Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 20

Search results for: Pratik Pande

20 Experimental and Theoretical Studies for Removal of Dyes from Industrial Wastewater Using Bioremediation

Authors: Sakshi Batra, Suresh Gupta, Pratik Pande, Navneet Kaur, Lovdeep Kaur


The objective of this study is removal of Methylene blue dye or reactive orange-16 from industrial waste water or from soil using bioremediation technique. As huge amount of dyes are releasing from textile industry in water and soil environment during dyeing process. In this study, we focused on removal of Methylene blue dye and Reactive orange dye from industrial soil at different initial concentration of dye. An experiment study was carried out at methylene blue dye or Reactive orange-16 dye at varying concentration of both the dye as 50 ppm, 100ppm, 200 ppm, 300 ppm and 400 ppm. Maximum removal is obtained at 16-20 hours Experiments are carried out for pH, Temperature and MSM composition. The final concentration has been observed by UV-VIS. The two species has been isolated from the Industrial effluent. Finally the product analysis has been done by GC-MS.

Keywords: bioremediation, cultural growth, dyes, environment

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19 Applications of Sulfur Nanoparticles: Synthesis and Characterizations

Authors: Sandeep K. Shukla, Roli Jain, Soumitra S. Pande, Archna Pandey


Sulfur nanoparticles were prepared by different methods with different sizes and shapes. When the sulfur is present as nanoparticles they have many practical applications in our life. This research discusses sulfur nanoparticles synthesis, characterizations and applications. With dandruff being a common everyday problem and the market is loaded with antidandruff shampoos and such skin care products, it is obvious to assume resourceful research into this area would be both objective to present scenario and potentially lucrative. Nanoparticles are frequently in use in some very powerful antimicrobial, antifungal cosmetics nowadays, especially silver. To check its antidandruff activity, experiments have been conducted on Malassezia furfur the causal organism for seborrheaic dermatitis or dandruff, which have been cultured for such study in our lab.

Keywords: CTAB surfactant SEM, sulfur nanoparticles (S-NPs), XRD, polymeric surfactant

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18 Training of Sensors for Early Warning System of Rainfall Induced Landslides

Authors: M. Naresh, Pratik Chaturvedi, Srishti Yadav, Varun Dutt, K. V. Uday


Changes in the Earth’s climate are likely to increase natural hazards such as drought, floods, earthquakes, landslides, etc. The present study focusing on to early warning systems (EWS) of landslides, major issues in Himalayan region without prominence to deforestation, encroachments and un-engineered cutting of slopes and reforming for infrastructural purposes. EWS can be depicted by conducting a series of flume tests using micro-electro mechanical systems sensors data after reaching threshold values under controlled laboratory conditions. Based on the threshold value database, an alert will be sent via SMS.

Keywords: slope-instability, flume test, sensors, early warning system

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17 Experimental Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Protruded Rectangular Fin

Authors: Tarique Jamil Khan, Swapnil Pande


The investigation deals with the study of heat transfer enhancement using protruded square fin. This study is enough to determine whether protrusion in forced convection is enough to enhance the rate of heat transfer. It includes the results after performing experiments by using a plane rectangular fin of aluminum material and the same dimension rectangular fin of the same material but having protruded circular shape extended normally. The fins made by a sand casting method. The results clearly mentioned that the protruded surface is effective enough to enhance the rate of heat transfer. This research investigates a modern fin topologies heat transfer characteristics that will clearly outdated the conventional fin to increase the rate of heat transfer. Protruded fins improve the rate of heat transfer compared to solid fin by varying shape of the protrusion in diameter and height.

Keywords: heat transfer enhancement, forced convection, protruted fin, rectangular fin

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16 Dynamics of Hybrid Language in Urban and Rural Uttar Pradesh India

Authors: Divya Pande


The dynamics of culture expresses itself in language. Even after India got independence in 1947 English subtly crept in the language of the masses with a silent and powerful flow towards the vernacular. The culture contact resulted in learning and emergence of a new language across the Hindi speaking belt of Northern and Central India. The hybrid words thus formed displaced the original word and got contextualized and absorbed in the language of the common masses. The research paper explores the interesting new vocabulary used extensively in the urban and rural districts of the state of Uttar- Pradesh which is the most populous state of India. The paper adopts a two way classification- formal and contextual for the analysis of the hybrid vocabulary of the linguistic items where one element is necessarily from the English language and the other from the Hindi. The new vocabulary represents languages of the wider world cutting across the geographical and the cultural barriers. The paper also broadly points out to the Hinglish commonly used in the state.

