Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3074

Search results for: passive mechanism

3074 Passive Non-Prehensile Manipulation on Helix Path Based on Mechanical Intelligence

Authors: Abdullah Bajelan, Adel Akbarimajd

Abstract:

Object manipulation techniques in robotics can be categorized in two major groups including manipulation with grasp and manipulation without grasp. The original aim of this paper is to develop an object manipulation method where in addition to being grasp-less, the manipulation task is done in a passive approach. In this method, linear and angular positions of the object are changed and its manipulation path is controlled. The manipulation path is a helix track with constant radius and incline. The method presented in this paper proposes a system which has not the actuator and the active controller. So this system requires a passive mechanical intelligence to convey the object from the status of the source along the specified path to the goal state. This intelligent is created based on utilizing the geometry of the system components. A general set up for the components of the system is considered to satisfy the required conditions. Then after kinematical analysis, detailed dimensions and geometry of the mechanism is obtained. The kinematical results are verified by simulation in ADAMS.

Keywords: mechanical intelligence, object manipulation, passive mechanism, passive non-prehensile manipulation

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3073 A Passive Reaction Force Compensation for a Linear Motor Motion Stage Using Pre-Compressed Springs

Authors: Kim Duc Hoang, Hyeong Joon Ahn

Abstract:

Residual vibration of the system base due to a high-acceleration motion of a stage may reduce life and productivity of the manufacturing device. Although a passive RFC can reduce vibration of the system base, spring or dummy mass should be replaced to tune performance of the RFC. In this paper, we develop a novel concept of the passive RFC mechanism for a linear motor motion stage using pre-compressed springs. Dynamic characteristic of the passive RFC can be adjusted by pre-compression of the spring without exchanging the spring or dummy mass. First, we build a linear motor motion stage with pre-compressed springs. Then, the effect of the pre-compressed spring on the passive RFC is investigated by changing both pre-compressions and stiffness of springs. Finally, the effectiveness of the passive RFC using pre-compressed springs was verified with both simulations and experiments.

Keywords: linear motor motion stage, residual vibration, passive RFC, pre-compressed spring

Procedia PDF Downloads 249
3072 The Prospective Assessment of Zero-Energy Dwellings

Authors: Jovana Dj. Jovanovic, Svetlana M. Stevovic

Abstract:

The highest priority of so called, projected passive houses is to meet the appropriate energy demand. Every single material and layer which is injected into a dwelling has a certain energy quantity stored. The passive houses include optimized insulation levels with minimal thermal bridges, minimum of air leakage through the building, utilization of passive solar and internal gains, and good circulation of air which leans on mechanical ventilation system. The focus of this paper is on passive house features, benefits and targets, their feasibility and energy demands which are set up during each project. Numerous passive house-standards outline the very significant role of zero-energy dwellings towards the modern label of sustainable development. It is clear that the performance of both built and existing housing stock must be addressed if the population across the world sets out the energy objectives. This scientific article examines passive house features since the many passive house cases are launched.

Keywords: benefits, energy demands, passive houses, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 253
3071 Dilation Effect on 3D Passive Earth Pressure Coefficients for Retaining Wall

Authors: Khelifa Tarek, Benmebarek Sadok

Abstract:

The 2D passive earth pressures acting on rigid retaining walls problem has been widely treated in the literature using different approaches (limit equilibrium, limit analysis, slip line and numerical computation), however, the 3D passive earth pressures problem has received less attention. This paper is concerned with the numerical study of 3D passive earth pressures induced by the translation of a rigid rough retaining wall for associated and non-associated soils. Using the explicit finite difference code FLAC3D, the increase of the passive earth pressures due to the decrease of the wall breadth is investigated. The results given by the present numerical analysis are compared with other investigation. The influence of the angle of dilation on the coefficients is also studied.

Keywords: numerical modeling, FLAC3D, retaining wall, passive earth pressures, angle of dilation

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
3070 Various Perspectives for the Concept of the Emotion Labor

Authors: Jae Soo Do, Kyoung-Seok Kim

Abstract:

Radical changes in the industrial environment, and spectacular developments of IT have changed the current of managements from people-centered to technology- or IT-centered. Interpersonal emotion exchanges have long become insipid and interactive services have also come as mechanical reactions. This study offers various concepts for the emotional labor based on traditional studies on emotional labor. Especially the present day, on which human emotions are subject to being served as machinized thing, is the time when the study on human emotions comes momentous. Precedent researches on emotional labors commonly and basically dealt with the relationship between the active group who performs actions and the passive group who is done with the action. This study focuses on the passive group and tries to offer a new perspective of 'liquid emotion' as a defence mechanism for the passive group from the external environment. Especially, this addresses a concrete discussion on directions of following studies on the liquid labor as a newly suggested perspective.

