Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Search results for: Sakshi Piplani

17 Exploring Valproic Acid (VPA) Analogues Interactions with HDAC8 Involved in VPA Mediated Teratogenicity: A Toxicoinformatics Analysis

Authors: Sakshi Piplani, Ajit Kumar

Abstract:

Valproic acid (VPA) is the first synthetic therapeutic agent used to treat epileptic disorders, which account for affecting nearly 1% world population. Teratogenicity caused by VPA has prompted the search for next generation drug with better efficacy and lower side effects. Recent studies have posed HDAC8 as direct target of VPA that causes the teratogenic effect in foetus. We have employed molecular dynamics (MD) and docking simulations to understand the binding mode of VPA and their analogues onto HDAC8. A total of twenty 3D-structures of human HDAC8 isoforms were selected using BLAST-P search against PDB. Multiple sequence alignment was carried out using ClustalW and PDB-3F07 having least missing and mutated regions was selected for study. The missing residues of loop region were constructed using MODELLER and energy was minimized. A set of 216 structural analogues (>90% identity) of VPA were obtained from Pubchem and ZINC database and their energy was optimized with Chemsketch software using 3-D CHARMM-type force field. Four major neurotransmitters (GABAt, SSADH, α-KGDH, GAD) involved in anticonvulsant activity were docked with VPA and its analogues. Out of 216 analogues, 75 were selected on the basis of lower binding energy and inhibition constant as compared to VPA, thus predicted to have anti-convulsant activity. Selected hHDAC8 structure was then subjected to MD Simulation using licenced version YASARA with AMBER99SB force field. The structure was solvated in rectangular box of TIP3P. The simulation was carried out with periodic boundary conditions and electrostatic interactions and treated with Particle mesh Ewald algorithm. pH of system was set to 7.4, temperature 323K and pressure 1atm respectively. Simulation snapshots were stored every 25ps. The MD simulation was carried out for 20ns and pdb file of HDAC8 structure was saved every 2ns. The structures were analysed using castP and UCSF Chimera and most stabilized structure (20ns) was used for docking study. Molecular docking of 75 selected VPA-analogues with PDB-3F07 was performed using AUTODOCK4.2.6. Lamarckian Genetic Algorithm was used to generate conformations of docked ligand and structure. The docking study revealed that VPA and its analogues have more affinity towards ‘hydrophobic active site channel’, due to its hydrophobic properties and allows VPA and their analogues to take part in van der Waal interactions with TYR24, HIS42, VAL41, TYR20, SER138, TRP137 while TRP137 and SER138 showed hydrogen bonding interaction with VPA-analogues. 14 analogues showed better binding affinity than VPA. ADMET SAR server was used to predict the ADMET properties of selected VPA analogues for predicting their druggability. On the basis of ADMET screening, 09 molecules were selected and are being used for in-vivo evaluation using Danio rerio model.

Keywords: HDAC8, docking, molecular dynamics simulation, valproic acid

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16 Implementation of Proof of Work Using Ganache

Authors: Sakshi Singh, Shampa Chakraverty

Abstract:

One of the essential characteristics of Blockchain is the ability to validate the integrity of new transactions added to the Blockchain. Moreover, one of the essential consensus algorithms, Proof of Work, performs this job. In this work, we implemented the Proof of Work consensus method on the block formed by performing the transaction using Ganache. The primary goal of this implementation is to understand the process and record how Proof of Work works in reality on newly created blocks.

Keywords: proof of work, blockchain, ganache, smart contract

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15 Experimental and Theoretical Studies for Removal of Dyes from Industrial Wastewater Using Bioremediation

Authors: Sakshi Batra, Suresh Gupta, Pratik Pande, Navneet Kaur, Lovdeep Kaur

Abstract:

The objective of this study is removal of Methylene blue dye or reactive orange-16 from industrial waste water or from soil using bioremediation technique. As huge amount of dyes are releasing from textile industry in water and soil environment during dyeing process. In this study, we focused on removal of Methylene blue dye and Reactive orange dye from industrial soil at different initial concentration of dye. An experiment study was carried out at methylene blue dye or Reactive orange-16 dye at varying concentration of both the dye as 50 ppm, 100ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm and 400 ppm. Maximum removal is obtained at 16-20 hours Experiments are carried out for pH, Temperature and MSM composition. The final concentration has been observed by UV-VIS. The two species has been isolated from the Industrial effluent. Finally the product analysis has been done by GC-MS.