Keywords: assimilation, culture contact, Hinglish, hybrid words

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15 Spillage Prediction Using Fluid-Structure Interaction Simulation with Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Technique

Authors: Ravi Soni, Irfan Pathan, Manish Pande


The current product development process needs simultaneous consideration of different physics. The performance of the product needs to be considered under both structural and fluid loads. Examples include ducts and valves where structural behavior affects fluid motion and vice versa. Simulation of fluid-structure interaction involves modeling interaction between moving components and the fluid flow. In these scenarios, it is difficult to calculate the damping provided by fluid flow because of dynamic motions of components and the transient nature of the flow. Abaqus Explicit offers general capabilities for modeling fluid-structure interaction with the Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian (CEL) method. The Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian technique has been used to simulate fluid spillage through fuel valves during dynamic closure events. The technique to simulate pressure drops across Eulerian domains has been developed using stagnation pressure. Also, the fluid flow is calculated considering material flow through elements at the outlet section of the valves. The methodology has been verified on Eaton products and shows a good correlation with the test results.

Keywords: Coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian Technique, fluid structure interaction, spillage prediction, stagnation pressure

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14 Synthesis and Thermoluminescence Study of Nanocrystalline Radiation Dosimeter CaSO₄:Ce/Sm/Dy

Authors: Anant Pandey, Kanika Sharma, Vibha Chopra, Shaila Bahl, Pratik Kumar, S. P. Lochab, Birendra Singh


This paper reports the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of nanocrystalline CaSO₄ activated by Ce, Sm, and Dy. TL properties are investigated by chiefly changing the dopant element and also by varying the concentration of the dopant elements (from 0.05 mol % to 0.5 mol %) so as to establish the optimized dopant concentration for each of the activators. The method of salt preparation used is the typical chemical co-precipitation method and the technique used for characterization of the prepared samples is the X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) technique. Further, the phosphors are irradiated with gamma radiation from Co-60 (1.25 MeV) source (dose range- 30 Gy to 500 Gy). The optimized concentration (vis-a-vis TL peak intensity) of activator for CaSO₄:Ce is found to be 0.2 mol %, for CaSO₄:Sm it is 0.1 mol % and for CaSO₄:Dy it is 0.2 mol %. Further, the primary study of the TL response curves for all the three phosphors confirms linearity in the studied dose range (i.e., 30 Gy to 500 Gy). Finally, CaSO₄:Dy was also studied for its energy dependence property which plays an important role in defining the utility of a phosphor for dosimetric applications. The range of doses used for the energy dependence study was from 30 Gy to 500 Gy from Cs-137 (0.662 MeV). The nano-phosphors showed potential to be used as radiation dosimeter in the studied range of gamma radiation and thus must be studied for a wider range of doses.

Keywords: gamma radiation, nanocrystalline, radiation dosimetry, thermoluminescence

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13 In-Silico Evaluation and Antihyperglycemic Potential of Leucas Cephalotes

Authors: Anjali Verma, Mahesh Pal, Veena Pande, Dalip Kumar Upreti


The present study is carried out to explore the anti-hyperglycemic activity of Leucas cephalotes plant parts. A fruit, leaves, stems, and roots part of the Leucas cephalotes has been extracted in ethanol and have been evaluated for anti-hyperglycemic activity. The present study indicated that, ethanolic extract of fruit and leaves have shown significant α- amylase inhibitory activity with IC50 value of 92.86 ± 0.89 μg/mL and 98.09 ± 0.69 μg/mL respectively. Two known compounds β-sitosterol and lupeol were isolated from ethanolic extract of L. cephalotes leaves and were subjected to anti-hyperglycemic activity. Lupeol shows the best activity with IC50 55.73 ± 0.47 μg/mL and the results were verified by docking study of these compounds with mammalian α-amylase was carried out on its active site. It was concluded from the study that β-sitosterol and lupeol form one H-bond interactions with the active site residues either Asp212 or Thr21. The estimated free energy binding of β-sitosterol was found to be -9.47 kcal mol-1 with an estimated inhibition constant (Ki) of 558.94 nmol whereas the estimated free energy binding of lupeol was -11.73 kcal mol-1 with an estimated inhibition constant (Ki) of 476.71pmmol. The present study clearly showed that lupeol is more potent in comparison to β-sitosterol. The study indicates that L. cephalotes have significant potential to inhibit α-amylase enzyme.

