Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 402

Search results for: autonomous

402 A Simple Autonomous Hovering and Operating Control of Multicopter Using Only Web Camera

Authors: Kazuya Sato, Toru Kasahara, Junji Kuroda

Abstract:

In this paper, an autonomous hovering control method of multicopter using only Web camera is proposed. Recently, various control method of an autonomous flight for multicopter are proposed. But, in the previously proposed methods, a motion capture system (i.e., OptiTrack) and laser range finder are often used to measure the position and posture of multicopter. To achieve an autonomous flight control of multicopter with simple equipment, we propose an autonomous flight control method using AR marker and Web camera. AR marker can measure the position of multicopter with Cartesian coordinate in three dimensional, then its position connects with aileron, elevator, and accelerator throttle operation. A simple PID control method is applied to the each operation and adjust the controller gains. Experimental result are given to show the effectiveness of our proposed method. Moreover, another simple operation method for autonomous flight control multicopter is also proposed.

Keywords: autonomous hovering control, multicopter, Web camera, operation

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401 The User Acceptance of Autonomous Shuttles in Pretoria

Authors: D. Onanena Adegono, P. Altinsoy, A. Schuster, P. Schäfer

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Autonomous vehicles look set to drastically alter the way we move people and goods, in urban as well as rural areas. However, little has been written about Africa with this regard. Moreover, in order for this new technology to be adopted, user acceptance is vital. The current research examines the user acceptance of autonomous minibus shuttles, as a solution for first/last mile public transport in Pretoria, South Africa. Of the respondents surveyed, only 2.31% perceived them as not useful. Respondents showed more interest in using these shuttles in combination with the bus rapid transit system (75.4%) as opposed to other modes of public transportation (40%). The significance of these findings is that they can help ensure that the implementation of autonomous public transport in South Africa is adapted to the local user. Furthermore, these findings could be adapted for other South African cities and other cities across the continent.

Keywords: autonomous buses and shuttles, autonomous public transport, urban mobility, user acceptance

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400 Genetic Algorithms Based ACPS Safety

Authors: Emine Laarouchi, Daniela Cancila, Laurent Soulier, Hakima Chaouchi

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Cyber-Physical Systems as drones proved their efficiency for supporting emergency applications. For these particular applications, travel time and autonomous navigation algorithms are of paramount importance, especially when missions are performed in urban environments with high obstacle density. In this context, however, safety properties are not properly addressed. Our ambition is to optimize the system safety level under autonomous navigation systems, by preserving performance of the CPS. At this aim, we introduce genetic algorithms in the autonomous navigation process of the drone to better infer its trajectory considering the possible obstacles. We first model the wished safety requirements through a cost function and then seek to optimize it though genetics algorithms (GA). The main advantage in the use of GA is to consider different parameters together, for example, the level of battery for navigation system selection. Our tests show that the GA introduction in the autonomous navigation systems minimize the risk of safety lossless. Finally, although our simulation has been tested for autonomous drones, our approach and results could be extended for other autonomous navigation systems such as autonomous cars, robots, etc.

Keywords: safety, unmanned aerial vehicles , CPS, ACPS, drones, path planning, genetic algorithms

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399 Guidance and Control of a Torpedo Autonomous Underwater Vehicle

Authors: Soheil Arash Moghadam, Abdol R. Kashani Nia, Ali Akrami Zade

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Considering numerous applications of Autonomous Underwater Vehicles in various industries, there has been plenty of researches and studies on the motion control of such vehicles. One of the useful aspects for studying is the guidance of these vehicles. In this paper, while presenting motion equations with six degrees of freedom for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, Proportional Navigation Guidance Law and the first order sliding mode control for TAIPAN AUV was used to address its guidance for the purpose of collision with a moving target.