Keywords: emotion labor, surface acting, deep acting, liquid emotion

Procedia PDF Downloads 273
3069 Design and Optimization for a Compliant Gripper with Force Regulation Mechanism

Authors: Nhat Linh Ho, Thanh-Phong Dao, Shyh-Chour Huang, Hieu Giang Le

Abstract:

This paper presents a design and optimization for a compliant gripper. The gripper is constructed based on the concept of compliant mechanism with flexure hinge. A passive force regulation mechanism is presented to control the grasping force a micro-sized object instead of using a sensor force. The force regulation mechanism is designed using the planar springs. The gripper is expected to obtain a large range of displacement to handle various sized objects. First of all, the statics and dynamics of the gripper are investigated by using the finite element analysis in ANSYS software. And then, the design parameters of the gripper are optimized via Taguchi method. An orthogonal array L9 is used to establish an experimental matrix. Subsequently, the signal to noise ratio is analyzed to find the optimal solution. Finally, the response surface methodology is employed to model the relationship between the design parameters and the output displacement of the gripper. The design of experiment method is then used to analyze the sensitivity so as to determine the effect of each parameter on the displacement. The results showed that the compliant gripper can move with a large displacement of 213.51 mm and the force regulation mechanism is expected to be used for high precision positioning systems.

Keywords: flexure hinge, compliant mechanism, compliant gripper, force regulation mechanism, Taguchi method, response surface methodology, design of experiment

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
3068 Insight on Passive Design for Energy Efficiency in Commercial Building for Hot and Humid Climate

Authors: Aravind J.

Abstract:

Passive design can be referred to a way of designing buildings that takes advantage of the prevailing climate and natural energy resources. Which will be a key to reduce the increasing energy usage in commercial buildings. Most of the small scale commercial buildings made are merely a thermal mass inbuilt with active systems to bring lively conditions. By bringing the passive design strategies for energy efficiency in commercial buildings will reduce the usage of active systems. Thus the energy usage can be controlled through analysis of daylighting and improved living conditions in the indoor spaces by using passive techniques. And comparative study on different passive design systems and conventional methods will be approached for commercial buildings in hot and humid region. Possible effects of existing risks implied with solution for those problems is also a part of the paper. The result will be carried on with the design programme to prove the workability of the strategies.

Keywords: passive design, energy efficiency, commercial buildings, hot and humid climate

Procedia PDF Downloads 268
3067 Reflections on Mechanism of Foreign Teachers’ Administration in Colleges and Universities in China

Authors: YangHui

Abstract:

Foreign teachers play an important role in the process of internationalization of higher education in China. Based on the method of literature analysis, firstly study the contents about the mechanism of the foreign teachers’ administration in our country, then secondly analyze the main barriers of the foreign teacher’s administration mechanism. Finally, it is suggested that the international exchange department in universities should constantly improve the employment mechanism, training mechanism, appraisal mechanism and incentive mechanism to promote the internationalization of higher education.

Keywords: internationalization of higher education, mechanism, administration of foreign teachers, colleges and universities, China

Procedia PDF Downloads 344
3066 Development of 3D Neck Muscle to Analyze the Effect of Active Muscle Contraction in Whiplash Injury

Authors: Nisha Nandlal Sharma, Julaluk Carmai, Saiprasit Koetniyom, Bernd Markert

Abstract:

Whiplash Injuries are mostly experienced in car accidents. Symptoms of whiplash are commonly reported in studies, neck pain and headaches are two most common symptoms observed. The whiplash Injury mechanism is poorly understood. In present study, hybrid neck muscle model were developed with a combination of solid tetrahedral elements and 1D beam elements. Solid tetrahedral elements represents passive part of the muscle whereas, 1D beam elements represents active part. To simulate the active behavior of the muscle, Hill-type muscle model was applied to beam elements. To simulate non-linear passive properties of muscle, solid elements were modeled with rubber/foam material model. Some important muscles were then inserted into THUMS (Total Human Model for Safety) THUMS was given a boundary conditions similar to experimental tests. The model was exposed to 4g and 7g rear impacts as these load impacts are close to low speed impacts causing whiplash. The effect of muscle activation level on occupant kinematics during whiplash was analyzed.