Keywords: alpha-amylase, beta-sitosterol, hyperglycemia, lupeol

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12 Investigating Nanocrystalline CaF2:Tm for Carbon Beam and Gamma Radiation Dosimetry

Authors: Kanika Sharma, Shaila Bahl, Birendra Singh, Pratik Kumar, S. P. Lochab, A. Pandey


In the present investigation, initially nano-particles of CaF2 were prepared by the chemical co-precipitation method and later the prepared salt was activated by thulium (0.1 mol%) using the combustion technique. The final product was characterized and confirmed by X-Ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Further, the thermoluminescence (TL) properties of the nanophosphor were studied by irradiating it with 1.25 MeV of gamma radiation and 65 MeV of carbon (C6+) ion beam. For gamma rays, two prominent TL peaks were observed with a low temperature peak at around 1070C and a high temperature peak at around 1570C. Furthermore, the nanophosphor maintained a linear TL response for the entire range of studied doses i.e. 10 Gy to 2000 Gy for both the temperature peaks. Moreover, when the nanophosphor was irradiated with 65 MeV of C6+ ion beam the shape and structure of the glow curves remained spectacularly similar and the nanophosphor displayed a linear TL response for the full range of studied fluences i.e. 5*1010 ions/cm2 to 1 *1012 ions/ cm2. Finally, various tests like reproducibility test and batch homogeneity were also carried out to define the final product. Thus, co-precipitation method followed by combustion technique was successful in effectively producing dosimetric grade CaF2:Tm for dosimetry of gamma as well as carbon (C6+) beam.

Keywords: gamma radiation, ion beam, nanocrystalline, radiation dosimetry

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11 Revisiting the Surgical Approaches to Decompression in Quadrangular Space Syndrome: A Cadaveric Study

Authors: Sundip Charmode, Simmi Mehra, Sudhir Kushwaha, Shalom Philip, Pratik Amrutiya, Ranjna Jangal


Introduction: Quadrangular space syndrome involves compression of the axillary nerve and posterior circumflex humeral artery and its management in few cases, requires surgical decompression. The current study reviews the surgical approaches used in the decompression of neurovascular structures and presents our reflections and recommendations. Methods: Four human cadavers, in the Department of Anatomy were used for dissection of the Axillae and the Scapular region by the senior residents of the Department of Anatomy and Department of Orthopedics, who dissected quadrangular space in the eight upper limbs, using anterior and posterior surgical approaches. Observations: Posterior approach to identify the quadrangular space and secure its contents was recognized as the easier and much quicker method by both the Anatomy and Orthopedic residents, but it may result in increased postoperative morbidity. Whereas the anterior (Delto-pectoral) approach involves more skill but reduces postoperative morbidity. Conclusions: Anterior (Delto-pectoral) approach with suggested modifications can prove as an effective method in surgical decompression of quadrangular space syndrome. The authors suggest more cadaveric studies to facilitate anatomists and surgeons with the opportunities to practice and evaluate older and newer surgical approaches.