Keywords: Autonomous Underwater Vehicle (AUV), degree of freedom (DOF), hydrodynamic, line of sight(LOS), proportional navigation guidance(PNG), sliding mode control(SMC)

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398 Deep Neural Network Approach for Navigation of Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Mayank Raj, V. G. Narendra

Abstract:

Ever since the DARPA challenge on autonomous vehicles in 2005, there has been a lot of buzz about ‘Autonomous Vehicles’ amongst the major tech giants such as Google, Uber, and Tesla. Numerous approaches have been adopted to solve this problem, which can have a long-lasting impact on mankind. In this paper, we have used Deep Learning techniques and TensorFlow framework with the goal of building a neural network model to predict (speed, acceleration, steering angle, and brake) features needed for navigation of autonomous vehicles. The Deep Neural Network has been trained on images and sensor data obtained from the comma.ai dataset. A heatmap was used to check for correlation among the features, and finally, four important features were selected. This was a multivariate regression problem. The final model had five convolutional layers, followed by five dense layers. Finally, the calculated values were tested against the labeled data, where the mean squared error was used as a performance metric.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, deep learning, computer vision, artificial intelligence

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397 Real Time Adaptive Obstacle Avoidance in Dynamic Environments with Different D-S

Authors: Mohammad Javad Mollakazemi, Farhad Asadi

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In this paper a real-time obstacle avoidance approach for both autonomous and non-autonomous dynamical systems (DS) is presented. In this approach the original dynamics of the controller which allow us to determine safety margin can be modulated. Different common types of DS increase the robot’s reactiveness in the face of uncertainty in the localization of the obstacle especially when robot moves very fast in changeable complex environments. The method is validated by simulation and influence of different autonomous and non-autonomous DS such as important characteristics of limit cycles and unstable DS. Furthermore, the position of different obstacles in complex environment is explained. Finally, the verification of avoidance trajectories is described through different parameters such as safety factor.

Keywords: limit cycles, nonlinear dynamical system, real time obstacle avoidance, safety margin

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396 How Autonomous Vehicles Transform Urban Policies and Cities

Authors: Adrian P. Gomez Manas

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Autonomous vehicles have already transformed urban policies and cities. This is the main assumption of our research, which aims to understand how the representations of the possible arrival of autonomous vehicles already transform priorities or actions in transport, and more largely, urban policies. This research is done within the framework of a PhD doctorate directed by Professor Xavier Desjardins at the Sorbonne University of Paris. Our hypotheses are: -the perspectives, representations and imaginaries on autonomous vehicles already affect the stakeholders of urban policies; - the discourses on the opportunities or threats of autonomous vehicles reflect the current strategies of the stakeholders. Each stakeholder tries to integrate a discourse on autonomous vehicles that allows them to change as little as possible their current tactics and strategies. The objective is to eventually make a comparison between three different cases: Paris, United Arab Emirates and Bogota. We chose those territories because their contexts are very different but they all have important interests in mobility and innovation, and they all have started to reflect on the subject of self-driving mobility. The main methodology used is to interview actors of the metropolitan area (local officials, leading urban and transport planners, influent experts, private companies). This work is supplemented with conferences, official documents, press articles and websites. The objective is to understand: 1) What they know about autonomous vehicles and where does their knowledge come from; 2) What they expect from autonomous vehicles ; 3) How their ideas about autonomous vehicles are transforming their action and strategy on managing daily mobility, investing in transport, designing public spaces and urban planning. For this conference, the idea is to present the research and some preliminary results: we will show that autonomous vehicles are often viewed by public authorities as a lever to reach something else; we will also present that speeches are very influenced by local context (political, geographical, economical, etc.) creating an interesting balance between global and local influences; we will analyze the differences and similarities between the three cases and will try to understand which are the causes.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, public policies, self-driving mobility, transport, urban mobility, urban planning

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395 Data Recording for Remote Monitoring of Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Rong-Terng Juang

Abstract:

Autonomous vehicles offer the possibility of significant benefits to social welfare. However, fully automated cars might not be going to happen in the near further. To speed the adoption of the self-driving technologies, many governments worldwide are passing laws requiring data recorders for the testing of autonomous vehicles. Currently, the self-driving vehicle, (e.g., shuttle bus) has to be monitored from a remote control center. When an autonomous vehicle encounters an unexpected driving environment, such as road construction or an obstruction, it should request assistance from a remote operator. Nevertheless, large amounts of data, including images, radar and lidar data, etc., have to be transmitted from the vehicle to the remote center. Therefore, this paper proposes a data compression method of in-vehicle networks for remote monitoring of autonomous vehicles. Firstly, the time-series data are rearranged into a multi-dimensional signal space. Upon the arrival, for controller area networks (CAN), the new data are mapped onto a time-data two-dimensional space associated with the specific CAN identity. Secondly, the data are sampled based on differential sampling. Finally, the whole set of data are encoded using existing algorithms such as Huffman, arithmetic and codebook encoding methods. To evaluate system performance, the proposed method was deployed on an in-house built autonomous vehicle. The testing results show that the amount of data can be reduced as much as 1/7 compared to the raw data.

