Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 263

Search results for: cobalt ferrite

263 Study of the Impact of Synthesis Method and Chemical Composition on Photocatalytic Properties of Cobalt Ferrite Catalysts

Authors: Katerina Zaharieva, Vicente Rives, Martin Tsvetkov, Raquel Trujillano, Boris Kunev, Ivan Mitov, Maria Milanova, Zara Cherkezova-Zheleva

Abstract:

The nanostructured cobalt ferrite-type materials Sample A - Co0.25Fe2.75O4, Sample B - Co0.5Fe2.5O4, and Sample C - CoFe2O4 were prepared by co-precipitation in our previous investigations. The co-precipitated Sample B and Sample C were mechanochemically activated in order to produce Sample D - Co0.5Fe2.5O4 and Sample E- CoFe2O4. The PXRD, Moessbauer and FTIR spectroscopies, specific surface area determination by the BET method, thermal analysis, element chemical analysis and temperature-programmed reduction were used to investigate the prepared nano-sized samples. The changes of the Malachite green dye concentration during reaction of the photocatalytic decolorization using nanostructured cobalt ferrite-type catalysts with different chemical composition are included. The photocatalytic results show that the increase in the degree of incorporation of cobalt ions in the magnetite host structure for co-precipitated cobalt ferrite-type samples results in an increase of the photocatalytic activity: Sample A (4 х10-3 min-1) < Sample B (5 х10-3 min-1) < Sample C (7 х10-3 min-1). Mechanochemically activated photocatalysts showed a higher activity than the co-precipitated ferrite materials: Sample D (16 х10-3 min-1) > Sample E (14 х10-3 min-1) > Sample C (7 х10-3 min-1) > Sample B (5 х10-3 min-1) > Sample A (4 х10-3 min-1). On decreasing the degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ones a higher sorption ability of the dye after the dark period for the co-precipitated cobalt ferrite materials was observed: Sample C (72 %) < Sample B (78 %) < Sample A (80 %). Mechanochemically treated ferrite catalysts and co-precipitated Sample B possess similar sorption capacities, Sample D (78 %) ~ Sample E (78 %) ~ Sample B (78 %). The prepared nano-sized cobalt ferrite-type materials demonstrate good photocatalytic and sorption properties. Mechanochemically activated Sample D - Co0.5Fe2.5O4 (16х10-3 min-1) and Sample E-CoFe2O4 (14х10-3 min-1) possess higher photocatalytic activity than that of the most common used UV-light catalyst Degussa P25 (12х10-3 min-1). The dependence of the photo-catalytic activity and sorption properties on the preparation method and different degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ions in synthesized cobalt ferrite samples is established. The mechanochemical activation leads to formation of nano-structured cobalt ferrite-type catalysts (Sample D and Sample E) with higher rate constants than those of the ferrite materials (Sample A, Sample B, and Sample C) prepared by the co-precipitation procedure. The increase in the degree of substitution of iron ions by cobalt ones leads to improved photocatalytic properties and lower sorption capacities of the co-precipitated ferrite samples. The good sorption properties between 72 and 80% of the prepared ferrite-type materials show that they could be used as potential cheap absorbents for purification of polluted waters.

Keywords: nanodimensional cobalt ferrites, photocatalyst, synthesis, mechanochemical activation

Procedia PDF Downloads 135
262 Microwave Absorption Properties of Low Density Polyethelene-Cobalt Ferrite Nanocomposite

Authors: Reza Fazaeli, Reza Eslami-Farsani, Hamid Targhagh

Abstract:

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) nanocomposites with 3, 5 and 7 wt. % cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) nanopowder fabricated with extrusion mixing and followed up by hot press to reach compact samples. The transmission/reflection measurements were carried out with a network analyzer in the frequency range of 8-12 GHz. By increasing the percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder, reflection loss (S11) increases, while transferring loss (S21) decreases. Reflectivity (R) calculations made using S11 and S21. Increase in percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder up to 7 wt. % in composite leaded to higher reflectivity amount, and revealed that increasing the percent of CoFe2O4 nanopowder up to 7 wt. % leads to further microwave absorption in 8-12 GHz range.

Keywords: nanocomposite, cobalt ferrite, low density polyethylene, microwave absorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
261 Monodisperse Quaternary Cobalt Chromium Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesised from a Single Source Precursor

Authors: Khadijat O. Abdulwahab, Mohammad A. Malik, Paul O’Brien, Grigore A. Timco, Floriana Tuna

Abstract:

