. According to their skill and merit, they face problems in getting maternity leave and assignments. But their role in this sector cannot be neglected. It is possible to survive if have the passion, professionalism, and love on this profession. Day by day, the female participation in journalism sector is increasing in Bangladesh. Despite the barriers, female journalists are showing strong interest in journalism as a career. As much gender balance in Mass media as the women's freedom and scope will increase. As a result, the spread of female’s workplace in the media will spread. Good number of female journalists is working in different policy making positions of the organization. In future, experienced female journalists will be more because now day's they taking challenges and working religiously according to the company and public need. In recent time Bangladesh is encouraging her women to work outside of home. Currently, a significant change has come into the social attitude which represents by women’s advancement in journalism sector of Bangladesh. This study uses the survey method and 6 depth interview to find out a fruitful result. As a sampling, the study uses purposive sampling technique to collect the data from the 120 female respondents of television, online and print media journalists.

Keywords: attitude, Bangladesh, challenges, female journalists, prospects

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2009 Heavy Metals among Female Adolescents Attending Secondary Schools in Kano, Nigeria

Authors: I. Yunusa, M. A. Ibrahim, A. H. Yakasai, L. U. S. Ezeanyika

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This study was conducted to examine the level of heavy metals among 192 apparently healthy female adolescents randomly selected from three different boarding secondary schools in the urban area of the most populated city in north-western part of Nigeria. Atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) was used to determine the plasma levels of the heavy metals which include cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). Our findings revealed the following mean±SD values for each of the heavy metal; 0.11±0.01µg Cd/L, 0.09 ± 0.02µg Co/L, 0.19 ± 0.02 µg Cr/L, 0.91 ± 0.02 µg Cu/L, 1.53 ± 0.31 µg Fe/L, 0.01 ± 0.04 µg Mn/L, 0.3.8 ± 0.04µg Mo/L, 0.04±0.01µg Ni/L, 0.04 ± 0.01µg Pb/L and 2.80 ± 0.24µg Zn/L respectively. It was concluded that toxicity from heavy metals did not exist among female adolescents.

Keywords: heavy metals, female, adolescents, Nigeria

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2008 Current Challenges Associated with Women Education in Pakistan and the Proposed Solutions

Authors: Sanam Mujahid, Aliza Ahmad

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Women education and empowerment has fundamental importance in the development of a civilized society however, in a developing country like Pakistan, there are serious challenges in this regard. Herein, we summarize the findings of 2012 study which revealed the key problems associated with women education and their proposed solutions. A survey tool was used to question female students and female faculty members in 20 different public sector universities of all four provinces of Pakistan. In this study, 1755 female students and 410 female faculty members responded. In addition to survey, semi-structured interview were also conducted with 25 female students and 10 female faculty members. Respondents of the survey emphasize the lack of adequate educational institutions in nearby vicinity, social exclusion including gender discrimination, shortage of female teachers, lack of resources and inefficient government policies are the major factors that influence female education. To solve these problems, the main recommendations by respondents include safe and secure learning environment for females in educational institutions, community and parental support, well qualified and sufficient number of female teachers. One of the most important proposals was the participation of females at policy level. Current study will provide a general layout to design the future educational strategies for promoting women education in all regions of Pakistan thus, developing towards modern educated society.

Keywords: women education, education strategies, developing countries, Pakistan

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2007 An Assessment of Female Representation in Philippine Cinema in Comparison to American Cinema (1975 to 2020)

Authors: Amanda Julia Binay, Patricia Elise Suarez

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Female representation in media is an important subject in the discussion of gender equality, especially in impactful and influential media like film. As the Filipino film industry continues to grow and evolve, the need for analysis on Filipino female representation on screen is imperative. Additionally, there has been limited research made on female representation in the Philippine film scene. Thus, the paper aims to analyze the presence and evolution of female representation in Philippine cinema and compare the findings with that of American films to see how Filipino filmmakers hold their own against the standards of international movements that call for more and better female representation, especially in Hollywood. The participants selected were Filipino and American films released within the years 1975 to 2020 in five (5) year intervals. Twenty (20) critically acclaimed and highest-grossing Filipino films and twenty (20) critically acclaimed and highest-grossing Hollywood films were then subject to the Bechdel and Peirce tests to obtain statistical measures of their female representation. The findings of the study reveal that the presence of female representation in Philippine film history has been consistent and has continued to grow and evolve throughout the years, with strong female leads with vibrant characteristics and diverse stories. However, analysis of female representation regarding American films has shown an extreme lack thereof with more misogynistic, sexist, and limiting ideals. Thus, the study concludes that the state of female representation in Philippine cinema and film industry holds its own when compared to American cinema and film industry and even outperforms it in many aspects of female representation, such as consistent inclusion and depiction of multi-dimensional female leads and female relationships. Hence, the study implies that women’s consistent presence in Philippine cinema mirrors Filipino women’s prominent role in Philippine society and that American cinema must continue to make efforts to change their portrayals of female characters, leads, and relationships to make them more grounded in reality.

