Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4547

Search results for: neuropsychological assessment

4547 Neuropsychological Assessment and Rehabilitation Settings for Developmental Dyslexia in Children in Greece: The Use of Music at Intervention Protocols

Authors: Argyris B. Karapetsas, Rozi M. Laskaraki, Aikaterini A. Karapetsa, Maria Bampou, Valentini N. Vamvaka

Abstract:

The main aim of the current protocol is the contribution of neuropsychology in both assessment and rehabilitation settings for children with dyslexia. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the significant role of neuropsychological assessment including both Psychometric and electrophysiological tests as well as to investigate the effectiveness of an Auditory Training program, designed via Music designed for children with Developmental Dyslexia (DD). Materials: In our study, participated 45 third-, and fourth-grade students with DD and a matched control group (n=45). Method: At the first phase of the protocol, children underwent a clinical assessment, including both electrophysiological, i.e. Event Related Potentials (ERPs) esp. P300 waveform, and psychometric tests, being conducted in Laboratory of Neuropsychology, at University of Thessaly, in Volos, Greece. Assessment’s results confirmed statistically significant lower performance for children with DD for all tests, compared to the typical readers of the control group. After evaluation, a subgroup of children with DD participated in a Rehabilitation Program including digitized musical auditory training activities. Results: The electrophysiological recordings after the intervention revealed shorter, almost similar, P300 latency values for children with DD to those of the control group, indicating the beneficial effects of the Intervention, thus enabling children develop reading skills and become successful readers. Discussion: Similar research data confirm the crucial role of neuropsychology in both diagnosis and treatment of common disorders, observed in children. Indeed, as for DD, there is growing evidence that brain activity dysfunction does occur, as it is confirmed by neuropsychological assessment and also musical auditory training may have remedial effects. Conclusions: The outcomes of the current study suggest that due to the neurobiological origin of DD, neuropsychology may give the means in both neuropsychological assessment and rehabilitation, enabling professionals to cope with cerebral dysfunction and recovery more efficiently.

Keywords: diagnosis, dyslexia, ERPs, Music, neuropsychology, rehabilitation

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4546 Clinical Neuropsychology in India: Challenges and Achievements

Authors: Garima Joshi, Ashima N. Wadhawan

Abstract:

Neuropsychology in India is a fairly new field, having started only four decades back. Neuropsychology has come a long way since the establishment of the first department, from using western batteries for assessing patients to the development of highly reliable indigenous tools for assessing neuropsychological functioning. Clinical neuropsychology has risen as a discipline in the field of assessing and rehabilitating patients with various neurological conditions such as Traumatic Brain Injury, Stroke, Mild Cognitive Impairment, Alzheimer’s, Schizophrenia and other disorders with cognitive decline. The current review attempts to assimilate the history of the discipline in India, along with the current developments and future direction of the field and highlights the pursuit and undertakings of the scientists to provide culturally appropriate services, in terms of assessment and rehabilitation, to the Indian population.

Keywords: clinical neuropsychology, cognitive assessment, cognitive rehabilitation, neuropsychological test batteries in India

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4545 Agenesis of the Corpus Callosum: The Role of Neuropsychological Assessment with Implications to Psychosocial Rehabilitation

Authors: Ron Dick, P. S. D. V. Prasadarao, Glenn Coltman

Abstract:

Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is a failure to develop corpus callosum - the large bundle of fibers of the brain that connects the two cerebral hemispheres. It can occur as a partial or complete absence of the corpus callosum. In the general population, its estimated prevalence rate is 1 in 4000 and a wide range of genetic, infectious, vascular, and toxic causes have been attributed to this heterogeneous condition. The diagnosis of ACC is often achieved by neuroimaging procedures. Though persons with ACC can perform normally on intelligence tests they generally present with a range of neuropsychological and social deficits. The deficit profile is characterized by poor coordination of motor movements, slow reaction time, processing speed and, poor memory. Socially, they present with deficits in communication, language processing, the theory of mind, and interpersonal relationships. The present paper illustrates the role of neuropsychological assessment with implications to psychosocial management in a case of agenesis of the corpus callosum. Method: A 27-year old left handed Caucasian male with a history of ACC was self-referred for a neuropsychological assessment to assist him in his employment options. Parents noted significant difficulties with coordination and balance at an early age of 2-3 years and he was diagnosed with dyspraxia at the age of 14 years. History also indicated visual impairment, hypotonia, poor muscle coordination, and delayed development of motor milestones. MRI scan indicated agenesis of the corpus callosum with ventricular morphology, widely spaced parallel lateral ventricles and mild dilatation of the posterior horns; it also showed colpocephaly—a disproportionate enlargement of the occipital horns of the lateral ventricles which might be affecting his motor abilities and visual defects. The MRI scan ruled out other structural abnormalities or neonatal brain injury. At the time of assessment, the subject presented with such problems as poor coordination, slowed processing speed, poor organizational skills and time management, and difficulty with social cues and facial expressions. A comprehensive neuropsychological assessment was planned and conducted to assist in identifying the current neuropsychological profile to facilitate the formulation of a psychosocial and occupational rehabilitation programme. Results: General intellectual functioning was within the average range and his performance on memory-related tasks was adequate. Significant visuospatial and visuoconstructional deficits were evident across tests; constructional difficulties were seen in tasks such as copying a complex figure, building a tower and manipulating blocks. Poor visual scanning ability and visual motor speed were evident. Socially, the subject reported heightened social anxiety, difficulty in responding to cues in the social environment, and difficulty in developing intimate relationships. Conclusion: Persons with ACC are known to present with specific cognitive deficits and problems in social situations. Findings from the current neuropsychological assessment indicated significant visuospatial difficulties, poor visual scanning and problems in social interactions. His general intellectual functioning was within the average range. Based on the findings from the comprehensive neuropsychological assessment, a structured psychosocial rehabilitation programme was developed and recommended.