Keywords: autonomous vehicle, data compression, remote monitoring, controller area networks (CAN), Lidar

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394 Autonomous Control of Ultrasonic Transducer Drive System

Authors: Dong-Keun Jeong, Jong-Hyun Kim, Woon-Ha Yoon, Hee-Je Kim

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In order to automatically operate the ultrasonic transducer drive system for sonicating aluminum, this paper proposes the ultrasonic transducer sensorless control algorithm. The resonance frequency shift and electrical impedance change is a common phenomenon in the state of the ultrasonic transducer. The proposed control algorithm make use of the impedance change of ultrasonic transducer according to the environment between air state and aluminum alloy state, it controls the ultrasonic transducer drive system autonomous without a sensor. The proposed sensorless autonomous ultrasonic transducer control algorithm was experimentally verified using a 3kW prototype ultrasonic transducer drive system.

Keywords: ultrasonic transducer drive system, impedance change, sensorless, autonomous control algorithm

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393 Analysis of Autonomous Orbit Determination for Lagrangian Navigation Constellation with Different Dynamical Models

Authors: Gao Youtao, Zhao Tanran, Jin Bingyu, Xu Bo

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Global navigation satellite system(GNSS) can deliver navigation information for spacecraft orbiting on low-Earth orbits and medium Earth orbits. However, the GNSS cannot navigate the spacecraft on high-Earth orbit or deep space probes effectively. With the deep space exploration becoming a hot spot of aerospace, the demand for a deep space satellite navigation system is becoming increasingly prominent. Many researchers discussed the feasibility and performance of a satellite navigation system on periodic orbits around the Earth-Moon libration points which can be called Lagrangian point satellite navigation system. Autonomous orbit determination (AOD) is an important performance for the Lagrangian point satellite navigation system. With this ability, the Lagrangian point satellite navigation system can reduce the dependency on ground stations. AOD also can greatly reduce total system cost and assure mission continuity. As the elliptical restricted three-body problem can describe the Earth-Moon system more accurately than the circular restricted three-body problem, we study the autonomous orbit determination of Lagrangian navigation constellation using only crosslink range based on elliptical restricted three body problem. Extended Kalman filter is used in the autonomous orbit determination. In order to compare the autonomous orbit determination results based on elliptical restricted three-body problem to the results of autonomous orbit determination based on circular restricted three-body problem, we give the autonomous orbit determination position errors of a navigation constellation include four satellites based on the circular restricted three-body problem. The simulation result shows that the Lagrangian navigation constellation can achieve long-term precise autonomous orbit determination using only crosslink range. In addition, the type of the libration point orbit will influence the autonomous orbit determination accuracy.

Keywords: extended Kalman filter, autonomous orbit determination, quasi-periodic orbit, navigation constellation

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392 Development of Under Water Autonomous Vertical Profiler: Unique Solution to Oceanographic Studies

Authors: I. K. Sharma

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Over the years world over system are being developed by research labs continuously monitor under water parameters in the coastal waters of sea such as conductivity, salinity, pressure, temperature, chlorophyll and biological blooms at different levels of water column. The research institutions have developed profilers which are launched by ship connected through cable, glider type profilers following underwater trajectory, buoy any driven profilers, wire guided profilers etc. In all these years, the effect was to design autonomous profilers with no cable quality connection, simple operation and on line date transfer in terms accuracy, repeatability, reliability and consistency. Hence for the Ministry of Communication and Information Technology, India sponsored research project to National Institute of Oceanography, GOA, India to design and develop autonomous vertical profilers, it has taken system and AVP has been successfully developed and tested.