The synthesis of spinel ferrite nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution is very crucial in their numerous applications including information storage, hyperthermia treatment, drug delivery, contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging, catalysis, sensors, and environmental remediation. Ferrites have the general formula MFe2O4 (M = Fe, Co, Mn, Ni, Zn etc.) and possess remarkable electrical and magnetic properties which depend on the cations, method of preparation, size and their site occupancies. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on the use of a single source precursor to synthesise quaternary ferrite nanoparticles. Herein, we demonstrated the use of trimetallic iron pivalate cluster [CrCoFeO(O2CtBu)6(HO2CtBu)3] as a single source precursor to synthesise monodisperse cobalt chromium ferrite (FeCoCrO4) nanoparticles by the hot injection thermolysis method. The precursor was thermolysed in oleylamine, oleic acid, with diphenyl ether as solvent at its boiling point (260°C). The effect of concentration on the stoichiometry, phases or morphology of the nanoparticles was studied. The p-XRD patterns of the nanoparticles obtained at both concentrations were matched with cubic iron cobalt chromium ferrite (FeCoCrO4). TEM showed that a more monodispersed spherical ferrite nanoparticles of average diameter 4.0 ± 0.4 nm were obtained at higher precursor concentration. Magnetic measurements revealed that all the ferrite particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The nanoparticles were characterised by Powder X-ray Diffraction (p-XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP), Electron Probe Microanalysis (EPMA), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID).

Keywords: quaternary ferrite nanoparticles, single source precursor, monodisperse, cobalt chromium ferrite, colloidal, hot injection thermolysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
260 Structural, Magnetic, Dielectric and Electrical Properties of Gd3+ Doped Cobalt Ferrite Nanoparticles

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Jaromir Havlica, Lukas Kalina, Pavel Urbánek, Michal Machovsky, Milan Masař, Martin Holek

Abstract:

In this work, CoFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄ (x=0.00, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20) spinel ferrite nanoparticles are synthesized by sonochemical method. The structural properties and cation distribution are investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The morphology and elemental analysis are screened using field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, respectively. The particle size measured by FE-SEM and XRD analysis confirm the formation of nanoparticles in the range of 7-10 nm. The electrical properties show that the Gd³⁺ doped cobalt ferrite (CoFe₂₋ₓGdₓO₄; x= 0.20) exhibit enhanced dielectric constant (277 at 100 Hz) and ac conductivity (20.17 x 10⁻⁹ S/cm at 100 Hz). The complex impedance measurement study reveals that as Gd³⁺ doping concentration increases, the impedance Z’ and Z’ ’ decreases. The influence of Gd³⁺ doping in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles on the magnetic property is examined by using vibrating sample magnetometer. Magnetic property measurement reveal that the coercivity decreases with Gd³⁺ substitution from 234.32 Oe (x=0.00) to 12.60 Oe (x=0.05) and further increases from 12.60 Oe (x=0.05) to 68.62 Oe (x=0.20). The saturation magnetization decreases with Gd³⁺ substitution from 40.19 emu/g (x=0.00) to 21.58 emu/g (x=0.20). This decrease follows the three-sublattice model suggested by Yafet-Kittel (Y-K). The Y-K angle increases with the increase of Gd³⁺ doping in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

Keywords: sonochemical method, nanoparticles, magnetic property, dielectric property, electrical property

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
259 The Effect of Reaction Time on the Morphology and Phase of Quaternary Ferrite Nanoparticles (FeCoCrO₄) Synthesised from a Single Source Precursor

Authors: Khadijat Olabisi Abdulwahab, Mohammad Azad Malik, Paul O'Brien, Grigore Timco, Floriana Tuna

Abstract:

The synthesis of spinel ferrite nanoparticles with a narrow size distribution is very crucial in their numerous applications including information storage, hyperthermia treatment, drug delivery, contrast agent in magnetic resonance imaging, catalysis, sensors, and environmental remediation. Ferrites have the general formula MFe₂O₄ (M = Fe, Co, Mn, Ni, Zn e.t.c) and possess remarkable electrical and magnetic properties which depend on the cations, method of preparation, size and their site occupancies. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports on the use of a single source precursor to synthesise quaternary ferrite nanoparticles. Here in, we demonstrated the use of trimetallic iron pivalate cluster [CrCoFeO(O₂CᵗBu)₆(HO₂CᵗBu)₃] as a single source precursor to synthesise monodisperse cobalt chromium ferrite (FeCoCrO₄) nanoparticles by the hot injection thermolysis method. The precursor was thermolysed in oleylamine, oleic acid, with diphenyl ether as solvent at 260 °C. The effect of reaction time on the stoichiometry, phases or morphology of the nanoparticles was studied. The p-XRD patterns of the nanoparticles obtained after one hour was pure phase of cubic iron cobalt chromium ferrite (FeCoCrO₄). TEM showed that a more monodispersed spherical ferrite nanoparticles were obtained after one hour. Magnetic measurements revealed that the ferrite particles are superparamagnetic at room temperature. The nanoparticles were characterised by Powder X-ray Diffraction (p-XRD), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and Super Conducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID).