Keywords: agenesis, callosum, corpus, neuropsychology, psychosocial, rehabilitation

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4544 Presence and Severity of Language Deficits in Comprehension, Production and Pragmatics in a Group of ALS Patients: Analysis with Demographic and Neuropsychological Data

Authors: M. Testa, L. Peotta, S. Giusiano, B. Lazzolino, U. Manera, A. Canosa, M. Grassano, F. Palumbo, A. Bombaci, S. Cabras, F. Di Pede, L. Solero, E. Matteoni, C. Moglia, A. Calvo, A. Chio

Abstract:

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease of adulthood, which primarily affects the central nervous system and is characterized by progressive bilateral degeneration of motor neurons. The degeneration processes in ALS extend far beyond the neurons of the motor system, and affects cognition, behaviour and language. To outline the prevalence of language deficits in an ALS cohort and explore their profile along with demographic and neuropsychological data. A full neuropsychological battery and language assessment was administered to 56 ALS patients. Neuropsychological assessment included tests of executive functioning, verbal fluency, social cognition and memory. Language was assessed using tests for verbal comprehension, production and pragmatics. Patients were cognitively classified following the Revised Consensus Criteria and divided in three groups showing different levels of language deficits: group 1 - no language deficit; group 2 - one language deficit; group 3 - two or more language deficits. Chi-square for independence and non-parametric measures to compare groups were applied. Nearly half of ALS-CN patients (48%) reported one language test under the clinical cut-off, and only 13% of patents classified as ALS-CI showed no language deficits, while the rest 87% of ALS-CI reported two or more language deficits. ALS-BI and ALS-CBI cases all reported two or more language deficits. Deficits in production and in comprehension appeared more frequent in ALS-CI patients (p=0.011, p=0.003 respectively), with a higher percentage of comprehension deficits (83%). Nearly all ALS-CI reported at least one deficit in pragmatic abilities (96%) and all ALS-BI and ALS-CBI patients showed pragmatic deficits. Males showed higher percentage of pragmatic deficits (97%, p=0.007). No significant differences in language deficits have been found between bulbar and spinal onset. Months from onset and level of impairment at testing (ALS-FRS total score) were not significantly different between levels and type of language impairment. Age and education were significantly higher for cases showing no deficits in comprehension and pragmatics and in the group showing no language deficits. Comparing performances at neuropsychological tests among the three levels of language deficits, no significant differences in neuropsychological performances were found between group 1 and 2; compared to group 1, group 3 appeared to decay specifically on executive testing, verbal/visuospatial learning, and social cognition. Compared to group 2, group 3 showed worse performances specifically in tests of working memory and attention. Language deficits have found to be spread in our sample, encompassing verbal comprehension, production and pragmatics. Our study reveals that also cognitive intact patients (ALS-CN) showed at least one language deficit in 48% of cases. Pragmatic domain is the most compromised (84% of the total sample), present in nearly all ALS-CI (96%), likely due to the influence of executive impairment. Lower age and higher education seem to preserve comprehension, pragmatics and presence of language deficits. Finally, executive functions, verbal/visuospatial learning and social cognition differentiate the group with no language deficits from the group with a clinical language impairment (group 3), while attention and working memory differentiate the group with one language deficit from the clinical impaired group.

Keywords: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, language assessment, neuropsychological assessment, language deficit

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4543 EEG Neurofeedback Training – Healing the Wounded Brain

Authors: Jamuna Rajeswaran

Abstract:

In the past two decades, with a population of more than a billion. India is passing through a major socio-demographic and epidemiological transition with consequent changes in health scenario. TBI constitute significant burden on health care resources in India The impact on a person and family can be devastating. Patients with TBI experience persistent cognitive deficits, emotional changes, which contribute to the disruption of life activities. The recovery of TBI would be maximized by appropriate rehabilitation. Neurofeedback is an emerging neuroscience-based clinical application. Sixty patients were recruited for this study after obtaining informed consent. Rivermead Head Injury Follow-up Questionnaire, Rivermead Post Concussion Symptoms Questionnaire and Visual Analog Scale were used to assess the behavioral and symptomotolgy associated with post TBI. Neuropsychological assessment was carried out using NIMHANS neuropsychological battery 2004. The Intervention group received neurofeedback training and the waitlist group did not receive any treatment during this phase. Patients were allocated to intervention and waitlist group at random. There were 30 patients in each group. Patients were given 20 sessions of NFT Patients were trained on the O1 and O2 channels for alpha theta training. Each session was of 40 minutes duration with 5-6 sessions per week. The post-training assessment was carried out for the intervention group after 20 sessions of NFT. The waitlist group underwent assessment after one month. Results showed neurofeedback training is effective in ameliorating deficits in cognitive functions and quality of life in patients with TBI. Improvements were corroborated by the clinical interview with patients and significant others post NFT.