Keywords: finite element model, muscle activation, THUMS, whiplash injury mechanism

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
3065 Dry Friction Occurring in the Suspensions for Passive and Switchable Damper Systems and Its Effect on Ride Comfort

Authors: Aref M. A. Soliman, Mahmoud A. Hassan

Abstract:

In all vehicle suspension, there is a dry friction. One of the various active suspensions, which have been shown to have considerable practical potential, is a switchable damper suspension system. In this paper, vehicle ride comfort for the passive and switchable damper suspension systems as affected by the value of frictional force generated in springs is discussed. A mathematical model of a quarter vehicle model for two setting switchable damper suspension system with dry friction force is developed to evaluate vehicle ride comfort in terms of suspension performance criteria. The vehicle itself is treated as a rigid body undergoing vertical motions. Comparisons between passive and switchable damper suspensions systems with dry friction force in terms of ride performance are also discussed. The results showed that the ride comfort for the passive and switchable damper suspension systems was deteriorated due to dry friction occurring in the suspensions. The two setting switchable damper with and without dry friction force gives better ride improvements compared with the passive suspension system. Also, the obtained results show an optimum value of damping ratio of the passive suspension system.

Keywords: ride comfort, dry friction, switchable damper, passive suspension

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
3064 Seismic Response Control of 20-Storey Benchmark Building Using True Negative Stiffness Device

Authors: Asim Qureshi, R. S. Jangid

Abstract:

Seismic response control of structures is generally achieved by using control devices which either dissipate the input energy or modify the dynamic properties of structure.In this paper, the response of a 20-storey benchmark building supplemented by viscous dampers and Negative Stiffness Device (NSD) is assessed by numerical simulations using the Newmark-beta method. True negative stiffness is an adaptive passive device which assists the motion unlike positive stiffness. The structure used in this study is subjected to four standard ground motions varying from moderate to severe, near fault to far-field earthquakes. The objective of the present study is to show the effectiveness of the adaptive negative stiffness device (NSD and passive dampers together) relative to passive dampers alone. This is done by comparing the responses of the above uncontrolled structure (i.e., without any device) with the structure having passive dampers only and also with the structure supplemented with adaptive negative stiffness device. Various performance indices, top floor displacement, top floor acceleration and inter-storey drifts are used as comparison parameters. It is found that NSD together with passive dampers is quite effective in reducing the response of aforementioned structure relative to structure without any device or passive dampers only. Base shear and acceleration is reduced significantly by incorporating NSD at the cost of increased inter-storey drifts which can be compensated using the passive dampers.

Keywords: adaptive negative stiffness device, apparent yielding, NSD, passive dampers

Procedia PDF Downloads 323
3063 Application of Sorptive Passive Panels for Reducing Indoor Formaldehyde Level: Effect of Environmental Conditions

Authors: Mitra Bahri, Jean Leopold Kabambi, Jacqueline Yakobi-Hancock, William Render, Stephanie So

Abstract:

Reducing formaldehyde concentration in residential buildings is an important challenge, especially during the summer. In this study, a ceiling tile was used as a sorptive passive panel for formaldehyde removal. The performance of this passive panel was evaluated under different environmental conditions. The results demonstrated that the removal efficiency is comprised between 40% and 71%. Change in the level of relative humidity (30%, 50%, and 75%) had a slight positive effect on the sorption capacity. However, increase in temperature from 21 °C to 26 °C led to approximately 7% decrease in the average formaldehyde removal performance. GC/MS and HPLC analysis revealed the formation of different by-products at low concentrations under extreme environmental conditions. These findings suggest that the passive panel selected for this study holds the potential to be used for formaldehyde removal under various conditions.