Keywords: bioremediation, cultural growth, dyes, environment

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14 Inclusivity in Public Spaces through Architecture: A Case of Transgender Community in India

Authors: Sakshi Dhruve, Ar. Sarang Barbarwar

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Public spaces are the locus of activity and interaction in any urban area. Such spaces provide identity to cities, towns or neighborhoods and define the people and culture over there. Inclusiveness is one of the core aspects of public or community spaces. With its humongous population and rapidly expanding urban areas, India needs more inclusivity in public spaces to attain true equitable development. The aim of the paper is to discuss the sensitivity of public spaces in India to the transgender community. The study shows how this community was legally included as ‘Third Gender’ in country’s legislation yet lacks social acceptance and security. It shows the challenges and issues faced by them at public spaces. The community was studied on ethnographic basis to understand their culture, lifestyle, requirements, etc. The findings have indicated towards a social stigma from people and insensitivity in designing of civic spaces. The larger objective of the study is also to provide recommendations on the design aspects and interventions in public places to increase their inclusiveness towards the transgender society.

Keywords: community spaces, ethnographic, stigma, Third Gender community

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13 Cocrystals of Etodolac: A Crystal Engineering Approach with an Endeavor to Enhance Its Biopharmaceutical Assets

Authors: Sakshi Tomar, Renu Chadha

Abstract:

Cocrystallization comprises a selective route to the intensive design of pharmaceutical products with desired physiochemical and pharmacokinetic properties. The present study is focused on the preparation, characterization, and evaluation of etodolac (ET) co-crystals with coformers nicotinamide (ETNI) and Glutaric acid (ETGA), using cocrystallization approach. Preliminarily examination of the prepared co-crystal was done by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). DSC thermographs of ETNI and ETGA cocrystals showed single sharp melting endotherms at 144°C and 135°C, respectively, which were different from the melting of drugs and coformers. FT-IR study points towards carbonyl-acid interaction sandwiched between the involving molecules. The emergence of new peaks in the PXRD pattern confirms the formation of new crystalline solid forms. Both the cocrystals exhibited better apparent solubility, and 3.8-5.0 folds increase in IDR were established, as compared to pure etodolac. Evaluations of these solid forms were done using anti-osteoarthritic activities. All the results indicate that etodolac cocrystals possess better anti-osteoarthritic efficacy than free drug. Thus loom of cocrystallization has been found to be a viable approach to resolve the solubility and bioavailability issues that circumvent the use of potential antiosteoarthritic molecules.

Keywords: bioavailability, etodolac, nicotinamide, osteoarthritis

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12 Molecular Portraits: The Role of Posttranslational Modification in Cancer Metastasis

Authors: Navkiran Kaur, Apoorva Mathur, Abhishree Agarwal, Sakshi Gupta, Tuhin Rashmi

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Aim: Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide, and resistance to the current therapeutics, often concurrently, is an increasing clinical challenge. Glycosylation of proteins is one of the most important post-translational modifications. It is widely known that aberrant glycosylation has been implicated in many different diseases due to changes associated with biological function and protein folding. Alterations in cell surface glycosylation, can promote invasive behavior of tumor cells that ultimately lead to the progression of cancer. In breast cancer, there is an increasing evidence pertaining to the role of glycosylation in tumor formation and metastasis. In the present study, an attempt has been made to study the disease associated sialoglycoproteins in breast cancer by using bioinformatics tools. The sequence will be retrieved from UniProt database. A database in the form of a word document was made by a collection of FASTA sequences of breast cancer gene sequence. Glycosylation was studied using yinOyang tool on ExPASy and Differential genes expression and protein analysis was done in context of breast cancer metastasis. The number of residues predicted O-glc NAc threshold containing 50 aberrant glycosylation sites or more was detected and recorded for individual sequence. We found that the there is a significant change in the expression profiling of glycosylation patterns of various proteins associated with breast cancer. Differential aberrant glycosylated proteins in breast cancer cells with respect to non-neoplastic cells are an important factor for the overall progression and development of cancer.