Keywords: assessment, rehabilitation, cognition, EEG neurofeedback

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4542 Impact of Neuropsychological Intervention in Mild Cognitive Impairment: A Controlled, Randomized and Blind Study

Authors: Amanda de Oliveira Ferreira Leite, Ana Luiza del Pino Ferreira, Bruna Garcez Correa, Janaíne de Souza Mello, Marla Manquevich, Mirna Wetters Portuguez

Abstract:

Objective: We sought to investigate a neuropsychological intervention focused on improving cognition, psychological aspects, and quality of life of elderly people with mild cognitive impairment. Method: A controlled and randomized study, blind to the evaluator, was executed. We evaluated 78 elderly people, divided into the neuropsychological and control groups, through a semi-structured interview, Addenbrooke’s Cognitive Examination, Katz Index, Lawton and Brody Scale, Geriatric Depression Scale, Beck Anxiety Inventory, Personal Development Scale, WHOQOL-bref and WHOQOL--old. Results: After the intervention, the neuropsychological group showed improvement in the cognitive subtests and in the total score, reduction in the frequency of symptoms associated with anxiety and depression, better psychological well-being, and quality of life. The research highlights useful intervention strategies for improving the general condition of these patients and rehabilitating damaged areas. Conclusion: We concluded that there is a relationship between neuropsychological intervention and improvement in cognitive and psychological performance, as well as in the quality of life in elderly people with mild cognitive impairment.

Keywords: aging, mild cognitive impairment, neuropsychology, quality of life

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4541 Neuropsychological Testing in a Multi-Lingual Society: Normative Data for South African Adults in More Than Eight Languages

Authors: Sharon Truter, Ann B. Shuttleworth-Edwards

Abstract:

South Africa is a developing country with significant diversity in languages spoken and quality of education available, creating challenges for fair and accurate neuropsychological assessments when most available neuropsychological tests are obtained from English-speaking developed countries. The aim of this research was to compare normative data on a spectrum of commonly used neuropsychological tests for English- and Afrikaans-speaking South Africans with relatively high quality of education and South Africans with relatively low quality of education who speak Afrikaans, Sesotho, Setswana, Sepedi, Tsonga, Venda, Xhosa or Zulu. The participants were all healthy adults aged 18-60 years, with 8-12 years of education. All the participants were tested in their first language on the following tests: two non-verbal tests (Rey Osterrieth Complex Figure Test and Bell Cancellation Test), four verbal fluency tests (category, phonemic, verb and 'any words'), one verbal learning test (Rey Auditory Verbal Leaning Test) and three tests that have a verbal component (Trail Making Test A & B; Symbol Digit Modalities Test and Digit Span). Descriptive comparisons of mean scores and standard deviations across the language groups and between the groups with relatively high versus low quality of education highlight the importance of using normative data that takes into account language and quality of education.

Keywords: cross-cultural, language, multi-lingual, neuropsychological testing, quality of education

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4540 Neuropsychology of Dyslexia and Rehabilitation Approaches: A Research Study Applied to School Aged Children with Reading Disorders in Greece

Authors: Rozi Laskaraki, Argyris Karapetsas, Aikaterini Karapetsa

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the efficacy of a rehabilitation program based on musical activities, implied to a group of school-aged dyslexic children. Objective: The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of auditory training including musical exercises in children with developmental dyslexia (DD). Participants and Methods: 45 third-, and fourth-grade students with DD and a matched control group (n=45) were involved in this study. In the beginning, students participated in a clinical assessment, including both electrophysiological (i.e., event related potentials (ERPs) esp.P300 waveform) and neuropsychological tests, being conducted in Laboratory of Neuropsychology, at University of Thessaly, in Volos, Greece. Initial assessment’s results confirmed statistically significant lower performance for children with DD, compared to that of the typical readers. After clinical assessment, a subgroup of children with dyslexia was submitted to a music auditory training program, conducted in 45-minute training sessions, once a week, for twenty weeks. The program included structured and digitized musical activities involving pitch, rhythm, melody and tempo perception and discrimination as well as auditory sequencing. After the intervention period, children underwent a new recording of ERPs. Results: The electrophysiological results revealed that children had similar P300 latency values to that of the controls, after the remediation program; thus children overcame their deficits. Conclusion: The outcomes of the current study suggest that ERPs is a valid clinical tool in neuropsychological assessment settings and dyslexia can be ameliorated through music auditory training.

Keywords: dyslexia, event related potentials, learning disabilities, music, rehabilitation

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4539 The Role of ALDH2 Genotypes in Bipolar II Disorder Comorbid with Anxiety Disorder

Authors: Yun-Hsuan Chang, Chih-Chun Huang, Ru-Band Lu

Abstract:

Dopamine, metabolized to 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2), ALDH2*1/*1, and ALDH2*1/*2+ALDH*2/*2 equally carried in Han Chinese. The relationship between dopamine metabolic enzyme and cognitive performance in bipolar II disorder comorbid with anxiety disorder (AD) remains unclear. This study proposed to explore the association between ALDH2 polymorphisms, anxiety comorbidity in bipolar II disorder. One hundred and ninety-seven BPII with or without AD comorbidity were recruited and compared with 130 Health controls (HC). A polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was used to determine genotypes for ALDH2, and neuropsychological battery was performed. Two factor analyses with AD comorbidity and ALDH2 showed a significant main effect of ALDH2 on attention and marginally significant interaction between AD and ALDH2 memory performance. The ALDH2 polymorphisms may play a different role in the neuropsychological performance on varied neuropsychological performance in BPII comorbid with and without AD.