Keywords: cobalt chromium ferrite, colloidal, hot injection thermolysis, monodisperse, reaction time, single source precursor, quaternary ferrite nanoparticles

Procedia PDF Downloads 160
258 Structural and Magnetic Properties of CoFe2-xNdxO4 Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles

Authors: R. S. Yadav, J. Havlica, I. Kuřitka, Z. Kozakova, J. Masilko, M. Hajdúchová, V. Enev, J. Wasserbauer

Abstract:

In this present work, CoFe2-xNdxO4 (0.0 ≤ x ≥0.1) spinel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns were revealed the formation of cubic spinel ferrite with the signature of NdFeO3 phase at higher Nd3+ concentration. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study demonstrated the spherical nanoparticle in the size range between 5-15 nm. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectra supported the formation of the spinel ferrite structure in the nanocrystalline form. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis confirmed the presence of Co2+ and Fe3+ at octahedral as well as a tetrahedral site in CoFe2-xNdxO4 nanoparticles. The change in magnetic properties with a variation of concentration of Nd3+ ions in cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was observed.

Keywords: nanoparticles, spinel ferrites, sol-gel auto-combustion method, CoFe2-xNdxO4

Procedia PDF Downloads 375
257 Size Dependent Magnetic Properties of CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x = 0.1) Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method

Authors: R. S. Yadav, J. Havlica, I. Kuřitka, Z. Kozakova, J. Masilko, M. Hajdúchová, V. Enev, J. Wasserbauer

Abstract:

In this work, the effect of particle size on the structural and magnetic properties of CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x =0.1) spinel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel auto combustion method was investigated. The different sized CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x =0.1) spinel ferrite nanoparticles were achieved after annealing at different temperature 500, 700 and 900 oC. The structural phases, crystallite size and lattice parameter of synthesized ferrite nanoparticles were estimated from X-ray diffraction studies. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study demonstrated increase in particle size with increase of annealing temperature. Raman spectroscopy study indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in Gd3+ ions doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two absorption bands in the frequency range around 580 cm-1 (ν1) and around 340 cm-1 (ν2); which indicated the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Vibrating Sample magnetometer study showed that the saturation magnetization and coercivity changes with particle size of CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x =0.1) spinel ferrite.

Keywords: magnetic properties, spinel ferrite, nanoparticles, sol-gel synthesis

Procedia PDF Downloads 358
256 Investigation on Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis over Cobalt-Gadolinium Catalyst

Authors: Jian Huang, Weixin Qian, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Cobalt-gadolinium catalyst for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis was prepared by impregnation method with commercial silica gel, and its texture properties were characterized by BET, XRD, and TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalyst was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results showed that the addition of gadolinium to the cobalt catalyst might decrease the size of cobalt particles, and increased the dispersion of catalytic active cobalt phases. The carbon number distributions for the catalysts was calculated by ASF equation.

Keywords: Fischer-Tropsch synthesis, cobalt-based catalysts, gadolinium, carbon number distributions

Procedia PDF Downloads 211
255 Synthesize of Cobalt Oxide Nanoballs/Carbon Aerogel Nanostructures: Towards High-Performance Materials for Supercapacitors

Authors: A. Bahadoran, M. Zomorodian

Abstract:

The synthesizer of cobalt oxide nanoballs (length 3−4 μm, width 250−400 nm) was achieved by a simple high-temperature supercritical solution method. Multiwalled carbon aerogels are a step towards high-density nanometer-scale nanostructures. Cobalt oxide nanoballs were prepared by supercritical solution method. Synthesis in an aqueous solution containing cobalt hydroxide at ∼80 °C without any further heat treatment at high temperature. The formation of cobalt oxide nanoballs on carbon aerogel was confirmed by X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. The FE-SEM images showed the presence of cobalt oxide nanoballs. The reaction mechanism of the ultrasound-assisted synthesis of cobalt oxide nanostructures was proposed on the basis of the XRD, X-ray absorption spectroscopy analysis and FE-SEM observation of the reaction products taken during the course of the synthesis.

Keywords: cobalt oxide nano balls, carbon aerogel, synthesize, nanostructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 248
254 Cobalt Ions Adsorption by Quartz and Illite and Calcite from Waste Water

Authors: Saad A. Aljlil

Abstract:

Adsorption of cobalt ions on quartz and illite and calcite from waste water was investigated. The effect of pH on the adsorption of cobalt ions was studied. The maximum capacities of cobalt ions of the three adsorbents increase with increasing cobalt solution temperature. The maximum capacities were (4.66) mg/g for quartz, (3.94) mg/g for illite, and (3.44) mg/g for calcite. The enthalpy, Gibbs free energy, and entropy for adsorption of cobalt ions on the three adsorbents were calculated. It was found that the adsorption process of the cobalt ions of the adsorbent was an endothermic process. consequently increasing the temperature causes the increase of the cobalt ions adsorption of the adsorbents. Therefore, the adsorption process is preferred at high temperature levels. The equilibrium adsorption data were correlated using Langmuir model, Freundlich model. The experimental data of cobalt ions of the adsorbents correlated well with Freundlich model.