Keywords: breast cancer, bioinformatics, cancer, metastasis, glycosylation

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11 Understanding Mental Constructs of Language and Emotion

Authors: Sakshi Ghai

Abstract:

The word ‘emotion’ has been microscopically studied through psychological, anthropological and biological lenses and have indubitably been one of the most researched concepts as, in all situations and reactions that constitute human life, emotions form the very niche of our mutual existence. While understanding the social aspects of cognition, one can realize that emotions are deeply interwoven with language and thereby are pivotal in inducing human actions and behavior. The society or the outward social structure is the result of the inward psychological structure of our human relationships, for the individual is the result of the total experience, knowledge and conduct of man. The aim of this paper is threefold: first, to establish the relation between mental representations of emotions and its neuropsychological connection with language on a conscious and sub-conscious level; secondly, to describe how innate, basic and higher cognitive emotions affect the constantly changing state of an agent and peruse its assistance in determining the moral compass within all beings. Lastly, in the course of this paper, the concept of the architecture of mind is explored considering how it has developed an ability to display adaptive emotional states and responses, which are in sync with the language of thought. For every response to the social environment is so deeply determined by the very social milieu in which one is situated, language has a fundamental role in constructing emotions and articulating behavior. Being linguistic beings, we tend to associate emotion, feelings and other aspects of inwards mental states intrinsically with the language we use. This paper aims to devise a discursive approach to understand how emotions are fabricated, intertwined with the mental constructs further expressed and communicated through the various units of language.

Keywords: mental representation, emotion, language, psychology

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10 Designing, Preparation and Structural Evaluation of Co-Crystals of Oxaprozin

Authors: Maninderjeet K. Grewal, Sakshi Bhatnor, Renu Chadha

Abstract:

The composition of pharmaceutical entities and the molecular interactions can be altered to optimize drug properties such as solubility and bioavailability by the crystal engineering technique. The present work has emphasized on the preparation, characterization, and biopharmaceutical evaluation of co-crystal of BCS Class II anti-osteoarthritis drug, Oxaprozin (OXA) with aspartic acid (ASPA) as co-former. The co-crystals were prepared through the mechanochemical solvent drop grinding method. Characterization of the prepared co-crystal (OXA-ASPA) was done by using analytical tools such as differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD). DSC thermogram of OXA-ASPA cocrystal showed a single sharp melting endotherm at 235 ºC, which was between the melting peaks of the drug and the counter molecules suggesting the formation of a new phase which is a co-crystal that was further confirmed by using other analytical techniques. FT-IR analysis of OXA-ASPA cocrystal showed a shift in a hydroxyl, carbonyl, and amine peaks as compared to pure drugs indicating all these functional groups are participating in cocrystal formation. The appearance of new peaks in the PXRD pattern of cocrystals in comparison to individual components showed that a new crystalline entity has been formed. The Crystal structure of cocrystal was determined using material studio software (Biovia) from PXRD. The equilibrium solubility study of OXA-ASPA showed improvement in solubility as compared to pure drug. Therefore, it was envisioned to prepare the co-crystal of oxaprozin with a suitable conformer to modulate its physiochemical properties and consequently, the biopharmaceutical parameters.

Keywords: cocrystals, coformer, oxaprozin, solubility

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9 Intervening into the World of a Cyber-Bully

Authors: Aanshika Puri, Sakshi Mehrotra

Abstract:

Technology has always been a double edged sword. The constant rut of updating oneself to a better and newer version is the new norm. ‘Being Online’ is the latest addition to one’s everyday routine. Availability of various social online platforms being served on a platter topped with easy and cheap access to the internet makes it simple and doable for people of all social backgrounds. Interestingly, in India, a recent development is the line of demarcation between people from varied backgrounds, doing the vanishing act. One finds everybody on at least one, if not more, social platforms in a desire to stay connected. For instance, this ranges from sending a ‘WhatsApp’ message to a vegetable vendor for ordering your daily needs to vendors and small entrepreneurs. Even a rickshaw puller now has access to a mobile phone, an internet connection and apps/ platforms to stay connected. Recent observations show the extent to which everyone is hooked on to their mobile phones/ tabs/ laptops/ etc. Young mothers use them to distract their children and keep them busy while they finish the task at hand. Exposure to this part of the technology at such a tender age requires responsible and careful handling. Talking of adolescents, their self- image depends on their online social image to a large extent. There is a desire to be liked and accepted by the peer group at all times. Cyber-bullying is a by-product of the 24/7 availability of these resources. There is enough research-based evidence to prove the psychosocial and emotional impact on the development and well-being of the victim. The present paper attempts to understand the dynamics of cyber bullying vis-à-vis the developmental and mental health issues faced by the bully.