Keywords: anxiety disorder, bipolar II disorder, comorbidity, genetic

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4538 Chronic Cognitive Impacts of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury during Aging

Authors: Camille Charlebois-Plante, Marie-Ève Bourassa, Gaelle Dumel, Meriem Sabir, Louis De Beaumont

Abstract:

To the extent of our knowledge, there has been little interest in the chronic effects of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) on cognition during normal aging. This is rather surprising considering the impacts on daily and social functioning. In addition, sustaining a mTBI during late adulthood may increase the effect of normal biological aging in individuals who consider themselves normal and healthy. The objective of this study was to characterize the persistent neuropsychological repercussions of mTBI sustained during late adulthood, on average 12 months prior to testing. To this end, 35 mTBI patients and 42 controls between the ages of 50 and 69 completed an exhaustive neuropsychological assessment lasting three hours. All mTBI patients were asymptomatic and all participants had a score ≥ 27 at the MoCA. The evaluation consisted of 20 standardized neuropsychological tests measuring memory, attention, executive and language functions, as well as information processing speed. Performance on tests of visual (Brief Visuospatial Memory Test Revised) and verbal memory (Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test and WMS-IV Logical Memory subtest), lexical access (Boston Naming Test) and response inhibition (Stroop) revealed to be significantly lower in the mTBI group. These findings suggest that a mTBI sustained during late adulthood induces lasting effects on cognitive function. Episodic memory and executive functions seem to be particularly vulnerable to enduring mTBI effects.

Keywords: cognitive function, late adulthood, mild traumatic brain injury, neuropsychology

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4537 Executive Function Assessment with Aboriginal Australians

Authors: T. Keiller, E. Hindman, P. Hassmen, K. Radford, L. Lavrencic

Abstract:

Background: Psychosocial disadvantage is associated with impaired cognitive abilities, with executive functioning (EF) abilities particularly vulnerable. EF abilities strongly predict general daily functioning, educational and career prospects, and health choices. A reliable and valid assessment of EF is important to support appropriate care and intervention strategies. However, evidence-based EF assessment tools for use with Aboriginal Australians are limited. Aim and Method: This research aims to develop and validate a culturally appropriate EF tool for use with indigenous Australians. To this end, Study One aims to review current literature examining the benefits and disadvantages of current EF assessment tools for use with Indigenous Australians. Study Two aims to collate expert opinion on the strengths and weaknesses of various current EF assessment tools for use with Indigenous Australians using Delphi methodology with experienced psychologists (n = 10). The initial two studies will inform the development of a culturally appropriate assessment tool. Study Three aims to evaluate the psychometric properties of the tool with an Indigenous sample living in the New South Wales Mid-North Coast. The study aims to quantify the predictive validity of this tool via comparison to functionality predictors and neuropsychological assessment scores. Study Four aims to collect qualitative data surrounding the feasibility and acceptability of the tool among indigenous Australians and health professionals. Expected Results: Findings from this research are likely to inform cognitive assessment practices and tool selection for health professionals conducting cognitive assessments with Indigenous Australians. Improved assessment of EF will inform appropriate care and intervention strategies for individuals with EF deficits.

Keywords: aboriginal Australians, assessment tool, cognition, executive functioning

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4536 Developing a South African Model of Neuropsychological Rehabilitation for Adults After Acquired Brain Injury

Authors: Noorjehan Joosub-Vawda

Abstract:

Objectives: The aim of this poster presentation is to examine cultural contextual understandings of ABI that could aid conceptualisation and the development of a model for neuropsychological rehabilitation in this context. Characteristics of the South African context that make the implementation of international NR practices difficult include socioeconomic disparities, sociocultural influences, lack of accessibility to healthcare services, and poverty and unemployment levels. NR services in the developed world have characteristics such as low staff-to-patient ratios and interdisciplinary teams that make them unsuitable for the resource-constrained South African context. Methods: An exploratory, descriptive research design based on programme theory is being followed in the development of a South African model of neuropsychological rehabilitation. Results: The incorporation of African traditional understandings and practices, such as beliefs about ancestral spirits in the etiology of Acquired Brain Injury are relevant to the planning of rehabilitation interventions. Community-Based Rehabilitation workers, psychoeducation, and cooperation among the different systemic levels especially in rural settings is also needed to improve services offered to patients living with ABI. Conclusions. The preliminary model demonstrated in this poster will attempt to build on the strengths of South African communities, incorporating valuable evidence from international models to serve those affected with brain injury in this context.

Keywords: neuropsychological rehabilitation, South Africa, acquired brain injury, developing context

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4535 Risk Tolerance and Individual Worthiness Based on Simultaneous Analysis of the Cognitive Performance and Emotional Response to a Multivariate Situational Risk Assessment

Authors: Frederic Jumelle, Kelvin So, Didan Deng

Abstract:

A method and system for neuropsychological performance test, comprising a mobile terminal, used to interact with a cloud server which stores user information and is logged into by the user through the terminal device; the user information is directly accessed through the terminal device and is processed by artificial neural network, and the user information comprises user facial emotions information, performance test answers information and user chronometrics. This assessment is used to evaluate the cognitive performance and emotional response of the subject to a series of dichotomous questions describing various situations of daily life and challenging the users' knowledge, values, ethics, and principles. In industrial applications, the timing of this assessment will depend on the users' need to obtain a service from a provider, such as opening a bank account, getting a mortgage or an insurance policy, authenticating clearance at work, or securing online payments.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, neurofinance, neuropsychology, risk management

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4534 Internal and External Factors Affecting Teachers’ Adoption of Formative Assessment to Support Learning

Authors: Kemal Izci

Abstract:

Assessment forms an important part of instruction. Assessment that aims to support learning is known as formative assessment and it contributes student’s learning gain and motivation. However, teachers rarely use assessment formatively to aid their students’ learning. Thus, reviewing the factors that limit or support teachers’ practices of formative assessment will be crucial for guiding educators to support prospective teachers in using formative assessment and also eliminate limiting factors to let practicing teachers to engage in formative assessment practices during their instruction. The study, by using teacher’s change environment framework, reviews literature on formative assessment and presents a tentative model that illustrates the factors impacting teachers’ adoption of formative assessment in their teaching. The results showed that there are four main factors consisting personal, contextual, resource-related and external factors that influence teachers’ practices of formative assessment.