Keywords: formaldehyde, indoor air quality, passive panel, removal efficiency, sorption

Procedia PDF Downloads 110
3062 Passive Solar Techniques to Improve Thermal Comfort and Reduce Energy Consumption of Domestic Use

Authors: Naci Kalkan, Ihsan Dagtekin

Abstract:

Passive design responds to improve indoor thermal comfort and minimize the energy consumption. The present research analyzed the how efficiently passive solar technologies generate heating and cooling and provide the system integration for domestic applications. In addition to this, the aim of this study is to increase the efficiency of solar systems system with integration some innovation and optimization. As a result, outputs of the project might start a new sector to provide environmentally friendly and cheap cooling for domestic use.

Keywords: passive solar systems, heating, cooling, thermal comfort, ventilation systems

Procedia PDF Downloads 202
3061 Health of Riveted Joints with Active and Passive Structural Health Monitoring Techniques

Authors: Javad Yarmahmoudi, Alireza Mirzaee

Abstract:

Many active and passive structural health monitoring (SHM) techniques have been developed for detection of the defects of plates. Generally, riveted joints hold the plates together and their failure may create accidents. In this study, well known active and passive methods were modified for the evaluation of the health of the riveted joints between the plates. The active method generated Lamb waves and monitored their propagation by using lead zirconate titanate (PZT) disks. The signal was analyzed by using the wavelet transformations. The passive method used the Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors and evaluated the spectral characteristics of the signals by using Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT). The results indicated that the existing methods designed for the evaluation of the health of individual plates may be used for inspection of riveted joints with software modifications.

Keywords: structural health monitoring, SHM, active SHM, passive SHM, fiber bragg grating sensor, lead zirconate titanate, PZT

Procedia PDF Downloads 229
3060 Evaluation of Heating/Cooling Potential of a Passive Building

Authors: M. Jamil Ahmad

Abstract:

In this paper, the heating/cooling potential of a passive building (mosque) of Prof. K. A. Nizami center for Quranic studies at AMU Aligarh, has been evaluated on the basis of energy balance under quasi-steady state condition by incorporating the effect of ventilation. The study has been carried out for composite climate of Aligarh. The performance of the above mentioned building has been presented in this study. It is observed that the premises of the mosque are cooler than the outside ambient temperature by an average of 2°C and 4°C during the month of March and April respectively. Provision of excellent ventilation, high amount of thermal mass, high ceilings and circulation of cool natural air helps in maintaining an optimal thermal comfort temperature in the passive building.

Keywords: heating/cooling potential, passive building, ambient temperatures

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
3059 On Voice in English: An Awareness Raising Attempt on Passive Voice

Authors: Meral Melek Unver

Abstract:

This paper aims to explore ways to help English as a Foreign Language (EFL) learners notice and revise voice in English and raise their awareness of when and how to use active and passive voice to convey meaning in their written and spoken work. Because passive voice is commonly preferred in certain genres such as academic essays and news reports, despite the current trends promoting active voice, it is essential for learners to be fully aware of the meaning, use and form of passive voice to better communicate. The participants in the study are 22 EFL learners taking a one-year intensive English course at a university, who will receive English medium education (EMI) in their departmental studies in the following academic year. Data from students’ written and oral work was collected over a four-week period and the misuse or inaccurate use of passive voice was identified. The analysis of the data proved that they failed to make sensible decisions about when and how to use passive voice partly because the differences between their mother tongue and English and because they were not aware of the fact that active and passive voice would not alternate all the time. To overcome this, a Test-Teach-Test shape lesson, as opposed to a Present-Practice-Produce shape lesson, was designed and implemented to raise their awareness of the decisions they needed to make in choosing the voice and help them notice the meaning and use of passive voice through concept checking questions. The results first suggested that awareness raising activities on the meaning and use of voice in English would be beneficial in having accurate and meaningful outcomes from students. Also, helping students notice and renotice passive voice through carefully designed activities would help them internalize the use and form of it. As a result of the study, a number of activities are suggested to revise and notice passive voice as well as a short questionnaire to help EFL teachers to self-reflect on their teaching.

Keywords: voice in English, test-teach-test, passive voice, English language teaching

Procedia PDF Downloads 148
3058 Dynamic Synthesis of a Flexible Multibody System

Authors: Mohamed Amine Ben Abdallah, Imed Khemili, Nizar Aifaoui

Abstract:

This work denotes an insight into dynamic synthesis of multibody systems. A set of mechanism parameters design variable are synthetized based on a desired mechanism response, such as, velocity, acceleration and bodies deformations. Moreover, knowing the work space, for a robot, and mechanism response allow defining optimal parameters mechanism handling with the desired target response. To this end, evolutionary genetic algorithm has been deployed. A demonstrative example for imperfect mechanism has been treated, mainly, a slider crank mechanism with a flexible connecting rod. The transversal deflection of the connecting rod has been chosen as response to identify the mechanism design parameters.