Keywords: Developmental Psychology, Empathy & Resilience Based Interventions, Mental Well-Being of Cyber Bully, Positive Psychology

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8 Deep Learning-Based Approach to Automatic Abstractive Summarization of Patent Documents

Authors: Sakshi V. Tantak, Vishap K. Malik, Neelanjney Pilarisetty

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A patent is an exclusive right granted for an invention. It can be a product or a process that provides an innovative method of doing something, or offers a new technical perspective or solution to a problem. A patent can be obtained by making the technical information and details about the invention publicly available. The patent owner has exclusive rights to prevent or stop anyone from using the patented invention for commercial uses. Any commercial usage, distribution, import or export of a patented invention or product requires the patent owner’s consent. It has been observed that the central and important parts of patents are scripted in idiosyncratic and complex linguistic structures that can be difficult to read, comprehend or interpret for the masses. The abstracts of these patents tend to obfuscate the precise nature of the patent instead of clarifying it via direct and simple linguistic constructs. This makes it necessary to have an efficient access to this knowledge via concise and transparent summaries. However, as mentioned above, due to complex and repetitive linguistic constructs and extremely long sentences, common extraction-oriented automatic text summarization methods should not be expected to show a remarkable performance when applied to patent documents. Other, more content-oriented or abstractive summarization techniques are able to perform much better and generate more concise summaries. This paper proposes an efficient summarization system for patents using artificial intelligence, natural language processing and deep learning techniques to condense the knowledge and essential information from a patent document into a single summary that is easier to understand without any redundant formatting and difficult jargon.

Keywords: abstractive summarization, deep learning, natural language Processing, patent document

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7 Importance of Detecting Malingering Patients in Clinical Setting

Authors: Sakshi Chopra, Harsimarpreet Kaur, Ashima Nehra

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Objectives: Malingering is fabricating or exaggerating the symptoms of mental or physical disorders for a variety of secondary gains or motives, which may include financial compensation; avoiding work; getting lighter criminal sentences; or simply to attract attention or sympathy. Malingering is different from somatization disorder and factitious disorder. The prevalence of malingering is unknown and difficult to determine. In an estimated study in forensic population, it can reach up to 17% cases. But the accuracy of such estimates is questionable as successful malingerers are not detected and thus, not included. Methods: The case study of a 58 years old, right handed, graduate, pre-morbidly working in a national company with reported history of stroke leading to head injury; cerebral infarction/facial palsy and dementia. He was referred for disability certification so that his job position can be transferred to his son as he could not work anymore. A series of Neuropsychological tests were administered. Results: With a mental age of < 2.5 years; social adaptive functioning was overall < 20 showing profound Mental Retardation, less than 1 year social age in abilities of self-help, eating, dressing, locomotion, occupation, communication, self-direction, and socialization; severely impaired verbal and performance ability, 96% impairment in Activities of Daily Living, with an indication of very severe depression. With inconsistent and fluctuating medical findings and problem descriptions to different health professionals forming the board for his disability, it was concluded that this patient was malingering. Conclusions: Even though it can be easily defined, malingering can be very challenging to diagnosis. Cases of malingering impose a substantial economic burden on the health care system and false attribution of malingering imposes a substantial burden of suffering on a significant proportion of the patient population. Timely, tactful diagnosis and management can help ease this patient burden on the healthcare system. Malingering can be detected by only trained mental health professionals in the clinical setting.

Keywords: disability, India, malingering, neuropsychological assessment

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6 Visibility of the Borders of the Mandibular Canal: A Comparative in Vitro Study Using Digital Panoramic Radiography, Reformatted Panoramic Radiography and Cross Sectional Cone Beam Computed Tomography

Authors: Keerthilatha Pai, Sakshi Kamra

Abstract:

Objectives: Determining the position of the mandibular canal prior to implant placement and surgeries of the posterior mandible are important to avoid the nerve injury. The visibility of the mandibular canal varies according to the imaging modality. Although panoramic radiography is the most common, slowly cone beam computed tomography is replacing it. This study was conducted with an aim to determine and compare the visibility of superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal in digital panoramic radiograph, reformatted panoramic radiograph and cross-sectional images of cone beam computed tomography. Study design: digital panoramic, reformatted panoramic radiograph and cross sectional CBCT images of 25 human mandibles were evaluated for the visibility of the superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal according to a 5 point scoring criteria. Also, the canal was evaluated as completely visible, partially visible and not visible. The mean scores and visibility percentage of all the imaging modalities were determined and compared. The interobserver and intraobserver agreement in the visualization of the superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal were determined. Results: The superior and inferior borders of the mandibular canal were completely visible in 47% of the samples in digital panoramic, 63% in reformatted panoramic and 75.6% in CBCT cross-sectional images. The mandibular canal was invisible in 24% of samples in digital panoramic, 19% in reformatted panoramic and 2% in cross-sectional CBCT images. Maximum visibility was seen in Zone 5 and least visibility in Zone 1. On comparison of all the imaging modalities, CBCT cross-sectional images showed better visibility of superior border in Zones 2,3,4,6 and inferior border in Zones 2,3,4,6. The difference was statistically significant. Conclusion: CBCT cross-sectional images were much superior in the visualization of the mandibular canal in comparison to reformatted and digital panoramic radiographs. The inferior border was better visualized in comparison to the superior border in digital panoramic imaging. The mandibular canal was maximumly visible in posterior one-third region of the mandible and the visibility decreased towards the mental foramen.

Keywords: cone beam computed tomography, mandibular canal, reformatted panoramic radiograph, visualization

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5 Therapeutic Power of Words through Reading Writing and Storytelling

Authors: Sakshi Kaul, Sundeep Verma

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The focus of the current paper is to evaluate the therapeutic power of words. This will be done by critically evaluating the impact reading, writing and storytelling have on individuals. When we read, tell or listen to a story we are exercising our imagination. Imagination becomes the source of activation of thoughts and actions. This enables and helps the reader, writer or the listener to express the suppressed emotions or desires. The stories told, untold may bring various human emotions and attributes to forth such as hope, optimism, fear, happiness. Each story narrated evokes different emotions, at times they help us unravel ourselves in the world of the teller thereby bringing solace. Stories heard or told add to individual’s life by creating a community around, giving wings of thoughts that enable individual to be more imaginative and creative thereby fostering positively and happiness. Reading if looked at from the reader’s point of view can broaden the horizon of information and ideas about facts and life laws giving more meaning to life. From ‘once upon a time’ to ‘to happily ever after’, all that stories talk about is life’s learning. The power of words sometimes may be negated, this paper would reiterate the power of words by critically evaluating how words can become powerful and therapeutic in various structures and forms in the society. There is a story behind every situation, action and reaction. Hence it is of prime importance to understand each story, to enable a person to deal with whatever he or she may be going through. For example, if a client is going through some trauma in his or her life, the counsellor needs to know exactly what is the turmoil that is being faced so that the client can be assisted accordingly. Counselling is considered a process of healing through words or as Talk therapy, where merely through words we try to heal the client. In a counselling session, the counsellor focuses on working with the clients to bring a positive change. The counsellor allows the client to express themselves which is referred to as catharsis. The words spoken, written or heard transcend to heal and can be therapeutic. The therapeutic power of words has been seen in various cultural practices and belief systems. The underlining belief that words have the power to heal, save and bring change has existed from ages. Many religious and spiritual practices also acclaim the power of the words. Through this empirical paper, we have tried to bring to light how reading, writing, and storytelling have been used as mediums of healing and have been therapeutic in nature.

Keywords: reading, storytelling, therapeutic, words

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4 Emoji, the Language of the Future: An Analysis of the Usage and Understanding of Emoji across User-Groups