Keywords: assessment practices, formative assessment, teacher education, factors for use of formative assessment

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4533 Neuropsychology of Social Awareness: A Research Study Applied to University Students in Greece

Authors: Argyris Karapetsas, Maria Bampou, Andriani Mitropoulou

Abstract:

The aim of the present work is to study the role of brain function in social awareness processing. Mind controls all the psychosomatic functions. Mind’s functioning enables individual not only to recognize one's own self and propositional attitudes, but also to assign such attitudes to other individuals, and to consider such observed mental states in the elucidation of behavior. Participants and Methods: Twenty (n=20) undergraduate students (mean age 18 years old) were involved in this study. Students participated in a clinical assessment, being conducted in Laboratory of Neuropsychology, at University of Thessaly, in Volos, Greece. Assessment included both electrophysiological (i.e.Event Related Potentials (ERPs) esp.P300 waveform) and neuropsychological tests (Raven's Progressive Matrices (RPM) and Sally-Anne test). Results: Initial assessment’s results confirmed statistically significant differences between the males and females, as well as in score performance to the tests applied. Strong correlations emerged between prefrontal lobe functioning, RPM, Sally-Anne test and P300 latencies. Also, significant dysfunction of mind has been found, regarding its three dimensions (straight, circular and helical). At the end of the assessment, students received consultation and appropriate guidelines in order to improve their intrapersonal and interpersonal skills. Conclusions: Mind and social awareness phenomena play a vital role in human development and may act as determinants of the quality of one’s own life. Meanwhile, brain function is highly correlated with social awareness and it seems that different set of brain structures are involved in social behavior.

Keywords: brain activity, emotions, ERP's, social awareness

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4532 A Comparative Study of Self, Peer and Teacher Assessment Based on an English Writing Checklist

Authors: Xiaoting Shi, Xiaomei Ma

Abstract:

In higher education, students' self-assessment and peer assessment of compositions in writing classes can effectively improve their ability of evaluative judgment. However, students' self-assessment and peer assessment are not advocated by most teachers because of the significant difference in scoring compared with teacher assessment. This study used a multi-faceted Rasch model to explore whether an English writing checklist containing 30 descriptors can effectively improve rating consistency among self-assessment, peer assessment and teacher assessment. Meanwhile, a questionnaire was adopted to survey students’ and teachers’ attitudes toward self-assessment and peer assessment using the writing checklist. Results of the multi-faceted Rasch model analysis show that the writing checklist can effectively distinguish the students’ writing ability (separate coefficient = 2.05, separate reliability = 0.81, chi-square value (df = 32) = 123.4). Moreover, the results revealed that the checklist could improve rating consistency among self-assessment, peer assessment and teacher assessment. (separate coefficient = 1.71, separate reliability = 0.75, chi-square value (df=4) = 20.8). The results of the questionnaire showed that more than 85% of students and all teachers believed that the checklist had a good advantage in self-assessment and peer assessment, and they were willing to use the checklist to conduct self-assessment and peer assessment in class in the future.

Keywords: english writing, self-assessment, peer assessment, writing checklist

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4531 Cognitive Effects of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Patients with Parkinson's Disease

Authors: Ana Munguia, Gerardo Ortiz, Guadalupe Gonzalez, Fiacro Jimenez

Abstract:

Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor and cognitive symptoms. The first-choice treatment for these patients is pharmacological, but this generates several side effects. Because of that new treatments were introduced such as Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in order to improve the life quality of the patients. Several studies suggest significant changes in motor symptoms. However, there is a great diversity in the number of pulses, amplitude, frequency and stimulation targets, which results in inconsistent data. In addition, these studies do not have an analysis of the neuropsychological effects of the treatment. The main purpose of this study is to evaluate the impact of rTMS on the cognitive performance of 6 patients with H&Y III and IV (45-65 years, 3 men and 3 women). An initial neuropsychological and neurological evaluation was performed. Patients were randomized into two groups; in the first phase one received rTMS in the supplementary motor area, the other group in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex contralateral to the most affected hemibody. In the second phase, each group received the stimulation in the area that he had not been stimulated previously. Reassessments were carried out at the beginning, at the end of each phase and a follow-up was carried out 6 months after the conclusion of the stimulation. In these preliminary results, it is reported that there's no statistically significant difference before and after receiving rTMS in the neuropsychological test scores of the patients, which suggests that the cognitive performance of patients is not detrimental. There are even tendencies towards an improvement in executive functioning after the treatment. What added to motor improvement, showed positive effects in the activities of the patients' daily life. In a later and more detailed analysis, will be evaluated the effects in each of the patients separately in relation to the functionality of the patients in their daily lives.