Keywords: adsorption, Langmuir, Freundlich, quartz, illite, calcite, waste water

Procedia PDF Downloads 255
253 Green Synthesis of Copper Oxide and Cobalt Oxide Nanoparticles Using Spinacia Oleracea Leaf Extract

Authors: Yameen Ahmed, Jamshid Hussain, Farman Ullah, Sohaib Asif

Abstract:

The investigation aims at the synthesis of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles using Spinacia oleracea leaf extract. These nanoparticles have many properties and applications. They possess antimicrobial catalytic properties and also they can be used in energy storage materials, gas sensors, etc. The Spinacia oleracea leaf extract behaves as a reducing agent in nanoparticle synthesis. The plant extract was first prepared and then treated with copper and cobalt salt solutions to get the precipitate. The salt solutions used for this purpose are copper sulfate pentahydrate (CuSO₄.5H₂O) and cobalt chloride hexahydrate (CoCl₂.6H₂O). The UV-Vis, XRD, EDX, and SEM techniques are used to find the optical, structural, and morphological properties of copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles. The UV absorption peaks are at 326 nm and 506 nm for copper oxide and cobalt oxide nanoparticles.

Keywords: cobalt oxide, copper oxide, green synthesis, nanoparticles

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252 Production of Sr-Ferrite Sub-Micron Powder by Conventional and Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Methods

Authors: M. Ghobeiti-Hasab

Abstract:

Magnetic powder of Sr-ferrite was prepared by conventional and sol-gel auto-combustion methods. In conventional method, strontium carbonate and ferric oxide powders were mixed together and then mixture was calcined. In sol-gel auto-combustion method, a solution containing strontium nitrate, ferric nitrate and citric acid was heated until the combustion took place automatically; then, as-burnt powder was calcined. Thermal behavior, phase identification, morphology and magnetic properties of powders obtained by these two methods were compared by DTA, XRD, SEM, and VSM techniques. According to the results of DTA analysis, formation temperature of Sr-ferrite obtained by conventional and sol-gel auto-combustion methods were 1300 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. XRD results confirmed the formation of pure Sr-ferrite at the mentioned temperatures. Plate and hexagonal-shape particles of Sr-ferrite were observed using SEM. The Sr-ferrite powder obtained by sol-gel auto-combustion method had saturation magnetization of 66.03 emu/g and coercivity of 5731 Oe in comparison with values of 58.20 emu/g and 4378 Oe obtained by conventional method.

Keywords: Sr-ferrite, sol-gel, magnetic properties, calcination

Procedia PDF Downloads 129
251 Parameters Affecting the Removal of Copper and Cobalt from Aqueous Solution onto Clinoptilolite by Ion-Exchange Process

Authors: John Kabuba, Hilary Rutto

Abstract:

Ion exchange is one of the methods used to remove heavy metal such as copper and cobalt from wastewaters. Parameters affecting the ion-exchange of copper and cobalt aqueous solutions using clinoptilolite are the objectives of this study. Synthetic solutions were prepared with the concentration of 0.02M, 0.06M and 0.1M. The cobalt solution was maintained to 0.02M while varying the copper solution to the above stated concentrations. The clinoptilolite was activated with HCl and H2SO4 for removal efficiency. The pHs of the solutions were found to be acidic hence enhancing the copper and cobalt removal. The natural clinoptilolite performance was also found to be lower compared to the HCl and H2SO4 activated one for the copper removal ranging from 68% to 78% of Cu2+ uptake with the natural clinoptilolite to 66% to 51% with HCl and H2SO4 respectively. It was found that the activated clinoptilolite removed more copper and cobalt than the natural one and found that the electronegativity of the metal plays a role in the metal removal and the clinoptilolite selectivity.

Keywords: clinoptilolite, cobalt and copper, ion-exchange, mass dosage, pH

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
250 Magnetic Properties of Sr-Ferrite Nano-Powder Synthesized by Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method

Authors: M. Ghobeiti-Hasab, Z. Shariati

Abstract:

In this paper, strontium ferrite (SrO.6Fe2O3) was synthesized by the sol-gel auto-combustion process. The thermal behavior of powder obtained from self-propagating combustion of initial gel was evaluated by simultaneous differential thermal analysis (DTA) and thermo gravimetric (TG), from room temperature to 1200°C. The as-burnt powder was calcined at various temperatures from 700-900°C to achieve the single-phase Sr-ferrite. Phase composition, morphology and magnetic properties were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) techniques. Results showed that the single-phase and nano-sized hexagonal strontium ferrite particles were formed at calcination temperature of 800°C with crystallite size of 27 nm and coercivity of 6238 Oe.