Authors: Sakshi Bhalla

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On the one hand, given their seemingly simplistic, near universal usage and understanding, emoji are discarded as a potential step back in the evolution of communication. On the other, their effectiveness, pervasiveness, and adaptability across and within contexts are undeniable. In this study, the responses of 40 people (categorized by age) were recorded based on a uniform two-part questionnaire where they were required to a) identify the meaning of 15 emoji when placed in isolation, and b) interpret the meaning of the same 15 emoji when placed in a context-defining posting on Twitter. Their responses were studied on the basis of deviation from their responses that identified the emoji in isolation, as well as the originally intended meaning ascribed to the emoji. Based on an analysis of these results, it was discovered that each of the five age categories uses, understands and perceives emoji differently, which could be attributed to the degree of exposure they have undergone. For example, in the case of the youngest category (aged < 20), it was observed that they were the least accurate at correctly identifying emoji in isolation (~55%). Further, their proclivity to change their response with respect to the context was also the least (~31%). However, an analysis of each of their individual responses showed that these first-borns of social media seem to have reached a point where emojis no longer inspire their most literal meanings to them. The meaning and implication of these emoji have evolved to imply their context-derived meanings, even when placed in isolation. These trends carry forward meaningfully for the other four groups as well. In the case of the oldest category (aged > 35), however, the trends indicated inaccuracy and therefore, a higher incidence of a proclivity to change their responses. When studied in a continuum, the responses indicate that slowly and steadily, emoji are evolving from pictograms to ideograms. That is to suggest that they do not just indicate a one-to-one relation between a singular form and singular meaning. In fact, they communicate increasingly complicated ideas. This is much like the evolution of ancient hieroglyphics on papyrus reed or cuneiform on Sumerian clay tablets, which evolved from simple pictograms to progressively more complex ideograms. This evolution within communication is parallel to and contingent on the simultaneous evolution of communication. What’s astounding is the capacity of humans to leverage different platforms to facilitate such changes. Twiterese, as it is now called, is one of the instances where language is adapting to the demands of the digital world. That it does not have a spoken component, an ostensible grammar, and lacks standardization of use and meaning, as some might suggest, may seem like impediments in qualifying it as the 'language' of the digital world. However, that kind of a declarative remains a function of time, and time alone.

Keywords: communication, emoji, language, Twitter

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3 Kinematic Modelling and Task-Based Synthesis of a Passive Architecture for an Upper Limb Rehabilitation Exoskeleton

Authors: Sakshi Gupta, Anupam Agrawal, Ekta Singla

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An exoskeleton design for rehabilitation purpose encounters many challenges, including ergonomically acceptable wearing technology, architectural design human-motion compatibility, actuation type, human-robot interaction, etc. In this paper, a passive architecture for upper limb exoskeleton is proposed for assisting in rehabilitation tasks. Kinematic modelling is detailed for task-based kinematic synthesis of the wearable exoskeleton for self-feeding tasks. The exoskeleton architecture possesses expansion and torsional springs which are able to store and redistribute energy over the human arm joints. The elastic characteristics of the springs have been optimized to minimize the mechanical work of the human arm joints. The concept of hybrid combination of a 4-bar parallelogram linkage and a serial linkage were chosen, where the 4-bar parallelogram linkage with expansion spring acts as a rigid structure which is used to provide the rotational degree-of-freedom (DOF) required for lowering and raising of the arm. The single linkage with torsional spring allows for the rotational DOF required for elbow movement. The focus of the paper is kinematic modelling, analysis and task-based synthesis framework for the proposed architecture, keeping in considerations the essential tasks of self-feeding and self-exercising during rehabilitation of partially healthy person. Rehabilitation of primary functional movements (activities of daily life, i.e., ADL) is routine activities that people tend to every day such as cleaning, dressing, feeding. We are focusing on the feeding process to make people independent in respect of the feeding tasks. The tasks are focused to post-surgery patients under rehabilitation with less than 40% weakness. The challenges addressed in work are ensuring to emulate the natural movement of the human arm. Human motion data is extracted through motion-sensors for targeted tasks of feeding and specific exercises. Task-based synthesis procedure framework will be discussed for the proposed architecture. The results include the simulation of the architectural concept for tracking the human-arm movements while displaying the kinematic and static study parameters for standard human weight. D-H parameters are used for kinematic modelling of the hybrid-mechanism, and the model is used while performing task-based optimal synthesis utilizing evolutionary algorithm.

Keywords: passive mechanism, task-based synthesis, emulating human-motion, exoskeleton

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2 Hybridization of Mathematical Transforms for Robust Video Watermarking Technique