Keywords: surgical approach, anatomical approach, decompression, axillary nerve, quadrangular space

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10 Procedural Protocol for Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT) Inversion

Authors: Rezvan Ravanfar Haghighi, S. Chatterjee, Pratik Kumar, V. C. Vani, Priya Jagia, Sanjiv Sharma, Susama Rani Mandal, R. Lakshmy


The dual energy computed tomography (DECT) aims at noting the HU(V) values for the sample at two different voltages V=V1, V2 and thus obtain the electron densities (ρe) and effective atomic number (Zeff) of the substance. In the present paper, we aim to obtain a numerical algorithm by which (ρe, Zeff) can be obtained from the HU(100) and HU(140) data, where V=100, 140 kVp. The idea is to use this inversion method to characterize and distinguish between the lipid and fibrous coronary artery plaques.With the idea to develop the inversion algorithm for low Zeff materials, as is the case with non calcified coronary artery plaque, we prepare aqueous samples whose calculated values of (ρe, Zeff) lie in the range (2.65×1023≤ ρe≤ 3.64×1023 per cc ) and (6.80≤ Zeff ≤ 8.90). We fill the phantom with these known samples and experimentally determine HU(100) and HU(140) for the same pixels. Knowing that the HU(V) values are related to the attenuation coefficient of the system, we present an algorithm by which the (ρe, Zeff) is calibrated with respect to (HU(100), HU(140)). The calibration is done with a known set of 20 samples; its accuracy is checked with a different set of 23 known samples. We find that the calibration gives the ρe with an accuracy of ± 4% while Zeff is found within ±1% of the actual value, the confidence being 95%.In this inversion method (ρe, Zeff) of the scanned sample can be found by eliminating the effects of the CT machine and also by ensuring that the determination of the two unknowns (ρe, Zeff) does not interfere with each other. It is found that this algorithm can be used for prediction of chemical characteristic (ρe, Zeff) of unknown scanned materials with 95% confidence level, by inversion of the DECT data.

Keywords: chemical composition, dual-energy computed tomography, inversion algorithm

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9 Thermoluminescent Response of Nanocrystalline BaSO4:Eu to 85 MeV Carbon Beams

Authors: Shaila Bahl, S. P. Lochab, Pratik Kumar


Nanotechnology and nanomaterials have attracted researchers from different fields, especially from the field of luminescence. Recent studies on various luminescent nanomaterials have shown their relevance in dosimetry of ionizing radiations for the measurements of high doses using the Thermoluminescence (TL) technique, where the conventional microcrystalline phosphors saturate. Ion beams have been used for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes due to their favorable profile of dose deposition at the end of the range known as the Bragg peak. While dealing with human beings, doses from these beams need to be measured with great precision and accuracy. Henceforth detailed investigations of suitable thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) for dose verification in ion beam irradiation are required. This paper investigates the TL response of nanocrystalline BaSO4 doped with Eu to 85 MeV carbon beam. The synthesis was done using Co-precipitation technique by mixing Barium chloride and ammonium sulphate solutions. To investigate the crystallinity and particle size, analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) were used which revealed the average particle sizes to 45 nm with orthorhombic structure. Samples in pellet form were irradiated by 85 MeV carbon beam in the fluence range of 1X1010-5X1013. TL glow curves of the irradiated samples show two prominent glow peaks at around 460 K and 495 K. The TL response is linear up to 1X1013 fluence after which saturation was observed. The wider linear TL response of nanocrystalline BaSO4: Eu and low fading make it a superior candidate as a dosimeter to be used for detecting the doses of carbon beam.

Keywords: radiation, dosimetry, carbon ions, thermoluminescence

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8 Molecular Dynamics Simulation of the Effect of the Solid Gas Interface Nanolayer on Enhanced Thermal Conductivity of Copper-CO2 Nanofluid

Authors: Zeeshan Ahmed, Ajinkya Sarode, Pratik Basarkar, Atul Bhargav, Debjyoti Banerjee


The use of CO2 in oil recovery and in CO2 capture and storage is gaining traction in recent years. These applications involve heat transfer between CO2 and the base fluid, and hence, there arises a need to improve the thermal conductivity of CO2 to increase the process efficiency and reduce cost. One way to improve the thermal conductivity is through nanoparticle addition in the base fluid. The nanofluid model in this study consisted of copper (Cu) nanoparticles in varying concentrations with CO2 as a base fluid. No experimental data are available on thermal conductivity of CO2 based nanofluid. Molecular dynamics (MD) simulations are an increasingly adopted tool to perform preliminary assessments of nanoparticle (NP) fluid interactions. In this study, the effect of the formation of a nanolayer (or molecular layering) at the gas-solid interface on thermal conductivity is investigated using equilibrium MD simulations by varying NP diameter and keeping the volume fraction (1.413%) of nanofluid constant to check the diameter effect of NP on the nanolayer and thermal conductivity. A dense semi-solid fluid layer was seen to be formed at the NP-gas interface, and the thickness increases with increase in particle diameter, which also moves with the NP Brownian motion. Density distribution has been done to see the effect of nanolayer, and its thickness around the NP. These findings are extremely beneficial, especially to industries employed in oil recovery as increased thermal conductivity of CO2 will lead to enhanced oil recovery and thermal energy storage.