Keywords: dynamic response, evolutionary genetic algorithm, flexible bodies, optimization

Procedia PDF Downloads 221
3057 Integrated Passive Cooling Systems for Tropical Residential Buildings: A Review through the Lens of Latent Heat Assessment

Authors: O. Eso, M. Mohammadi, J. Darkwa, J. Calautit

Abstract:

Residential buildings are responsible for 22% of the global end-use energy demand and 17% of global CO₂ emissions. Tropical climates particularly present higher latent heat gains, leading to more cooling loads. However, the cooling processes are all based on conventional mechanical air conditioning systems which are energy and carbon intensive technologies. Passive cooling systems have in the past been considered as alternative technologies for minimizing energy consumption in buildings. Nevertheless, replacing mechanical cooling systems with passive ones will require a careful assessment of the passive cooling system heat transfer to determine if suitable to outperform their conventional counterparts. This is because internal heat gains, indoor-outdoor heat transfer, and heat transfer through envelope affects the performance of passive cooling systems. While many studies have investigated sensible heat transfer in passive cooling systems, not many studies have focused on their latent heat transfer capabilities. Furthermore, combining heat prevention, heat modulation and heat dissipation to passively cool indoor spaces in the tropical climates is critical to achieve thermal comfort. Since passive cooling systems use only one of these three approaches at a time, integrating more than one passive cooling system for effective indoor latent heat removal while still saving energy is studied. This study is a systematic review of recently published peer review journals on integrated passive cooling systems for tropical residential buildings. The missing links in the experimental and numerical studies with regards to latent heat reduction interventions are presented. Energy simulation studies of integrated passive cooling systems in tropical residential buildings are also discussed. The review has shown that comfortable indoor environment is attainable when two or more passive cooling systems are integrated in tropical residential buildings. Improvement occurs in the heat transfer rate and cooling performance of the passive cooling systems when thermal energy storage systems like phase change materials are included. Integrating passive cooling systems in tropical residential buildings can reduce energy consumption by 6-87% while achieving up to 17.55% reduction in indoor heat flux. The review has highlighted a lack of numerical studies regarding passive cooling system performance in tropical savannah climates. In addition, detailed studies are required to establish suitable latent heat transfer rate in passive cooling ventilation devices under this climate category. This should be considered in subsequent studies. The conclusions and outcomes of this study will help researchers understand the overall energy performance of integrated passive cooling systems in tropical climates and help them identify and design suitable climate specific options for residential buildings.

Keywords: energy savings, latent heat, passive cooling systems, residential buildings, tropical residential buildings

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
3056 Design of Bidirectional Wavelength Division Multiplexing Passive Optical Network in Optisystem Environment

Authors: Ashiq Hussain, Mahwash Hussain, Zeenat Parveen

Abstract:

Now a days the demand for broadband service has increased. Due to which the researchers are trying to find a solution to provide a large amount of service. There is a shortage of bandwidth because of the use of downloading video, voice and data. One of the solutions to overcome this shortage of bandwidth is to provide the communication system with passive optical components. We have increased the data rate in this system. From experimental results we have concluded that the quality factor has increased by adding passive optical networks.

Keywords: WDM-PON, optical fiber, BER, Q-factor, eye diagram

Procedia PDF Downloads 390
3055 Analysis of a Single Motor Finger Mechanism for a Prosthetic Hand

Authors: Shaukat Ali, Kanber Sedef, Mustafa Yilmaz

Abstract:

This work analyzes a finger mechanism for a prosthetic hand that will help in improving the living standards of people who have lost their hands for a variety of reasons. The finger mechanism is single degree of freedom and hence has advantages such as compact size, reduced mass and less energy consumption. The proposed finger mechanism is a six bar linkage actuated by a single motor. The kinematic, static and dynamic analyses have been done by using the conventional methods of mechanism analysis. The kinematic results present the motion of the proposed finger mechanism and location of the fingertip. The static and dynamic analyses provide the useful information about the gripping force at the fingertip for various configurations and the selection of motor that will move the finger over its range of configuration. This single motor finger mechanism is simple and resembles the human finger’s motion suitable for grasping operation. This study can be used in the optimization of geometrical parameters of the proposed mechanism to obtain the desired configurations with minimum torque and enhanced griping.