Keywords: hard magnet, Sr-ferrite, sol-gel auto-combustion, nano-powder

Procedia PDF Downloads 246
249 Comparative Catalytic Activity of Some Ferrites for Phenol Degradation in Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Bayan Alqassem, Israa A. Othman, Mohammed Abu Haija, Fawzi Banat

Abstract:

The treatment of wastewater from highly toxic pollutants is one of the most challenging issues for humanity. In this study, the advanced oxidation process (AOP) was employed to study the catalytic degradation of phenol using different ferrite catalysts which are CoFe₂O₄, CrFe₂O₄, CuFe₂O₄, MgFe₂O₄, MnFe₂O₄, NiFe₂O₄ and ZnFe₂O₄. The ferrite catalysts were prepared via sol-gel and co-precipitation methods. Different ferrite composites were also prepared either by varying the metal ratios or incorporating chemically reduced graphene oxide in the ferrite cluster. The effect of phosphoric acid treatment on the copper ferrite activity. All of the prepared catalysts were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ferrites catalytic activities were tested towards phenol degradation using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The experimental results showed that ferrites prepared through sol-gel route were more active than those of the co-precipitation method towards phenol degradation. In both cases, CuFe₂O₄ exhibited the highest degradation of phenol compared to the other ferrites. The photocatalytic properties of the ferrites were also investigated.

Keywords: ferrite catalyst, ferrite composites, phenol degradation, photocatalysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 52
248 Designing Active Sites on Amicyanin Using Histidine S Plus Cobalt, and Measuring Their Functional Activity

Authors: Han-Bin Kim, Sooim Shin, Moonsung Choi

Abstract:

There is a growing interest in introducing a desired functional group on enzymes in the field of protein engineering. In here, various redox centers were newly created using histidine tag, which is widely used for protein purification, plus cobalt in one of cupredoxins, amicyanin. The coordination of Cobalt-His tag and reactivity of the Co²⁺ loaded His-tag also were characterized. 3xHis-tag, 6xHis-tag, and 9xHis-tag were introduced on amicyanin by site-directed mutagenesis, and then Co²⁺ was loaded on each His-tagged amicyanin. The spectral changes at 330 nm corresponding to cobalt binding on His-tag site indicated the binding ratio of 3xHis-tag, 6xHis-tag, and 9xHis-tag to cobalt as 1:1, 1:2, 1:3 respectively. Based on kinetic studies of binding cobalt to 3xHis-tag, 6xHis-tag, and 9xHis-tagged amicyanin, the nature of the sites was elucidated. In addition, internal electron transfer properties between Cu¹⁺ site and engineered site of amicyanin were determined. These results provide insight into improvement of metal coordination and alternation of the redox properties of metal as a new catalytic site on proteins.

Keywords: amicyanin, cobalt, histidine, protein engineering

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
247 Assessment of Cobalt Concentrations in Wastewater and Vegetable Samples Grown along Kubanni Stream Channels in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria

Authors: M. D. Saeed, S. O. Oladeji

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The level of cobalt was determined in wastewater and vegetable (carrot, lettuce, onion, spinach, cabbage, tomato and okro) samples collected on seasonal basis from December, 2012 to September 2014 along Kubanni stream channels in Zaria. The results showed cobalt concentrations in wastewater were in the range of 3.77 – 15.20 mg/L for the year 2013 and 4.74 – 15.20 mg/L in 2014 while the vegetable had concentrations in the range of 1.25 – 8.75 mg/Kg for the year 2013 and 2.76 – 12.45 mg/Kg in 2014. Statistical analysis revealed a significant difference in cobalt levels across the locations for wastewater and vegetables whereas seasons (harmattan, dry and rainy) showed no significant difference in wastewater and vegetables analyzed. Pearson correlation revealed substantial (r = 0.726) relationship between cobalt levels in wastewater for the year 2013 and 2014 likewise, substantial (r = 0.750) relationship was also obtained for vegetables cultivated in 2013 and 2014 respectively. Cobalt concentrations obtained in this study was higher than Maximum Contaminant Levels set by Standard Organization such as W.H.O. and F.A.O. for wastewater; however, vegetables indicated no contamination with cobalt metal.

Keywords: cobalt, concentration, wastewater, vegetable

Procedia PDF Downloads 262
246 Reuse of Spent Lithium Battery for the Production of Environmental Catalysts

Authors: Jyh-Cherng Chen, Chih-Shiang You, Jie-Shian Cheng

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This study aims to recycle and reuse of spent lithium-cobalt battery and lithium-iron battery in the production of environmental catalysts. The characteristics and catalytic activities of synthesized catalysts for different air pollutants are analyzed and tested. The results show that the major metals in spent lithium-cobalt batteries are lithium 5%, cobalt 50%, nickel 3%, manganese 3% and the major metals in spent lithium-iron batteries are lithium 4%, iron 27%, and copper 4%. The catalytic activities of metal powders in the anode of spent lithium batteries are bad. With using the precipitation-oxidation method to prepare the lithium-cobalt catalysts from spent lithium-cobalt batteries, their catalytic activities for propane decomposition, CO oxidation, and NO reduction are well improved and excellent. The conversion efficiencies of the regenerated lithium-cobalt catalysts for those three gas pollutants are all above 99% even at low temperatures 200-300 °C. However, the catalytic activities of regenerated lithium-iron catalysts from spent lithium-iron batteries are unsatisfied.