Keywords: copper-CO2 nanofluid, molecular dynamics simulation, molecular interfacial layer, thermal conductivity

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7 Thermoluminescence Characteristic of Nanocrystalline BaSO4 Doped with Europium

Authors: Kanika S. Raheja, A. Pandey, Shaila Bahl, Pratik Kumar, S. P. Lochab


The subject of undertaking for this paper is the study of BaSO4 nanophosphor doped with Europium in which mainly the concentration of the rare earth impurity Eu (0.05, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, and 1 mol %) has been varied. A comparative study of the thermoluminescence(TL) properties of the given nanophosphor has also been done using a well-known standard dosimetry material i.e. TLD-100.Firstly, a number of samples were prepared successfully by the chemical co-precipitation method. The whole lot was then compared to a well established standard material (TLD-100) for its TL sensitivity property. BaSO4:Eu ( 0.2 mol%) showed the highest sensitivity out of the lot. It was also found that when compared to the standard TLD-100, BaSo4:Eu (0.2mol%) showed surprisingly high sensitivity for a large range of doses. The TL response curve for all prepared samples has also been studied over a wide range of doses i.e 10Gy to 2kGy for gamma radiation. Almost all the samples of BaSO4:Eu showed a remarkable linearity for a broad range of doses, which is a characteristic feature of a fine TL dosimeter. The graph remained linear even beyond 1kGy for gamma radiation. Thus, the given nanophosphor has been successfully optimised for the concentration of the dopant material to achieve its highest TL sensitivity. Further, the comparative study with the standard material revealed that the current optimised sample shows an astonishingly better TL sensitivity and a phenomenal linear response curve for an incredibly wide range of doses for gamma radiation (Co-60) as compared to the standard TLD-100, which makes the current optimised BaSo4:Eu quite promising as an efficient gamma radiation dosimeter. Lastly, the present phosphor has been optimised for its annealing temperature to acquire the best results while also studying its fading and reusability properties.

Keywords: gamma radiation, nanoparticles, radiation dosimetry, thermoluminescence

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6 Turbulent Flow Characteristics and Bed Morphology around Circular Bridge Pier

Authors: Pratik Acharya


Scour is the natural phenomenon brought about by erosive action of the flowing stream in alluvial channels. Frequent scouring around bridge piers may cause damage to the structures. In alluvial channels, a complex interaction between the streamflow and the bed particles results in scouring around piers. Thus, the study of characteristics of flow around piers can give sound knowledge about the scouring process. The present research has been done to investigate the turbulent flow characteristics around bridge piers and corresponding changes in bed morphology. Laboratory experiments were carried out in a tilting flume with a sand bed. The velocities around the pier are measured by Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter. Measurements show that at upstream of the pier velocity and Reynolds stresses are negative near the bed and near the free surface at downstream of the pier. At the downstream of the pier, Reynolds stresses changes rapidly due to the formation of wake vortices. Experimental results show that secondary currents are more predominant at the downstream of the pier. As the flowing stream hits the pier, the flow gets separated in the form of downflow along the face of the pier due to a strong pressure gradient and along the sides of the piers. Separation of flow around the pier leads to scour the bed material and develop the vortex. The downflow hits the bed and removes the bed material, which can be carried forward by the flow circulations along sides of the piers. Eroded bed material is deposited along the centerline at the rear side of the pier and produces hump in the downstream region. Initially, the rate of scouring is high and reduces gradually with increasing time. After a certain limit, equilibrium sets between the erosive capacity of the flowing stream and resistance to the motion by bed particles.