Keywords: oceanography, water column, autonomous profiler, buoyancy

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391 Real-Time Adaptive Obstacle Avoidance with DS Method and the Influence of Dynamic Environments Change on Different DS

Authors: Saeed Mahjoub Moghadas, Farhad Asadi, Shahed Torkamandi, Hassan Moradi, Mahmood Purgamshidian

Abstract:

In this paper, we present real-time obstacle avoidance approach for both autonomous and non-autonomous DS-based controllers and also based on dynamical systems (DS) method. In this approach, we can modulate the original dynamics of the controller and it allows us to determine safety margin and different types of DS to increase the robot’s reactiveness in the face of uncertainty in the localization of the obstacle and especially when robot moves very fast in changeable complex environments. The method is validated in simulation and influence of different autonomous and non-autonomous DS such as limit cycles, and unstable DS on this algorithm and also the position of different obstacles in complex environment is explained. Finally, we describe how the avoidance trajectories can be verified through different parameters such as safety factor.

Keywords: limit cycles, nonlinear dynamical system, real time obstacle avoidance, DS-based controllers

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390 Multimedia Container for Autonomous Car

Authors: Janusz Bobulski, Mariusz Kubanek

Abstract:

The main goal of the research is to develop a multimedia container structure containing three types of images: RGB, lidar and infrared, properly calibrated to each other. An additional goal is to develop program libraries for creating and saving this type of file and for restoring it. It will also be necessary to develop a method of data synchronization from lidar and RGB cameras as well as infrared. This type of file could be used in autonomous vehicles, which would certainly facilitate data processing by the intelligent autonomous vehicle management system. Autonomous cars are increasingly breaking into our consciousness. No one seems to have any doubts that self-driving cars are the future of motoring. Manufacturers promise that moving the first of them to showrooms is the prospect of the next few years. Many experts believe that creating a network of communicating autonomous cars will be able to completely eliminate accidents. However, to make this possible, it is necessary to develop effective methods of detection of objects around the moving vehicle. In bad weather conditions, this task is difficult on the basis of the RGB(red, green, blue) image. Therefore, in such situations, you should be supported by information from other sources, such as lidar or infrared cameras. The problem is the different data formats that individual types of devices return. In addition to these differences, there is a problem with the synchronization of these data and the formatting of this data. The goal of the project is to develop a file structure that could be containing a different type of data. This type of file is calling a multimedia container. A multimedia container is a container that contains many data streams, which allows you to store complete multimedia material in one file. Among the data streams located in such a container should be indicated streams of images, films, sounds, subtitles, as well as additional information, i.e., metadata. This type of file could be used in autonomous vehicles, which would certainly facilitate data processing by the intelligent autonomous vehicle management system. As shown by preliminary studies, the use of combining RGB and InfraRed images with Lidar data allows for easier data analysis. Thanks to this application, it will be possible to display the distance to the object in a color photo. Such information can be very useful for drivers and for systems in autonomous cars.

Keywords: an autonomous car, image processing, lidar, obstacle detection

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389 Fault Diagnosis in Confined Systems

Authors: Nesrine Berber, Hafid Haffaf, Abdel Madjid Meghabar

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In the last decade, technology has continued to grow and has changed the structure of our society. Today, new technologies including the information and communication (ICT) play a main role which importance continues to grow, now it's become indispensable to the economic, social and cultural. Thus, ICT technology has proven to be as a promising intervention in the area of road transport. The supervision model of class of train of intelligent and autonomous vehicles leads us to give some defintions about IAV and the different technologies used for communication between them. Our aim in this work is to present an hypergraph modeling a class of train of Intelligent and Autonomous Vehicles (IAV).

Keywords: intelligent transportation system, intelligent autonomous vehicles, Ad Hoc network, wireless technologies, hypergraph modeling, supervision

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388 Analytical Solution of Non–Autonomous Discrete Non-Linear Schrodinger Equation With Saturable Non-Linearity

Authors: Mishu Gupta, Rama Gupta

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It has been elucidated here that non- autonomous discrete non-linear Schrödinger equation is associated with saturable non-linearity through photo-refractive media. We have investigated the localized solution of non-autonomous saturable discrete non-linear Schrödinger equations. The similarity transformation has been involved in converting non-autonomous saturable discrete non-linear Schrödinger equation to constant-coefficient saturable discrete non-linear Schrödinger equation (SDNLSE), whose exact solution is already known. By back substitution, the solution of the non-autonomous version has been obtained. We have analysed our solution for the hyperbolic and periodic form of gain/loss term, and interesting results have been obtained. The most important characteristic role is that it helps us to analyse the propagation of electromagnetic waves in glass fibres and other optical wave mediums. Also, the usage of SDNLSE has been seen in tight binding for Bose-Einstein condensates in optical mediums. Even the solutions are interrelated, and its properties are prominently used in various physical aspects like optical waveguides, Bose-Einstein (B-E) condensates in optical mediums, Non-linear optics in photonic crystals, and non-linear kerr–type non-linearity effect and photo refracting medium.