Keywords: dynamics, finger mechanism, grasping, kinematics

Procedia PDF Downloads 264
3054 Space Time Adaptive Algorithm in Bi-Static Passive Radar Systems for Clutter Mitigation

Authors: D. Venu, N. V. Koteswara Rao

Abstract:

Space – time adaptive processing (STAP) is an effective tool for detecting a moving target in spaceborne or airborne radar systems. Since airborne passive radar systems utilize broadcast, navigation and excellent communication signals to perform various surveillance tasks and also has attracted significant interest from the distinct past, therefore the need of the hour is to have cost effective systems as compared to conventional active radar systems. Moreover, requirements of small number of secondary samples for effective clutter suppression in bi-static passive radar offer abundant illuminator resources for passive surveillance radar systems. This paper presents a framework for incorporating knowledge sources directly in the space-time beam former of airborne adaptive radars. STAP algorithm for clutter mitigation for passive bi-static radar has better quantitation of the reduction in sample size thereby amalgamating the earlier data bank with existing radar data sets. Also, we proposed a novel method to estimate the clutter matrix and perform STAP for efficient clutter suppression based on small sample size. Furthermore, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm is verified using MATLAB simulations in order to validate STAP algorithm for passive bi-static radar. In conclusion, this study highlights the importance for various applications which augments traditional active radars using cost-effective measures.

Keywords: bistatic radar, clutter, covariance matrix passive radar, STAP

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3053 Adaptation Mechanism and Planning Response to Resiliency Shrinking of Small Towns Based on Complex Adaptive System by Taking Wuhan as an Example

Authors: Yanqun Li, Hong Geng

Abstract:

The rapid urbanization process taking big cities as the main body leads to the unequal configuration of urban and rural areas in the aspects of land supply, industrial division of labor, service supply and space allocation, and induces the shrinking characterization of service energy, industrial system and population vitality in small towns. As an important spatial unit in the spectrum of urbanization that serves, connects and couples urban and rural areas, the shrinking phenomenon faced by small towns has an important influence on the healthy development of urbanization. Based on the census of small towns in Wuhan metropolitan area, we have found that the shrinking of small towns is a passive contraction of elastic tension under the squeeze in cities. Once affected by the external forces such as policy regulation, planning guidance, and population return, small towns will achieve expansion and growth. Based on the theory of complex adaptive systems, this paper comprehensively constructs the development index evaluation system of small towns from five aspects of population, economy, space, society and ecology, measures the shrinking level of small towns, further analyzes the shrinking characteristics of small towns, and identifies whether the shrinking is elastic or not. And then this paper measures the resilience ability index of small town contract from the above-mentioned five aspects. Finally, this paper proposes an adaptive mechanism of urban-rural interaction evolution under fine division of labor to response the passive shrinking in small towns of Wuhan. Based on the above, the paper creatively puts forward the planning response measures of the small towns on the aspects of spatial layout, function orientation and service support, which can provide reference for other regions.

Keywords: complex adaptive systems, resiliency shrinking, adaptation mechanism, planning response

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3052 Feasibility Analysis of Active and Passive Technical Integration of Rural Buildings

Authors: Chanchan Liu

Abstract:

In the process of urbanization in China, the rapid development of urban construction has been achieved, but a large number of rural buildings still continue the construction mode many years ago. This paper mainly analyzes the rural residential buildings in the hot summer and cold winter regions analyze the active and passive technologies of the buildings. It explored the feasibility of realizing the sustainable development of rural buildings in an economically reasonable range, using mainly passive technologies, innovative building design methods, reducing the buildings’ demand for conventional energy, and supplementing them with renewable energy sources. On this basis, appropriate technology and regional characteristics are proposed to keep the rural architecture retain its characteristics in the development process. It is hoped that this exploration can provide reference and help for the development of rural buildings in the hot summer and cold winter regions.