Keywords: Parkinson's disease, rTMS, cognitive, treatment

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4530 Identifying Understanding Expectations of School Administrators Regarding School Assessment

Authors: Eftah Bte. Moh Hj Abdullah, Izazol Binti Idris, Abd Aziz Bin Abd Shukor

Abstract:

This study aims to identify the understanding expectations of school administrators concerning school assessment. The researcher utilized a qualitative descriptive study on 19 administrators from three secondary schools in the North Kinta district. The respondents had been interviewed on their understanding expectations of school assessment using the focus group discussion method. Overall findings showed that the administrators’ understanding expectations of school assessment was weak; especially in terms of content focus, articulation across age and grade, transparency and fairness, as well as the pedagogical implications. Findings from interviews indicated that administrators explained their understanding expectations of school assessment from the aspect of school management, and not from the aspect of instructional leadership or specifically as assessment leaders. The study implications from the administrators’ understanding expectations may hint at the difficulty of the administrators to function as assessment leaders, in order to reduce their focus as manager, and move towards their primary role in the process of teaching and learning. The administrator, as assessment leaders, would be able to reach assessment goals via collaboration in identifying and listing teacher assessment competencies, how to construct assessment capacity, how to interpret assessment correctly, the use of assessment and how to use assessment information to communicate confidently and effectively to the public.

Keywords: assessment leaders, assessment goals, instructional leadership, understanding expectation of assessment

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4529 A Propose of Personnel Assessment Method Including a Two-Way Assessment for Evaluating Evaluators and Employees

Authors: Shunsuke Saito, Kazuho Yoshimoto, Shunichi Ohmori, Sirawadee Arunyanart

Abstract:

In this paper, we suggest a mechanism of assessment that rater and Ratee (or employees) to convince. There are many problems exist in the personnel assessment. In particular, we were focusing on the three. (1) Raters are not sufficiently recognized assessment point. (2) Ratee are not convinced by the mechanism of assessment. (3) Raters (or Evaluators) and ratees have empathy. We suggest 1: Setting of "understanding of the assessment points." 2: Setting of "relative assessment ability." 3: Proposal of two-way assessment mechanism to solve these problems. As a prerequisite, it is assumed that there are multiple raters. This is because has been a growing importance of multi-faceted assessment. In this model, it determines the weight of each assessment point evaluators by the degree of understanding and assessment ability of raters and ratee. We used the ANP (Analytic Network Process) is a theory that an extension of the decision-making technique AHP (Analytic Hierarchy Process). ANP can be to address the problem of forming a network and assessment of Two-Way is possible. We apply this technique personnel assessment, the weights of rater of each point can be reasonably determined. We suggest absolute assessment for Two-Way assessment by ANP. We have verified that the consent of the two approaches is higher than conventional mechanism. Also, human resources consultant we got a comment about the application of the practice.

Keywords: personnel evaluation, pairwise comparison, analytic network process (ANP), two-ways

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4528 Toward a Risk Assessment Model Based on Multi-Agent System for Cloud Consumer

Authors: Saadia Drissi

Abstract:

The cloud computing is an innovative paradigm that introduces several changes in technology that have resulted a new ways for cloud providers to deliver their services to cloud consumers mainly in term of security risk assessment, thus, adapting a current risk assessment tools to cloud computing is a very difficult task due to its several characteristics that challenge the effectiveness of risk assessment approaches. As consequence, there is a need of risk assessment model adapted to cloud computing. This paper requires a new risk assessment model based on multi-agent system and AHP model as fundamental steps towards the development of flexible risk assessment approach regarding cloud consumers.

Keywords: cloud computing, risk assessment model, multi-agent system, AHP model, cloud consumer

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4527 Assessment of Psychomotor Development of Preschool Children: A Review of Eight Psychomotor Developmental Tools

Authors: Viola Hubačová Pirová

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The assessment of psychomotor development allows us to identify children with motor delays, helps us to monitor progress in time and prepare suitable intervention programs. The foundation of psychomotor development lies in pre-school age and is crucial for child´s further cognitive and social development. Many assessment tools of psychomotor development have been developed over the years. Some of them are easy screening tools; others are more complex and sophisticated. The purpose of this review is to describe the history of psychomotor assessment, specify preschool children´s psychomotor evaluation and review eight psychomotor development assessment tools for preschool children (Denver II., DEMOST-PRE, TGMD -2/3, BOT-2, MABC-2, PDMS-2, KTK, MOT 4-6). The selection of test depends on purpose and context in which is the assessment planned.

Keywords: assessment of psychomotor development, preschool children, psychomotor development, review of assessment tools

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4526 Neuropsychological Aspects in Adolescents Victims of Sexual Violence with Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder

Authors: Fernanda Mary R. G. Da Silva, Adriana C. F. Mozzambani, Marcelo F. Mello

Abstract:

Introduction: Sexual assault against children and adolescents is a public health problem with serious consequences on their quality of life, especially for those who develop post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). The broad literature in this research area points to greater losses in verbal learning, explicit memory, speed of information processing, attention and executive functioning in PTSD. Objective: To compare the neuropsychological functions of adolescents from 14 to 17 years of age, victims of sexual violence with PTSD with those of healthy controls. Methodology: Application of a neuropsychological battery composed of the following subtests: WASI vocabulary and matrix reasoning; Digit subtests (WISC-IV); verbal auditory learning test RAVLT; Spatial Span subtest of the WMS - III scale; abbreviated version of the Wisconsin test; concentrated attention test - D2; prospective memory subtest of the NEUPSILIN scale; five-digit test - FDT and the Stroop test (Trenerry version) in adolescents with a history of sexual violence in the previous six months, referred to the Prove (Violence Care and Research Program of the Federal University of São Paulo), for further treatment. Results: The results showed a deficit in the word coding process in the RAVLT test, with impairment in A3 (p = 0.004) and A4 (p = 0.016) measures, which compromises the verbal learning process (p = 0.010) and the verbal recognition memory (p = 0.012), seeming to present a worse performance in the acquisition of verbal information that depends on the support of the attentional system. A worse performance was found in list B (p = 0.047), a lower priming effect p = 0.026, that is, lower evocation index of the initial words presented and less perseveration (p = 0.002), repeated words. Therefore, there seems to be a failure in the creation of strategies that help the mnemonic process of retention of the verbal information necessary for learning. Sustained attention was found to be impaired, with greater loss of setting in the Wisconsin test (p = 0.023), a lower rate of correct responses in stage C of the Stroop test (p = 0.023) and, consequently, a higher index of erroneous responses in C of the Stroop test (p = 0.023), besides more type II errors in the D2 test (p = 0.008). A higher incidence of total errors was observed in the reading stage of the FDT test p = 0.002, which suggests fatigue in the execution of the task. Performance is compromised in executive functions in the cognitive flexibility ability, suggesting a higher index of total errors in the alternating step of the FDT test (p = 0.009), as well as a greater number of persevering errors in the Wisconsin test (p = 0.004). Conclusion: The data from this study suggest that sexual violence and PTSD cause significant impairment in the neuropsychological functions of adolescents, evidencing risk to quality of life in stages that are fundamental for the development of learning and cognition.