Keywords: catalyst, lithium-cobalt battery, lithium-iron battery, recycle and reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 147
245 Enhanced Dielectric Properties of La Substituted CoFe2O4 Magnetic Nanoparticles

Authors: M. Vadivel, R. Ramesh Babu

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Spinel ferrite magnetic nanomaterials have received a great deal of attention in recent years due to their wide range of potential applications in various fields such as magnetic data storage and microwave device applications. Among the family of spinel ferrites, cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) has been widely used in the field of high-frequency applications because of its remarkable material qualities such as moderate saturation magnetization, high coercivity, large permeability at higher frequency and high electrical resistivity. For aforementioned applications, the materials should have an improved electrical property, especially enhancement in the dielectric properties. It is well known that the substitution of rare earth metal cations in Fe3+ site of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles leads to structural distortion and thus significantly influences the structural and morphological properties whereas greatly modifies the electrical and magnetic properties of a material. In the present investigation, we report on the influence of lanthanum (La3+) ion substitution on the structural, morphological, dielectric and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method. Powder X-ray diffraction patterns reveal the formation of inverse cubic spinel structure with the signature of LaFeO3 phase at higher La3+ ion concentrations. Raman and Fourier transform infrared spectral analysis also confirms the formation of inverse cubic spinel structure and Fe-O symmetrical stretching vibrations of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles, respectively. Transmission electron microscopy study reveals that the size of the particles gradually increases with increasing La3+ ion concentrations whereas the agglomeration gets slightly reduced for La3+ ion substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles than that of undoped CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. Dielectric properties such as dielectric constant and dielectric loss were recorded as a function of frequency and temperature which reveals that the dielectric constant gradually increases with increasing temperatures as well as La3+ ion concentrations. The increased dielectric constant might be the reason that the formation of LaFeO3 secondary phase at higher La3+ ion concentrations. Magnetic measurement demonstrates that the saturation magnetization gradually decreases from 61.45 to 25.13 emu/g with increasing La3+ ion concentrations which is due to the nonmagnetic nature of La3+ ions substitution.

Keywords: cobalt ferrite, co-precipitation, dielectric properties, saturation magnetization

Procedia PDF Downloads 190
244 Removal Cobalt (II) and Copper (II) by Solvent Extraction from Sulfate Solutions by Capric Acid in Chloroform

Authors: A. Bara, D. Barkat

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Liquid-liquid extraction is one of the most useful techniques for selective removal and recovery of metal ions from aqueous solutions, applied in purification processes in numerous chemical and metallurgical industries. In this work, The liquid-liquid extraction of cobalt (II) and copper (II) from aqueous solution by capric acid (HL) in chloroform at 25°C has been studied. Our interest in this paper is to study the effect of concentration of capric acid on the extraction of Co(II) and Cu(II) to see the complexes could be formed in the organic phase using various concentration of capric acid. The extraction of cobalt (II) and copper (II) is extracted as the complex CoL2 (HL )2, CuL2 (HL)2.

Keywords: capric acid, Cobalt(II), copper(II), liquid-liquid extraction

Procedia PDF Downloads 317
243 Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solutions by Ferrite Catalysts

Authors: Bayan Alqasem, Israa Othman, Mohammad Abu Haija, Fawzi Banat

Abstract:

The large-scale production of wastewater containing highly toxic pollutants made it necessary to find efficient water treatment technologies. Phenolic compounds, which are known to be persistent and hazardous, are highly presented in wastewater. In this study, different ferrite catalysts CrFe₂O₄, CuFe₂O₄, MgFe₂O₄, MnFe₂O₄, NiFe₂O₄, and ZnFe₂O₄ were employed to study the catalytic degradation of phenol aqueous solutions. The catalysts were prepared via sol-gel and co-precipitation methods. All of the prepared catalysts were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ferrites catalytic activities were tested towards phenol degradation using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The photocatalytic properties of the ferrites were also investigated. The experimental results suggested that CuFe₂O₄ is an effective catalyst for the removal of phenol from wastewater. Additionally, different CuFe₂O₄composites were also prepared either by varying the metal ratios or incorporating chemically reduced graphene oxide in the ferrite cluster.

Keywords: phenol degradation, ferrite catalysts, ferrite composites, photocatalysis

Procedia PDF Downloads 70
242 Optimization of High Flux Density Design for Permanent Magnet Motor

Authors: Dong-Woo Kang

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This paper presents an optimal magnet shape of a spoke-shaped interior permanent magnet synchronous motor by using ferrite magnets. Generally, the permanent magnet motor used the ferrite magnets has lower output power and efficiency than a rare-earth magnet motor, because the ferrite magnet has lower magnetic energy than the rare-earth magnet. Nevertheless, the ferrite magnet motor is used to many industrial products owing to cost effectiveness. In this paper, the authors propose a high power density design of the ferrite permanent magnet synchronous motor. Furthermore, because the motor design has to be taken a manufacturing process into account, the design is simulated by using the finite element method for analyzing the demagnetization, the magnetizing, and the structure stiffness. Especially, the magnet shape and dimensions are decided for satisfying these properties. Finally, the authors design an optimal motor for applying our system. That final design is manufactured and evaluated from experimentations.