Keywords: female representation, gender studies, feminism, philippine cinema, American cinema, bechdel test, peirce test, comparative analysis

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2006 Women Presentation and Roles in Arab-Israeli Female Filmmakers Movies

Authors: Mariam Farah

Abstract:

With the beginning of the 21 century, female Arab directors entered the industry of cinema in Israel. Before their entrance, the Palestinian cinema, directed in Israel and in other places in the world, was defined as political-masculine cinema. The recent research wonders if the entrance of female directors to the Arab-Israeli cinema brings a new, feminist and un- common discourse, just like female directors movies in other cultures. The research also examines which gendered, social and political identities or statements do the Arab female directors reveal in their works, and what do they say about their real life? In order to get answers to the previous questions, the paper conducts a narrative comparative research between movies that was directed by female and male Arab-Israeli directors. The narrative research examines specific categories in each movie such as: main topic, women role, women appearance and women characteristics. The findings show that a new discourse replaces the political-masculine traditional discourse in the Palestinian cinema. Female Arab directors in Israel leave aside the main theme in Palestinian movies: the Israeli-Palestinian conflict, and replace it with new themes related to women lives and reality. Women in female directors movies are presented within non-traditional, empowering, and feminist identities: independent, strong, and active women.

Keywords: feminism, gender, women presentation, women roles

Procedia PDF Downloads 380
2005 The Career Success for Female Managers: A Case Study of The Primary Education Department, Thailand

Authors: Nipon Sasithornsaowapa

Abstract:

The purposes of this research was to study the female management career success of the primary education department of Thailand. The independent variable was human capital which included three factors: family status, personality, and knowledge-skill-experience, while the important dependent variable was the career success. The population of this study included 2,179 female management officials in the department of primary education. A total of 400 female managers were interviewed and utilized as a sample group. A questionnaire was developed and used as a main tool for collecting data. Content analysis was performed to get the quantitative data. Descriptive statistics in this research was done by SPSS program. The findings revealed that family and personality factors had a high influence on the human capital and, in turn, influenced the career success of female managers. On the other hand, knowledge-skill-experience had an insignificant influence to the human capital and the female career success. In addition, the findings from the in-depth interview revealed that the majority of respondents defined career success as the satisfaction in job duties, not money and position.

Keywords: career, female managers, primary education

Procedia PDF Downloads 234
2004 CAG Repeat Polymorphism of Androgen Receptor and Female Sexual Functions in Egyptian Female Population

Authors: Azza Gaber Farag, Yasser Atta Shehata, Sara Elsayed Elghazouly, Mustafa Elsayed Elshaib, Nesreen Gamal Elden Elhelbawy

Abstract:

Background: Androgen receptor (AR) polymorphism in cytosine adenineguanine (CAG) repeat has an effect on the functional capacity of AR in males. However, little researches in this field are available regarding female sexual function. Aim: To investigate the possible link between polymorphism in the CAG repeat of AR gene and female sexual function in a sample of the Egyptian population. Materials and methods: 500 Egyptian married females completed a questionnaire regarding sociodemographic, reproductive, and sexual data. AR CAG repeat length was analyzed for those having female sexual dysfunctions (FSD) using real-time PCR. Results: The most sensitive domain to AR CAG repeat length was the orgasm domain that showed significant positive correlations with short allele (p=0.001), long allele (p=.015), biallellic mean (p=.000), and X weighted biallelic mean (p=.000). The satisfaction domain had significant positive correlations with the biallelic mean (p=.035), and the X weighted biallelic mean (p=. 032). However, the pain domain was of significant negative correlations with AR polymorphism of short allele (p=.002), biallelic mean (p=.013), and X weighted biallelic mean (p = . 011). Conclusions: AR polymorphism could represent a non-negligible aspect in female sexual function. The lower AR CAG repeat polymorphism was of significant impact on FSD, affecting mainly female orgasm followed by pain disorders that finally reflected On her sexual satisfaction.

Keywords: female sexual dysfunction, androgen receptor, CAG repeat polymorphism, androgen

Procedia PDF Downloads 79
2003 Evaluation of Postural Stability in Female Patients with Structural Scoliosis

Authors: Ghada M. R. Koura, Ahmed M. F. El Shiwi

Abstract:

Background: structural scoliosis is a twisting deformity in the curve of vertebral column to the lateral side with simultaneous rotation of the vertebrae, which occurs during the growing years from 10 years to the puberty. Purpose: Studies investigating balance problems specific to scoliotic patients showed that those patients reveal variable balance abnormalities. In this study we evaluated the difference in postural stability responses between female patients (students, office worker and shish weapon players) with structural scoliosis and normal subjects. Methods: sixty subjects participated in this study. Thirty female patients with structural scoliosis with a mean age of (19.5 ± 3.26) years, with Cobb's angle ranged from 20º to 40° in the major curves, and thirty healthy female subjects with a mean age of (19.36 ± 2.41) years. Postural stability of both groups were evaluated by the Biodex Stability System. Results: There was no significant difference between both groups in dynamic balance test. Interpretation/Conclusion: As there was no significant difference between both groups in balance response, it is not recommended to add balance training as an extra physical therapy program for AIS female patients.

Keywords: structural scoliosis, postural stability, female patients, evaluation

Procedia PDF Downloads 386