Keywords: adolescents, neuropsychological functions, PTSD, sexual violence

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4525 Importance of Detecting Malingering Patients in Clinical Setting

Authors: Sakshi Chopra, Harsimarpreet Kaur, Ashima Nehra

Abstract:

Objectives: Malingering is fabricating or exaggerating the symptoms of mental or physical disorders for a variety of secondary gains or motives, which may include financial compensation; avoiding work; getting lighter criminal sentences; or simply to attract attention or sympathy. Malingering is different from somatization disorder and factitious disorder. The prevalence of malingering is unknown and difficult to determine. In an estimated study in forensic population, it can reach up to 17% cases. But the accuracy of such estimates is questionable as successful malingerers are not detected and thus, not included. Methods: The case study of a 58 years old, right handed, graduate, pre-morbidly working in a national company with reported history of stroke leading to head injury; cerebral infarction/facial palsy and dementia. He was referred for disability certification so that his job position can be transferred to his son as he could not work anymore. A series of Neuropsychological tests were administered. Results: With a mental age of < 2.5 years; social adaptive functioning was overall < 20 showing profound Mental Retardation, less than 1 year social age in abilities of self-help, eating, dressing, locomotion, occupation, communication, self-direction, and socialization; severely impaired verbal and performance ability, 96% impairment in Activities of Daily Living, with an indication of very severe depression. With inconsistent and fluctuating medical findings and problem descriptions to different health professionals forming the board for his disability, it was concluded that this patient was malingering. Conclusions: Even though it can be easily defined, malingering can be very challenging to diagnosis. Cases of malingering impose a substantial economic burden on the health care system and false attribution of malingering imposes a substantial burden of suffering on a significant proportion of the patient population. Timely, tactful diagnosis and management can help ease this patient burden on the healthcare system. Malingering can be detected by only trained mental health professionals in the clinical setting.

Keywords: disability, India, malingering, neuropsychological assessment

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4524 Analysis of Suitability of Online Assessment by Maintaining Critical Thinking

Authors: Mohamed Chabi

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to determine Whether paper assessment especially in the subject mathematics will ever be completely replaced by online assessment using Learning Management System and Content Management System such as blackboard. In the subject mathematics, the assessment is the exercise of judgment on the quality of students’ work, as a way of supporting student learning and appraising its outcomes. Testing students has moved from the traditional scribbling and sketching on paper towards working online on a screen and keyboard.

Keywords: paper assessment, online assessment, learning management system, content management system, mathematics

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4523 Sustainable Landscape Development Assessment Tools

Authors: Nur Azemah Aminludin, Osman Mohd Tahir

Abstract:

A dynamic landscape development is important for providing healthy ecosystem which supports all life. Nowadays, many initiatives towards sustainable development have been published. They lead to better living and more efficient use of natural resources in sustaining long-term ecological, economics and social benefits. To date, many assessment tools related to built environment have been established and practiced in this region, which mostly has the purpose assessing the environment performance of buildings. Hence, an assessment tool focusing on the sustainable landscape development itself is a necessity. This paper reviews the assessment criteria and indicators that are suitable for sustainable landscape development practices. The local and global assessment tools for landscape development are investigated, analyzed and discussed critically. Consideration also is given to the integration of the assessment tools with the surrounding environmental, social, and economical aspects. In addition, the assessment criteria and indicators for assessing the landscape development in Malaysia are also reviewed and discussed. In conclusion, this paper reviews, analyzes and discusses on available local and global landscape development assessment tools for sustainability.

Keywords: assessment tool, sustainable landscape development, assessment criteria, assessment indicator

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4522 Governance of Artificial Intelligence: The Role of Risk Assessment in Reducing Harm

Authors: Brian Wm. Higgins

Abstract:

Risk assessment is emerging as a component of artificial intelligence (AI) governance. With the goal of improving trust in AI by reducing its potential for harm, lawmakers in several U.S. states have adopted risk assessment in response to user data privacy concerns, and the U.S. federal government has been active in evaluating risk assessment for broader AI governance. California, Virginia, and New York, for example, have enacted or proposed laws imposing risk assessment requirements on certain data collectors, and the U.S. National Institutes of Standards and Technology (NIST) has issued draft voluntary guidance and a framework for conducting AI-related risk assessment. Some AI companies are not waiting for specific AI regulations; they are motivated to adopt a form of risk assessment as part of their Environment, Social, and Governance (ESG) strategies. At the same time, however, a consensus framework for conducting AI-specific risk assessment has been elusive. This paper reviews existing and proposed legal frameworks in the U.S., Canada, and the European Union for conducting risk assessment and, from them proposes the essential legal elements for an economy-wide risk assessment policy that could help improve the public’s trust perception of AI.