Keywords: B-E-Bose-Einstein, DNLSE-Discrete non linear schrodinger equation, NLSE-non linear schrodinger equation, SDNLSE - saturable discrete non linear Schrodinger equation

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387 Development of Agricultural Robotic Platform for Inter-Row Plant: An Autonomous Navigation Based on Machine Vision

Authors: Alaa El-Din Rezk

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In Egypt, management of crops still away from what is being used today by utilizing the advances of mechanical design capabilities, sensing and electronics technology. These technologies have been introduced in many places and recorm, for Straight Path, Curved Path, Sine Wave ded high accuracy in different field operations. So, an autonomous robotic platform based on machine vision has been developed and constructed to be implemented in Egyptian conditions as self-propelled mobile vehicle for carrying tools for inter/intra-row crop management based on different control modules. The experiments were carried out at plant protection research institute (PPRI) during 2014-2015 to optimize the accuracy of agricultural robotic platform control using machine vision in term of the autonomous navigation and performance of the robot’s guidance system. Results showed that the robotic platform' guidance system with machine vision was able to adequately distinguish the path and resisted image noise and did better than human operators for getting less lateral offset error. The average error of autonomous was 2.75, 19.33, 21.22, 34.18, and 16.69 mm. while the human operator was 32.70, 4.85, 7.85, 38.35 and 14.75 mm Path, Offset Discontinuity and Angle Discontinuity respectively.

Keywords: autonomous robotic, Hough transform, image processing, machine vision

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386 Multipurpose Agricultural Robot Platform: Conceptual Design of Control System Software for Autonomous Driving and Agricultural Operations Using Programmable Logic Controller

Authors: P. Abhishesh, B. S. Ryuh, Y. S. Oh, H. J. Moon, R. Akanksha

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This paper discusses about the conceptual design and development of the control system software using Programmable logic controller (PLC) for autonomous driving and agricultural operations of Multipurpose Agricultural Robot Platform (MARP). Based on given initial conditions by field analysis and desired agricultural operations, the structural design development of MARP is done using modelling and analysis tool. PLC, being robust and easy to use, has been used to design the autonomous control system of robot platform for desired parameters. The robot is capable of performing autonomous driving and three automatic agricultural operations, viz. hilling, mulching, and sowing of seeds in the respective order. The input received from various sensors on the field is later transmitted to the controller via ZigBee network to make the changes in the control program to get desired field output. The research is conducted to provide assistance to farmers by reducing labor hours for agricultural activities by implementing automation. This study will provide an alternative to the existing systems with machineries attached behind tractors and rigorous manual operations on agricultural field at effective cost.

Keywords: agricultural operations, autonomous driving, MARP, PLC

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385 Simulation of Obstacle Avoidance for Multiple Autonomous Vehicles in a Dynamic Environment Using Q-Learning

Authors: Andreas D. Jansson

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The availability of inexpensive, yet competent hardware allows for increased level of automation and self-optimization in the context of Industry 4.0. However, such agents require high quality information about their surroundings along with a robust strategy for collision avoidance, as they may cause expensive damage to equipment or other agents otherwise. Manually defining a strategy to cover all possibilities is both time-consuming and counter-productive given the capabilities of modern hardware. This paper explores the idea of a model-free self-optimizing obstacle avoidance strategy for multiple autonomous agents in a simulated dynamic environment using the Q-learning algorithm.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, industry 4.0, multi-agent system, obstacle avoidance, Q-learning, simulation

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384 Embedded Hardware and Software Design of Omnidirectional Autonomous Robotic Platform Suitable for Advanced Driver Assistance Systems Testing with Focus on Modularity and Safety