Keywords: demagnetization, design optimization, magnetic analysis, permanent magnet motors

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
241 Effect of Ionized Plasma Medium on the Radiation of a Rectangular Microstrip Antenna on Ferrite Substrate

Authors: Ayman Al Sawalha

Abstract:

This paper presents theoretical investigations on the radiation of rectangular microstrip antenna printed on a magnetized ferrite substrate Ni0.62Co0.02Fe1.948O4 in the presence of ionized plasma medium. The theoretical study of rectangular microstrip antenna in free space is carried out by applying the transmission line model combining with potential function techniques while hydrodynamic theory is used for it is analysis in plasma medium. By taking the biased and unbiased ferrite cases, far-field radiation patterns in free space and plasma medium are obtained which in turn are applied in computing radiated power, directivity, quality factor and bandwidth of antenna. It is found that the presence of plasma medium affects the performance of rectangular microstrip antenna structure significantly.

Keywords: ferrite, microstrip antenna, plasma, radiation

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240 Effect of the Support Shape on Fischer-Tropsch Cobalt Catalyst Performance

Authors: Jian Huang, Weixin Qian, Hongfang Ma, Haitao Zhang, Weiyong Ying

Abstract:

Cobalt catalysts were supported on extruded silica carrier and different-type (SiO2, γ-Al2O3) commercial supports with different shapes and sizes to produce heavy hydrocarbons for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis. The catalysts were characterized by N2 physisorption and H2-TPR. The catalytic performance of the catalysts was tested in a fixed bed reactor. The results of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis performance showed that the cobalt catalyst supported on spherical silica supports displayed a higher activity and a higher selectivity to C5+ products, due to the fact that the active components were only distributed in the surface layer of spherical carrier, and the influence of gas diffusion restriction on catalytic performance was weakened. Therefore, it can be concluded that the eggshell cobalt catalyst was superior to precious metals modified catalysts in the synthesis of heavy hydrocarbons.

Keywords: fischer-tropsch synthesis, cobalt catalyst, support shape, heavy hydrocarbons

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239 Evolution of Microstructure through Phase Separation via Spinodal Decomposition in Spinel Ferrite Thin Films

Authors: Nipa Debnath, Harinarayan Das, Takahiko Kawaguchi, Naonori Sakamoto, Kazuo Shinozaki, Hisao Suzuki, Naoki Wakiya

Abstract:

Nowadays spinel ferrite magnetic thin films have drawn considerable attention due to their interesting magnetic and electrical properties with enhanced chemical and thermal stability. Spinel ferrite magnetic films can be implemented in magnetic data storage, sensors, and spin filters or microwave devices. It is well established that the structural, magnetic and transport properties of the magnetic thin films are dependent on microstructure. Spinodal decomposition (SD) is a phase separation process, whereby a material system is spontaneously separated into two phases with distinct compositions. The periodic microstructure is the characteristic feature of SD. Thus, SD can be exploited to control the microstructure at the nanoscale level. In bulk spinel ferrites having general formula, MₓFe₃₋ₓ O₄ (M= Co, Mn, Ni, Zn), phase separation via SD has been reported only for cobalt ferrite (CFO); however, long time post-annealing is required to occur the spinodal decomposition. We have found that SD occurs in CoF thin film without using any post-deposition annealing process if we apply magnetic field during thin film growth. Dynamic Aurora pulsed laser deposition (PLD) is a specially designed PLD system through which in-situ magnetic field (up to 2000 G) can be applied during thin film growth. The in-situ magnetic field suppresses the recombination of ions in the plume. In addition, the peak’s intensity of the ions in the spectra of the plume also increases when magnetic field is applied to the plume. As a result, ions with high kinetic energy strike into the substrate. Thus, ion-impingement occurred under magnetic field during thin film growth. The driving force of SD is the ion-impingement towards the substrates that is induced by in-situ magnetic field. In this study, we report about the occurrence of phase separation through SD and evolution of microstructure after phase separation in spinel ferrite thin films. The surface morphology of the phase separated films show checkerboard like domain structure. The cross-sectional microstructure of the phase separated films reveal columnar type phase separation. Herein, the decomposition wave propagates in lateral direction which has been confirmed from the lateral composition modulations in spinodally decomposed films. Large magnetic anisotropy has been found in spinodally decomposed nickel ferrite (NFO) thin films. This approach approves that magnetic field is also an important thermodynamic parameter to induce phase separation by the enhancement of up-hill diffusion in thin films. This thin film deposition technique could be a more efficient alternative for the fabrication of self-organized phase separated thin films and employed in controlling of the microstructure at nanoscale level.