Keywords: acoustic doppler velocimeter, pier, Reynolds stress, scour depth, velocity

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5 Identification of the Microalgae Species in a Wild Mix Culture Acclimated to Landfill Leachate and Ammonia Removal Performances in a Microbubble Assisted Photobioreactor

Authors: Neslihan Ozman Say, Jim Gilmour, Pratik Desai, William Zimmerman


Landfill leachate treatment has been attracting researchers recently for various environmental and economical reasons. Leachate discharge to receiving waterbodies without treatment causes serious detrimental effects including partial oxygen depletion due to high biological oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD) concentrations besides toxicity of heavy metals it contains and high ammonia concentrations. In this study, it is aimed to show microalgal ammonia removal performances of a wild microalgae consortia as an alternative treatment method and determine the dominant leachate tolerant species for this consortia. For the microalgae species identification experiments a microalgal consortium which has been isolated from a local pond in Sheffield inoculated in %5 diluted raw landfill leachate and acclimated to the leachate by batch feeding for a month. In order to determine the most tolerant microalgal consortium, four different untreated landfill leachate samples have been used as diluted in four different ratios as 5%, 10%, 20%, and 40%. Microalgae cell samples have been collected from all experiment sets and have been examined by using 18S rDNA sequencing and specialised gel electrophoresis which are adapted molecular biodiversity methods. The best leachate tolerant algal consortium is being used in order to determine ammonia removal performances of the culture in a microbubble assisted photobioreactor (PBR). A porous microbubble diffuser which is supported by a fluidic oscillator is being used for dosing CO₂ and air mixture in the PBR. It is known that high mass transfer performance of microbubble technology provides a better removal efficiency and a better mixing in the photobioreactor. Ammonia concentrations and microalgal growth are being monitored for PBR currently. It is aimed to present all the results of the study in final paper submission.

Keywords: ammonia removal from leachate, landfill leachate treatment, microalgae species identification, microbubble assisted photobioreactors

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4 Evaluation of Video Quality Metrics and Performance Comparison on Contents Taken from Most Commonly Used Devices

Authors: Pratik Dhabal Deo, Manoj P.


With the increasing number of social media users, the amount of video content available has also significantly increased. Currently, the number of smartphone users is at its peak, and many are increasingly using their smartphones as their main photography and recording devices. There have been a lot of developments in the field of Video Quality Assessment (VQA) and metrics like VMAF, SSIM etc. are said to be some of the best performing metrics, but the evaluation of these metrics is dominantly done on professionally taken video contents using professional tools, lighting conditions etc. No study particularly pinpointing the performance of the metrics on the contents taken by users on very commonly available devices has been done. Datasets that contain a huge number of videos from different high-end devices make it difficult to analyze the performance of the metrics on the content from most used devices even if they contain contents taken in poor lighting conditions using lower-end devices. These devices face a lot of distortions due to various factors since the spectrum of contents recorded on these devices is huge. In this paper, we have presented an analysis of the objective VQA metrics on contents taken only from most used devices and their performance on them, focusing on full-reference metrics. To carry out this research, we created a custom dataset containing a total of 90 videos that have been taken from three most commonly used devices, and android smartphone, an IOS smartphone and a DSLR. On the videos taken on each of these devices, the six most common types of distortions that users face have been applied on addition to already existing H.264 compression based on four reference videos. These six applied distortions have three levels of degradation each. A total of the five most popular VQA metrics have been evaluated on this dataset and the highest values and the lowest values of each of the metrics on the distortions have been recorded. Finally, it is found that blur is the artifact on which most of the metrics didn’t perform well. Thus, in order to understand the results better the amount of blur in the data set has been calculated and an additional evaluation of the metrics was done using HEVC codec, which is the next version of H.264 compression, on the camera that proved to be the sharpest among the devices. The results have shown that as the resolution increases, the performance of the metrics tends to become more accurate and the best performing metric among them is VQM with very few inconsistencies and inaccurate results when the compression applied is H.264, but when the compression is applied is HEVC, SSIM and VMAF have performed significantly better.