Keywords: the rural building, active technology, passive technology, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 83
3051 Network Traffic Classification Scheme for Internet Network Based on Application Categorization for Ipv6

Authors: Yaser Miaji, Mohammed Aloryani

Abstract:

The rise of recent applications in everyday implementation like videoconferencing, online recreation and voice speech communication leads to pressing the need for novel mechanism and policy to serve this steep improvement within the application itself and users‟ wants. This diversity in web traffics needs some classification and prioritization of the traffics since some traffics merit abundant attention with less delay and loss, than others. This research is intended to reinforce the mechanism by analysing the performance in application according to the proposed mechanism implemented. The mechanism used is quite direct and analytical. The mechanism is implemented by modifying the queue limit in the algorithm.

Keywords: traffic classification, IPv6, internet, application categorization

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3050 The Effect of the Hexagonal Ring Interior Angle on Energy Absorption Capability

Authors: Shada Bennbaia, Elsadig Mahdi

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of changing the interior angle of a hexagonal passive energy absorber is investigated. Aluminum hexagonal structures have been tested under in-plane quasi-static compression tests. These hexagonal structures are designed to have varying interior angle values to study their crushing behavior and the relationship between the angle and the energy absorption capability. It was found that the structures with angles 40° and 45° showed an almost perfectly stable crushing mechanism with low initial peak force. Thus, hexagonal structures with these angels can be used in the vehicle's crumple zones to absorb energy during collisions. The larger angles required high initial peak force to start crushing, which indicates that these structures are best suited in applications where high load carrying capacity is needed.

Keywords: energy absorption, crushing force efficiency, crushing mechanism, hexagonal angle, peak force

Procedia PDF Downloads 91
3049 Passive Seismic in Hydrogeological Prospecting: The Case Study from Hard Rock and Alluvium Plain

Authors: Prarabdh Tiwari, M. Vidya Sagar, K. Bhima Raju, Joy Choudhury, Subash Chandra, E. Nagaiah, Shakeel Ahmed

Abstract:

Passive seismic, a wavefield interferometric imaging, low cost and rapid tool for subsurface investigation is used for various geotechnical purposes such as hydrocarbon exploration, seismic microzonation, etc. With the recent advancement, its application has also been extended to groundwater exploration by means of finding the bedrock depth. Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR)-National Geophysical Research Institute (NGRI) has experimented passive seismic studies along with electrical resistivity tomography for groundwater in hard rock (Choutuppal, Hyderabad). Passive Seismic with Electrical Resistivity (ERT) can give more clear 2-D subsurface image for Groundwater Exploration in Hard Rock area. Passive seismic data were collected using a Tromino, a three-component broadband seismometer, to measure background ambient noise and processed using GRILLA software. The passive seismic results are found corroborating with ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography) results. For data acquisition purpose, Tromino was kept over 30 locations consist recording of 20 minutes at each station. These location shows strong resonance frequency peak, suggesting good impedance contrast between different subsurface layers (ex. Mica rich Laminated layer, Weathered layer, granite, etc.) This paper presents signature of passive seismic for hard rock terrain. It has been found that passive seismic has potential application for formation characterization and can be used as an alternative tool for delineating litho-stratification in an urban condition where electrical and electromagnetic tools cannot be applied due to high cultural noise. In addition to its general application in combination with electrical and electromagnetic methods can improve the interpreted subsurface model.

Keywords: passive seismic, resonant frequency, Tromino, GRILLA

Procedia PDF Downloads 82
3048 Design Practices, Policies and Guidelines towards Implementing Architectural Passive Cooling Strategies in Public Library Buildings in Temperate Climates

Authors: Lesley Metibogun, Regan Potangaroa

Abstract:

Some existing sustainable public libraries in New Zealand now depend on air conditioning system for cooling. This seems completely contradictory to sustainable building initiatives. A sustainable building should be ‘self- sufficient’ and must aim at optimising the use of natural ventilation, wind and daylight and avoiding too much summer heat penetration into the building, to save energy consumption and enhance occupants’ comfort. This paper demonstrates that with appropriate architectural passive design input public libraries do not require air conditioning. Following a brief outline of how our dependence on air conditioning has spread over the full range of building types and climatic zones, this paper focuses on public libraries in temperate climates where passive cooling should be feasible for long periods of mild outside temperature. It was found that current design policies, regulations and guidelines and current building design practices militate passive cooling strategies. Perceived association with prestige, inflexibility of design process, rigid planning regulations and sustainability rating systems were identified as key factors forcing the need for air conditioning. Recommendations are made on how to further encourage development in this direction from the perspective of architectural design. This paper highlights how architectural passive cooling design strategies should be implemented in government initiated policies and regulations to develop a more sustainable public libraries.