Keywords: artificial intelligence, governance, trust, risk assessment, harm

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4521 Relevance Of Cognitive Rehabilitation Amongst Children Having Chronic Illnesses – A Theoretical Analysis

Authors: Pulari C. Milu Maria Anto

Abstract:

Background: Cognitive Rehabilitation/Retraining has been variously used in the research literature to represent non-pharmacological interventions that target the cognitive impairments with the goal of ameliorating cognitive function and functional behaviors to optimize the quality of life. Along with adult’s cognitive impairments, the need to address acquired cognitive impairments (due to any chronic illnesses like CHD - congenital heart diseases or ALL - Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia) among child populations is inevitable. Also, it has to be emphasized as same we consider the cognitive impairments seen in the children having neurodevelopmental disorders. Methods: All published brain image studies (Hermann, B. et al,2002, Khalil, A. et al., 2004, Follin, C. et al, 2016, etc.) and studies emphasizing cognitive impairments in attention, memory, and/or executive function and behavioral aspects (Henkin, Y. et al,2007, Bellinger, D. C., & Newburger, J. W. (2010), Cheung, Y. T., et al,2016, that could be identified were reviewed. Based on a systematic review of the literature from (2000 -2021) different brain imaging studies, increased risk of neuropsychological and psychosocial impairments are briefly described. Clinical and research gap in the area is discussed. Results:30 papers, both Indian studies and foreign publications (Sage journals, Delhi psychiatry journal, Wiley Online Library, APA PsyNet, Springer, Elsevier, Developmental medicine, and child neurology), were identified. Conclusions: In India, a very limited number of brain imaging studies and neuropsychological studies have done by indicating the cognitive deficits of a child having or undergone chronic illness. None of the studies have emphasized the relevance nor the need of implementingCR among such children, even though its high time to address but still not established yet. The review of the current evidence is to bring out an insight among rehabilitation professionals in establishing a child specific CR and to publish new findings regarding the implementation of CR among such children. Also, this study will be an awareness on considering cognitive aspects of a child having acquired cognitive deficit (due to chronic illness), especially during their critical developmental period.

Keywords: cognitive rehabilitation, neuropsychological impairments, congenital heart diseases, acute lymphoblastic leukemia, epilepsy, and neuroplasticity

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4520 Association of Sensory Processing and Cognitive Deficits in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders – Pioneer Study in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Rana Zeina

Abstract:

Objective: The association between Sensory problems and cognitive abilities has been studied in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). In this study, we used a neuropsychological test to evaluate memory and attention in ASDs children with sensory problems compared to the ASDs children without sensory problems. Methods: Four visual memory tests of Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) including Big/Little Circle (BLC), Simple Reaction Time (SRT), Intra/Extra Dimensional Set Shift (IED), Spatial Recognition Memory (SRM), were administered to 14 ASDs children with sensory problems compared to 13 ASDs without sensory problems aged 3 to 12 with IQ of above 70. Results: ASDs Individuals with sensory problems performed worse than the ASDs group without sensory problems on comprehension, learning, reversal and simple reaction time tasks, and no significant difference between the two groups was recorded in terms of the visual memory and visual comprehension tasks. Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that ASDs children with sensory problems are facing deficits in learning, comprehension, reversal, and speed of response to stimuli.

Keywords: visual memory, attention, autism spectrum disorders, CANTAB eclipse

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4519 An E-Assessment Website to Implement Hierarchical Aggregate Assessment

Authors: M. Lesage, G. Raîche, M. Riopel, F. Fortin, D. Sebkhi

Abstract:

This paper describes a Web server implementation of the hierarchical aggregate assessment process in the field of education. This process describes itself as a field of teamwork assessment where teams can have multiple levels of hierarchy and supervision. This process is applied everywhere and is part of the management, education, assessment and computer science fields. The E-Assessment website named “Cluster” records in its database the students, the course material, the teams and the hierarchical relationships between the students. For the present research, the hierarchical relationships are team member, team leader and group administrator appointments. The group administrators have the responsibility to supervise team leaders. The experimentation of the application has been performed by high school students in geology courses and Canadian army cadets for navigation patrols in teams. This research extends the work of Nance that uses a hierarchical aggregation process similar as the one implemented in the “Cluster” application.

Keywords: e-learning, e-assessment, teamwork assessment, hierarchical aggregate assessment

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4518 The Application of ICT in E-Assessment and E-Learning in Language Learning and Teaching

Authors: Seyyed Hassan Seyyedrezaei

Abstract:

The advent of computer and ICT thereafter has introduced many irrevocable changes in learning and teaching. There is substantially growing need for the use of IT and ICT in language learning and teaching. In other words, the integration of Information Technology (IT) into online teaching is of vital importance for education and assessment. Considering the fact that the image of education is undergone drastic changes by the advent of technology, education systems and teachers move beyond the walls of traditional classes and methods in order to join with other educational centers to revitalize education. Given the advent of distance learning, online courses and virtual universities, e-assessment has taken a prominent place in effective teaching and meeting the learners' educational needs. The purpose of this paper is twofold: first, scrutinizing e-learning, it discusses how and why e-assessment is becoming widely used by educationalists and administrators worldwide. As a second purpose, a couple of effective strategies for online assessment will be enumerated.

Keywords: e-assessment, e learning, ICT, online assessment

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