Keywords: distortion, metrics, performance, resolution, video quality assessment

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3 Dependence of the Photoelectric Exponent on the Source Spectrum of the CT

Authors: Rezvan Ravanfar Haghighi, V. C. Vani, Suresh Perumal, Sabyasachi Chatterjee, Pratik Kumar


X-ray attenuation coefficient [µ(E)] of any substance, for energy (E), is a sum of the contributions from the Compton scattering [ μCom(E)] and photoelectric effect [µPh(E)]. In terms of the, electron density (ρe) and the effective atomic number (Zeff) we have µCom(E) is proportional to [(ρe)fKN(E)] while µPh(E) is proportional to [(ρeZeffx)/Ey] with fKN(E) being the Klein-Nishina formula, with x and y being the exponents for photoelectric effect. By taking the sample's HU at two different excitation voltages (V=V1, V2) of the CT machine, we can solve for X=ρe, Y=ρeZeffx from these two independent equations, as is attempted in DECT inversion. Since µCom(E) and µPh(E) are both energy dependent, the coefficients of inversion are also dependent on (a) the source spectrum S(E,V) and (b) the detector efficiency D(E) of the CT machine. In the present paper we tabulate these coefficients of inversion for different practical manifestations of S(E,V) and D(E). The HU(V) values from the CT follow: <µ(V)>=<µw(V)>[1+HU(V)/1000] where the subscript 'w' refers to water and the averaging process <….> accounts for the source spectrum S(E,V) and the detector efficiency D(E). Linearity of μ(E) with respect to X and Y implies that (a) <µ(V)> is a linear combination of X and Y and (b) for inversion, X and Y can be written as linear combinations of two independent observations <µ(V1)>, <µ(V2)> with V1≠V2. These coefficients of inversion would naturally depend upon S(E, V) and D(E). We numerically investigate this dependence for some practical cases, by taking V = 100 , 140 kVp, as are used for cardiological investigations. The S(E,V) are generated by using the Boone-Seibert source spectrum, being superposed on aluminium filters of different thickness lAl with 7mm≤lAl≤12mm and the D(E) is considered to be that of a typical Si[Li] solid state and GdOS scintilator detector. In the values of X and Y, found by using the calculated inversion coefficients, errors are below 2% for data with solutions of glycerol, sucrose and glucose. For low Zeff materials like propionic acid, Zeffx is overestimated by 20% with X being within1%. For high Zeffx materials like KOH the value of Zeffx is underestimated by 22% while the error in X is + 15%. These imply that the source may have additional filtering than the aluminium filter specified by the manufacturer. Also it is found that the difference in the values of the inversion coefficients for the two types of detectors is negligible. The type of the detector does not affect on the DECT inversion algorithm to find the unknown chemical characteristic of the scanned materials. The effect of the source should be considered as an important factor to calculate the coefficients of inversion.

Keywords: attenuation coefficient, computed tomography, photoelectric effect, source spectrum

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2 China Pakistan Economic Corridor: An Unfolding Fiasco in World Economy

Authors: Debarpita Pande


On 22nd May 2013 Chinese Premier Li Keqiang on his visit to Pakistan tabled a proposal for connecting Kashgar in China’s Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region with the south-western Pakistani seaport of Gwadar via the China Pakistan Economic Corridor (hereinafter referred to as CPEC). The project, popularly termed as 'One Belt One Road' will encompass within it a connectivity component including a 3000-kilometre road, railways and oil pipeline from Kashgar to Gwadar port along with an international airport and a deep sea port. Superficially, this may look like a 'game changer' for Pakistan and other countries of South Asia but this article by doctrinal method of research will unearth some serious flaws in it, which may change the entire economic system of this region heavily affecting the socio-economic conditions of South Asia, further complicating the complete geopolitical situation of the region disturbing the world economic stability. The paper besets with a logical analyzation of the socio-economic issues arising out of this project with an emphasis on its impact on the Pakistani and Indian economy due to Chinese dominance, serious tension in international relations, security issues, arms race, political and provincial concerns. The research paper further aims to study the impact of huge burden of loan given by China towards this project where Pakistan already suffers from persistent debts in the face of declining foreign currency reserves along with that the sovereignty of Pakistan will also be at stake as the entire economy of the country will be held hostage by China. The author compares this situation with the fallout from projects in Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, and several countries of Africa, all of which are now facing huge debt risks brought by Chinese investments. The entire economic balance will be muddled by the increment in Pakistan’s demand of raw materials resulting to the import of the same from China, which will lead to exorbitant price-hike and limited availability. CPEC will also create Chinese dominance over the international movement of goods that will take place between the Atlantic and the Pacific oceans and hence jeopardising the entire economic balance of South Asia along with Middle Eastern countries like Dubai. Moreover, the paper also analyses the impact of CPEC in the context of international unrest and arms race between Pakistan and India as well as India and China due to border disputes and Chinese surveillance. The paper also examines the global change in economic dynamics in international trade that CPEC will create in the light of U.S.-China relationship. The article thus reflects the grave consequences of CPEC on the international economy, security and bilateral relations, which surpasses the positive impacts of it. The author lastly suggests for more transparency and proper diplomatic planning in the execution of this mega project, which can be a cause of economic complexity in international trade in near future.