Keywords: Dynamic Aurora PLD, magnetic anisotropy, spinodal decomposition, spinel ferrite thin film

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238 Structural, Magnetic, Dielectric, and Electrical Properties of ZnFe2O4 Nanoparticles

Authors: Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Ivo Kuřitka, Jarmila Vilcakova, Pavel Urbanek, Michal Machovsky, Milan Masař, Martin Holek

Abstract:

ZnFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized spinel ferrite nanoparticles were annealed at different higher temperature to achieve different size nanoparticles. The as synthesized and annealed samples were characterized by powder X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in magnetic parameters was noticed with variation in grain size. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss with variation of frequency shows normal behaviour of spinel ferrite. The variation in conductivity with variation in grain size is noticed. Modulus and Impedance Spectroscopy shows the role of grain and grain boundary on the electrical resistance and capacitance of different grain sized spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: spinel ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetic properties, dielectric properties

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237 Particle Size Dependent Magnetic Properties of CuFe2O4 Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method

Authors: R. S. Yadav, J. Havlica, I. Kuřitka, Z. Kozakova, J. Masilko, L. Kalina, M. Hajdúchová, V. Enev, J. Wasserbauer

Abstract:

In this work, copper ferrite CuFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles with different particle size at different annealing temperature were synthesized using the starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by conventional powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy, and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of CuFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that particles are of spherical morphology with particle size 5-20 nm at lower annealing temperature. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two principal absorption bands in the frequency range around 530 cm-1 (ν1) and around 360 cm-1 (ν2); which indicate the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy study also indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in copper ferrite nanoparticles with change of particle size. This change in magnetic behavior with change of particle size of CuFe2O4 nanoparticles was also observed. The change in magnetic properties with change of particle size is due to cation redistribution, which was confirmed by X-Ray photoelectron study.

Keywords: copper ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetic property, CuFe2O4

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236 Structural and Magnetic Properties of NiFe2O4 Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method

Authors: R. S. Yadav, J. Havlica, I. Kuřitka, Z. Kozakova, J. Masilko, L. Kalina, M. Hajdúchová, V. Enev, J. Wasserbauer

Abstract:

Nickel spinel ferrite NiFe2O4 nanoparticles with different particle size at different annealing temperature were synthesized using the starch-assisted sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by conventional powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy, X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer. The XRD patterns confirmed the formation of NiFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Field-Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy revealed that particles are of spherical morphology with particle size 5-20 nm at lower annealing temperature. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two principal absorption bands in the frequency range around 525 cm-1 (ν1) and around 340 cm-1 (ν2); which indicate the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman spectroscopy study also indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in nickel ferrite nanoparticles with change of particle size. This change in magnetic behavior with change of particle size of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed.

Keywords: nickel ferrite, nanoparticles, magnetic property, NiFe2O4

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235 Synergistic Extraction Study of Cobalt (II) from Sulfate Medium by Mixtures of Capric Acid and Tri-N-Octylphosphine Oxide in Chloroform

Authors: F. Adjel, S. Almi, D. Barkat

Abstract:

The synergistic solvent extraction of cobalt (II) from 0.33 mol dm-3 Na2SO4 aqueous solutions with capric acid (HL) in the absence and presence of tri-n-octylphosphine oxide (TOPO) in chloroform at 25°C, has been studied. The extracted species when the capric acid compound was used alone, is CoL2(HL)2. In the presence of TOPO, a remarkable enhancement on the extraction of nickel (II) with 0.02 mol dm-3 capric acid was observed upon the addition of 0.0025 to 0.01 mol dm-3 TOPO in chloroform. From an synergistic extraction- equilibrium study, the synergistic enhancement was ascribed to the adduct formation CoL2(HL)2 n(TOPO). The TOPO-HL interaction strongly influences the synergistic extraction efficiency. The synergistic extraction stoichiometry of cobalt (II) with capric acid and TOPO is studied with the methods of slope analysis. The equilibrium constants were determined.

Keywords: solvent extraction, cobalt (II), capric acid, TOPO, synergism

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234 Synergistic Extraction of Cobalt (II) from Sulfate Medium by Mixtures of Capric Acid and Methyl Isobutyl Cétone in Chloroform

Authors: F. Adjel, C. Bensmail, S. Almi, D. Barkat

Abstract:

The synergistic solvent extraction of cobalt (II) from 0.33 mol dm^-3 Na2SO4 aqueous solutions with capric acid (HL) in the absence and presence of methyl isobutyl cétone (MIBK) in chloroform at 25°C, has been studied. The extracted species when the capric acid compound was used alone, is CoL2(HL)2. In the presence of MIBK, a remarkable enhancement on the extraction of nickel (II) with 0.02 mol dm^-3 capric acid was observed upon the addition of 0.0025 to 0.01 mol dm^-3 MIBK in chloroform. From a synergistic extraction-equilibrium study, the synergistic enhancement was ascribed to the adduct formation CoL2(HL)2 n(MIBK). The MIBK-HL interaction strongly influences the synergistic extraction efficiency. The synergistic extraction stoichiometry of cobalt (II) with capric acid and MIBK is studied with the methods of slope analysis. The equilibrium constants were determined.

Keywords: solvent extraction, cobalt (II), capric acid, MIBK, synergism

Procedia PDF Downloads 322