Authors: Harpal Singh, Sakshi Batra

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The widespread and easy accesses to multimedia contents and possibility to make numerous copies without loss of significant fidelity have roused the requirement of digital rights management. Thus this problem can be effectively solved by Digital watermarking technology. This is a concept of embedding some sort of data or special pattern (watermark) in the multimedia content; this information will later prove ownership in case of a dispute, trace the marked document’s dissemination, identify a misappropriating person or simply inform user about the rights-holder. The primary motive of digital watermarking is to embed the data imperceptibly and robustly in the host information. Extensive counts of watermarking techniques have been developed to embed copyright marks or data in digital images, video, audio and other multimedia objects. With the development of digital video-based innovations, copyright dilemma for the multimedia industry increases. Video watermarking had been proposed in recent years to serve the issue of illicit copying and allocation of videos. It is the process of embedding copyright information in video bit streams. Practically video watermarking schemes have to address some serious challenges as compared to image watermarking schemes like real-time requirements in the video broadcasting, large volume of inherently redundant data between frames, the unbalance between the motion and motionless regions etc. and they are particularly vulnerable to attacks, for example, frame swapping, statistical analysis, rotation, noise, median and crop attacks. In this paper, an effective, robust and imperceptible video watermarking algorithm is proposed based on hybridization of powerful mathematical transforms; Fractional Fourier Transform (FrFT), Discrete Wavelet transforms (DWT) and Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) using redundant wavelet. This scheme utilizes various transforms for embedding watermarks on different layers by using Hybrid systems. For this purpose, the video frames are portioned into layers (RGB) and the watermark is being embedded in two forms in the video frames using SVD portioning of the watermark, and DWT sub-band decomposition of host video, to facilitate copyright safeguard as well as reliability. The FrFT orders are used as the encryption key that allows the watermarking method to be more robust against various attacks. The fidelity of the scheme is enhanced by introducing key generation and wavelet based key embedding watermarking scheme. Thus, for watermark embedding and extraction, same key is required. Therefore the key must be shared between the owner and the verifier via some safe network. This paper demonstrates the performance by considering different qualitative metrics namely Peak Signal to Noise ratio, Structure similarity index and correlation values and also apply some attacks to prove the robustness. The Experimental results are presented to demonstrate that the proposed scheme can withstand a variety of video processing attacks as well as imperceptibility.

Keywords: discrete wavelet transform, robustness, video watermarking, watermark

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1 Development & Standardization of a Literacy Free Cognitive Rehabilitation Program for Patients Post Traumatic Brain Injury

Authors: Sakshi Chopra, Ashima Nehra, Sumit Sinha, Harsimarpreet Kaur, Ravindra Mohan Pandey

Abstract:

Background: Cognitive rehabilitation aims to retrain brain injured individuals with cognitive deficits to restore or compensate lost functions. As illiterates or people with low literacy levels represent a significant proportion of the world, specific rehabilitation modules for such populations are indispensable. Literacy is significantly associated with all neuropsychological measures and retraining programs widely use written or spoken techniques which essentially require the patient to read or write. So, the aim of the study was to develop and standardize a literacy free neuropsychological rehabilitation program for improving cognitive functioning in patients with mild and moderate Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Several studies have pointed out to the impairments seen in memory, executive functioning, and attention and concentration post-TBI, so the rehabilitation program focussed on these domains. Visual item memorization, stick constructions, symbol cancellations, and colouring techniques were used to construct the retraining program. Methodology: The development of the program consisted of planning, preparing, analyzing, and revising the different modules. The construction focussed on areas of retraining immediate and delayed visual memory, planning ability, focused and divided attention, concentration, and response inhibition (to control irritability and aggression). A total of 98 home based retraining modules were prepared in the 4 domains (42 for memory, 42 for executive functioning, 7 for attention and concentration, and 7 for response inhibition). The standardization was done on 20 healthy controls to review, select and edit items. For each module, the time, errors made and errors per second were noted down, to establish the difficulty level of each module and were arranged in increasing level of difficulty over a period of 6 weeks. The retraining tasks were then administered on 11 brain injured individuals (5 after Mild TBI and 6 after Moderate TBI). These patients were referred from the Trauma Centre to Clinical Neuropsychology OPD, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Results: The time was taken, errors made and errors per second were analysed for all domains. Education levels were divided into illiterates, up to 10 years, 10 years to graduation and graduation and above. Mean and standard deviations were calculated. Between group and within group analysis was done using the t-test. The performance of 20 healthy controls was analyzed and only a significant difference was observed on the time taken for the attention tasks and all other domains had non-significant differences in performance between different education levels. Comparing the errors, time taken between patient and control group, there was a significant difference in all the domains at the 0.01 level except the errors made on executive functioning, indicating that the tool can successfully differentiate between healthy controls and patient groups. Conclusions: Apart from the time taken for symbol cancellations, the entire cognitive rehabilitation program is literacy free. As it taps the major areas of impairment post-TBI, it could be a useful tool to rehabilitate the patient population with low literacy levels across the world. The next step is already underway to test its efficacy in improving cognitive functioning in a randomized clinical controlled trial.

Keywords: cognitive rehabilitation, illiterates, India, traumatic brain injury

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