Authors: Ondrej Lufinka, Jan Kaderabek, Juraj Prstek, Jiri Skala, Kamil Kosturik

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This paper deals with the problem of using Autonomous Robotic Platforms (ARP) for the ADAS (Advanced Driver Assistance Systems) testing in automotive. There are different possibilities of the testing already in development, and lately, the autonomous robotic platforms are beginning to be used more and more widely. Autonomous Robotic Platform discussed in this paper explores the hardware and software design possibilities related to the field of embedded systems. The paper focuses on its chapters on the introduction of the problem in general; then, it describes the proposed prototype concept and its principles from the embedded HW and SW point of view. It talks about the key features that can be used for the innovation of these platforms (e.g., modularity, omnidirectional movement, common and non-traditional sensors used for localization, synchronization of more platforms and cars together, or safety mechanisms). In the end, the future possible development of the project is discussed as well.

Keywords: advanced driver assistance systems, ADAS, autonomous robotic platform, embedded systems, hardware, localization, modularity, multiple robots synchronization, omnidirectional movement, safety mechanisms, software

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383 A Query Optimization Strategy for Autonomous Distributed Database Systems

Authors: Dina K. Badawy, Dina M. Ibrahim, Alsayed A. Sallam

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Distributed database is a collection of logically related databases that cooperate in a transparent manner. Query processing uses a communication network for transmitting data between sites. It refers to one of the challenges in the database world. The development of sophisticated query optimization technology is the reason for the commercial success of database systems, which complexity and cost increase with increasing number of relations in the query. Mariposa, query trading and query trading with processing task-trading strategies developed for autonomous distributed database systems, but they cause high optimization cost because of involvement of all nodes in generating an optimal plan. In this paper, we proposed a modification on the autonomous strategy K-QTPT that make the seller’s nodes with the lowest cost have gradually high priorities to reduce the optimization time. We implement our proposed strategy and present the results and analysis based on those results.

Keywords: autonomous strategies, distributed database systems, high priority, query optimization

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382 Conception of a Reliable Low Cost and Autonomous Explorative Hovercraft

Authors: S. Burgalat, L. Teilhac, A. Brand, E. Chastel, M. Jumeline

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The paper presents actual benefits and drawbacks of a multidirectional autonomous hovercraft conceived with limited resources and designed for indoor exploration. Recent developments in the field have led to the apparition of very powerful automotive systems capable of very high calculation and exploration in complex unknown environments. They usually propose very complex algorithms, high precision/cost sensors and sometimes have heavy calculation consumption with complex data fusion. These systems are usually powerful but have a certain price, and the benefits may not be worth the cost, especially considering their hardware limitations and their power consumption. The present approach is to build a compromise between cost, power consumption and results preciseness.

Keywords: hovercraft, indoor exploration, autonomous, multidirectional, wireless control

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381 Competitiveness of a Share Autonomous Electrical Vehicle Fleet Compared to Traditional Means of Transport: A Case Study for Transportation Network Companies

Authors: Maximilian Richter

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Implementing shared autonomous electric vehicles (SAEVs) has many advantages. The main advantages are achieved when SAEVs are offered as on-demand services by a fleet operator. However, autonomous mobility on demand (AMoD) will be distributed nationwide only if a fleet operation is economically profitable for the operator. This paper proposes a microscopic approach to modeling two implementation scenarios of an AMoD fleet. The city of Zurich is used as a case study, with the results and findings being generalizable to other similar European and North American cities. The data are based on the traffic model of the canton of Zurich (Gesamtverkehrsmodell des Kantons Zürich (GVM-ZH)). To determine financial profitability, demand is based on the simulation results and combined with analyzing the costs of a SAEV per kilometer. The results demonstrate that depending on the scenario; journeys can be offered profitably to customers for CHF 0.3 up to CHF 0.4 per kilometer. While larger fleets allowed for lower price levels and increased profits in the long term, smaller fleets exhibit elevated efficiency levels and profit opportunities per day. The paper concludes with recommendations for how fleet operators can prepare themselves to maximize profit in the autonomous future.