Keywords: China, CPEC, international trade, Pakistan

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1 Bacterial Exposure and Microbial Activity in Dental Clinics during Cleaning Procedures

Authors: Atin Adhikari, Sushma Kurella, Pratik Banerjee, Nabanita Mukherjee, Yamini M. Chandana Gollapudi, Bushra Shah


Different sharp instruments, drilling machines, and high speed rotary instruments are routinely used in dental clinics during dental cleaning. Therefore, these cleaning procedures release a lot of oral microorganisms including bacteria in clinic air and may cause significant occupational bioaerosol exposure risks for dentists, dental hygienists, patients, and dental clinic employees. Two major goals of this study were to quantify volumetric airborne concentrations of bacteria and to assess overall microbial activity in this type of occupational environment. The study was conducted in several dental clinics of southern Georgia and 15 dental cleaning procedures were targeted for sampling of airborne bacteria and testing of overall microbial activity in settled dusts over clinic floors. For air sampling, a Biostage viable cascade impactor was utilized, which comprises an inlet cone, precision-drilled 400-hole impactor stage, and a base that holds an agar plate (Tryptic soy agar). A high-flow Quick-Take-30 pump connected to this impactor pulls microorganisms in air at 28.3 L/min flow rate through the holes (jets) where they are collected on the agar surface for approx. five minutes. After sampling, agar plates containing the samples were placed in an ice chest with blue ice and plates were incubated at 30±2°C for 24 to 72 h. Colonies were counted and converted to airborne concentrations (CFU/m3) followed by positive hole corrections. Most abundant bacterial colonies (selected by visual screening) were identified by PCR amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes. For understanding overall microbial activity in clinic floors and estimating a general cleanliness of the clinic surfaces during or after dental cleaning procedures, ATP levels were determined in swabbed dust samples collected from 10 cm2 floor surfaces. Concentration of ATP may indicate both the cell viability and the metabolic status of settled microorganisms in this situation. An ATP measuring kit was used, which utilized standard luciferin-luciferase fluorescence reaction and a luminometer, which quantified ATP levels as relative light units (RLU). Three air and dust samples were collected during each cleaning procedure (at the beginning, during cleaning, and immediately after the procedure was completed (n = 45). Concentrations at the beginning, during, and after dental cleaning procedures were 671±525, 917±1203, and 899±823 CFU/m3, respectively for airborne bacteria and 91±101, 243±129, and 139±77 RLU/sample, respectively for ATP levels. The concentrations of bacteria were significantly higher than typical indoor residential environments. Although an increasing trend for airborne bacteria was observed during cleaning, the data collected at three different time points were not significantly different (ANOVA: p = 0.38) probably due to high standard deviations of data. The ATP levels, however, demonstrated a significant difference (ANOVA: p <0.05) in this scenario indicating significant change in microbial activity on floor surfaces during dental cleaning. The most common bacterial genera identified were: Neisseria sp., Streptococcus sp., Chryseobacterium sp., Paenisporosarcina sp., and Vibrio sp. in terms of frequencies of occurrences, respectively. The study concluded that bacterial exposure in dental clinics could be a notable occupational biohazard, and appropriate respiratory protections for the employees are urgently needed.

Keywords: bioaerosols, hospital hygiene, indoor air quality, occupational biohazards

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