Keywords: autonomous vehicle, mobility on demand, traffic simulation, fleet provider

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380 Metropolis-Hastings Sampling Approach for High Dimensional Testing Methods of Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Nacer Eddine Chelbi, Ayet Bagane, Annie Saleh, Claude Sauvageau, Denis Gingras

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As recently stated by National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), to demonstrate the expected performance of a highly automated vehicles system, test approaches should include a combination of simulation, test track, and on-road testing. In this paper, we propose a new validation method for autonomous vehicles involving on-road tests (Field Operational Tests), test track (Test Matrix) and simulation (Worst Case Scenarios). We concentrate our discussion on the simulation aspects, in particular, we extend recent work based on Importance Sampling by using a Metropolis-Hasting algorithm (MHS) to sample collected data from the Safety Pilot Model Deployment (SPMD) in lane-change scenarios. Our proposed MH sampling method will be compared to the Importance Sampling method, which does not perform well in high-dimensional problems. The importance of this study is to obtain a sampler that could be applied to high dimensional simulation problems in order to reduce and optimize the number of test scenarios that are necessary for validation and certification of autonomous vehicles.

Keywords: automated driving, autonomous emergency braking (AEB), autonomous vehicles, certification, evaluation, importance sampling, metropolis-hastings sampling, tests

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379 Increasing Performance of Autopilot Guided Small Unmanned Helicopter

Authors: Tugrul Oktay, Mehmet Konar, Mustafa Soylak, Firat Sal, Murat Onay, Orhan Kizilkaya

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In this paper, autonomous performance of a small manufactured unmanned helicopter is tried to be increased. For this purpose, a small unmanned helicopter is manufactured in Erciyes University, Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics. It is called as ZANKA-Heli-I. For performance maximization, autopilot parameters are determined via minimizing a cost function consisting of flight performance parameters such as settling time, rise time, overshoot during trajectory tracking. For this purpose, a stochastic optimization method named as simultaneous perturbation stochastic approximation is benefited. Using this approach, considerable autonomous performance increase (around %23) is obtained.

Keywords: small helicopters, hierarchical control, stochastic optimization, autonomous performance maximization, autopilots

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378 Feasibility Study of Distributed Lightless Intersection Control with Level 1 Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: Bo Yang, Christopher Monterola

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Urban intersection control without the use of the traffic light has the potential to vastly improve the efficiency of the urban traffic flow. For most proposals in the literature, such lightless intersection control depends on the mass market commercialization of highly intelligent autonomous vehicles (AV), which limits the prospects of near future implementation. We present an efficient lightless intersection traffic control scheme that only requires Level 1 AV as defined by NHTSA. The technological barriers of such lightless intersection control are thus very low. Our algorithm can also accommodate a mixture of AVs and conventional vehicles. We also carry out large scale numerical analysis to illustrate the feasibility, safety and robustness, comfort level, and control efficiency of our intersection control scheme.

Keywords: intersection control, autonomous vehicles, traffic modelling, intelligent transport system

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377 Autonomous Flight Performance Improvement of Load-Carrying Unmanned Aerial Vehicles by Active Morphing

Authors: Tugrul Oktay, Mehmet Konar, Mohamed Abdallah Mohamed, Murat Aydin, Firat Sal, Murat Onay, Mustafa Soylak

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In this paper, it is aimed to improve autonomous flight performance of a load-carrying (payload: 3 kg and total: 6kg) unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) through active wing and horizontal tail active morphing and also integrated autopilot system parameters (i.e. P, I, D gains) and UAV parameters (i.e. extension ratios of wing and horizontal tail during flight) design. For this purpose, a loadcarrying UAV (i.e. ZANKA-II) is manufactured in Erciyes University, College of Aviation, Model Aircraft Laboratory is benefited. Optimum values of UAV parameters and autopilot parameters are obtained using a stochastic optimization method. Using this approach autonomous flight performance of UAV is substantially improved and also in some adverse weather conditions an opportunity for safe flight is satisfied. Active morphing and integrated design approach gives confidence, high performance and easy-utility request of UAV users.

Keywords: unmanned aerial vehicles, morphing, autopilots, autonomous performance

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376 Self-Reliant and Auto-Directed Learning: Modes, Elements, Fields and Scopes

Authors: Habibollah Mashhady, Behruz Lotfi, Mohammad Doosti, Moslem Fatollahi

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An exploration of the related literature reveals that all instruction methods aim at training autonomous learners. After the turn of second language pedagogy toward learner-oriented strategies, learners’ needs were more focused. Yet; the historical, social and political aspects of learning were still neglected. The present study investigates the notion of autonomous learning and explains its various facets from a pedagogical point of view. Furthermore; different elements, fields and scopes of autonomous learning will be explored. After exploring different aspects of autonomy, it is postulated that liberatory autonomy is highlighted since it not only covers social autonomy but also reveals learners’ capabilities and human potentials. It is also recommended that learners consider different elements of autonomy such as motivation, knowledge, confidence, and skills.

Keywords: critical pedagogy, social autonomy, academic learning, cultural notions

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375 Non-Linear Control Based on State Estimation for the Convoy of Autonomous Vehicles

Authors: M-M. Mohamed Ahmed, Nacer K. M’Sirdi, Aziz Naamane

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In this paper, a longitudinal and lateral control approach based on a nonlinear observer is proposed for a convoy of autonomous vehicles to follow a desired trajectory. To authors best knowledge, this topic has not yet been sufficiently addressed in the literature for the control of multi vehicles. The modeling of the convoy of the vehicles is revisited using a robotic method for simulation purposes and control design. With these models, a sliding mode observer is proposed to estimate the states of each vehicle in the convoy from the available sensors, then a sliding mode control based on this observer is used to control the longitudinal and lateral movement. The validation and performance evaluation are done using the well-known driving simulator Scanner-Studio. The results are presented for different maneuvers of 5 vehicles.

Keywords: autonomous vehicles, convoy, non-linear control, non-linear observer, sliding mode

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374 Autonomous Learning Motivates EFL Students to Learn English at Al Buraimi University College in the Sultanate of Oman: A Case Study

Authors: Yahia A. M. AlKhoudary

Abstract:

This Study presents the outcome of an investigation to evaluate the importance of autonomous learning as a means of motivation. However, very little research done in this field. Thus, the aims of this study are to ascertain the needs of the learners and to investigate their attitudes and motivation towards the mode of learning. Various suggestions made on how to improve learners’ participation in the learning process. A survey conducted on a sample group of 60 Omani College students. Self-report questionnaires and retrospective interviews conducted to find out their material-type preferences in a self-access learning context. Achieving autonomous learning system, which learners is one of the Ministry of Education goals in the Sultanate of Oman. As a result, this study presents the outcome of an investigation to evaluate the students’ performance in English as a Foreign Language (EFL). It focuses on the effect of autonomous learning that encourages students to learn English, a research conducted at Buraimi city, the Sultanate of Oman. The procedure of this investigation based on four dimensions: (1) sixty students are selected and divided into two groups, (2) pre and posttest projects are given to them, and (3) questionnaires are administered to both students who are involved in the experiment and 50 teachers (25 males and 25 females) to collect accurate data, (4) an interview with students and teachers to find out their attitude towards autonomous learning. Analysis of participants’ responses indicated that autonomous learning motivates students to learn English independently and increase the intrinsic rather than extrinsic motivation to improve their English language as a long-life active learning. The findings of this study show that autonomous learning approach is the best remedy to empower the students’ skills and overcome all relevant difficulties. They also show that secondary school teachers can fully rely on this learning approach that encourages language learners to monitor their progress, increase both learners and teachers’ motivation and ameliorate students’ behavior in the classroom. This approach is also an ongoing process, which takes time, patience and support to be lifelong learning.

Keywords: Omani, autonomous learning system, English as a Foreign Language (EFL), learning approach

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373 Design and Implementation of Bluetooth Controlled Autonomous Vehicle

Authors: Amanuel Berhanu Kesamo

Abstract:

This paper presents both circuit simulation and hardware implementation of a robot vehicle that can be either controlled manually via Bluetooth with video streaming or navigate autonomously to a target point by avoiding obstacles. In manual mode, the user controls the mobile robot using C# windows form interfaced via Bluetooth. The camera mounted on the robot is used to capture and send the real time video to the user. In autonomous mode, the robot plans the shortest path to the target point while avoiding obstacles along the way. Ultrasonic sensor is used for sensing the obstacle in its environment. An efficient path planning algorithm is implemented to navigate the robot along optimal route.

Keywords: Arduino Uno, autonomous, Bluetooth module, path planning, remote controlled robot, ultra sonic sensor

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