Keywords: public library, sustainable design, temperate climate, passive cooling, air conditioning

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
3047 Effects of Active Muscle Contraction in a Car Occupant in Whiplash Injury

Authors: Nisha Nandlal Sharma, Julaluk Carmai, Saiprasit Koetniyom, Bernd Markert

Abstract:

Whiplash Injuries are usually associated with car accidents. The sudden forward or backward jerk to head causes neck strain, which is the result of damage to the muscle or tendons. Neck pain and headaches are the two most common symptoms of whiplash. Symptoms of whiplash are commonly reported in studies but the Injury mechanism is poorly understood. Neck muscles are the most important factor to study the neck Injury. This study focuses on the development of finite element (FE) model of human neck muscle to study the whiplash injury mechanism and effect of active muscle contraction on occupant kinematics. A detailed study of Injury mechanism will promote development and evaluation of new safety systems in cars, hence reducing the occurrence of severe injuries to the occupant. In present study, an active human finite element (FE) model with 3D neck muscle model is developed. Neck muscle was modeled with a combination of solid tetrahedral elements and 1D beam elements. Muscle active properties were represented by beam elements whereas, passive properties by solid tetrahedral elements. To generate muscular force according to inputted activation levels, Hill-type muscle model was applied to beam elements. To simulate non-linear passive properties of muscle, solid elements were modeled with rubber/foam material model. Material properties were assigned from published experimental tests. Some important muscles were then inserted into THUMS (Total Human Model for Safety) 50th percentile male pedestrian model. To reduce the simulation time required, THUMS lower body parts were not included. Posterior to muscle insertion, THUMS was given a boundary conditions similar to experimental tests. The model was exposed to 4g and 7g rear impacts as these load impacts are close to low speed impacts causing whiplash. The effect of muscle activation level on occupant kinematics during whiplash was analyzed.

Keywords: finite element model, muscle activation, neck muscle, whiplash injury prevention

Procedia PDF Downloads 274
3046 Passive Heat Exchanger for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Cooling

Authors: Ivan Tolj

Abstract:

Water produced during electrochemical reaction in Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) fuel cell can be used for internal humidification of reactant gases; hydrogen and air. On such a way it is possible to eliminate expensive external humidifiers and simplify fuel cell balance-of-plant (BoP). When fuel cell operates at constant temperature (usually between 60 °C and 80 °C) relatively cold and dry ambient air heats up quickly upon entering channels which cause further drop in relative humidity (below 20%). Low relative humidity of reactant gases dries up polymer membrane and decrease its proton conductivity which results in fuel cell performance drop. It is possible to maintain such temperature profile throughout fuel cell cathode channel which will result in close to 100 % RH. In order to achieve this, passive heat exchanger was designed using commercial CFD software (ANSYS Fluent). Such passive heat exchanger (with variable surface area) is suitable for small scale PEM fuel cells. In this study, passive heat exchanger for single PEM fuel cell segment (with 20 x 1 cm active area) was developed. Results show close to 100 % RH of air throughout cathode channel with increased fuel cell performance (mainly improved polarization curve) and improved durability.

Keywords: PEM fuel cell, passive heat exchange, relative humidity, thermal management

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3045 Micro-Oscillator: Passive Production and Manipulation of Microdrops

Authors: Khelfaoui Rachid, Chekifi Tawfiq, Dennai Brahim, Maazouzi A. Hak

Abstract:

A numerical and experimental studies of passive micro drops production have been presented. This paper focuses on the modeling of micro-oscillators systems which are composed by passive amplifier without moving part. The micro-system modeling is based on geometrical oscillators form. An asymmetric micro-oscillator design that is based on a bistable fluidic amplifier is proposed. The characteristic size of the channels is generally about 35 microns of depth. The numerical results indicate that the production and manipulation of microdrops are possible with passive device within a typical oscillators chamber of 2.25 mm diameter and 0.20 mm length when the Reynolds number is Re = 490. The novel micro drops method that is presented in this study provides a simple solution about the production of microdrops problems in micro system. We undertake an experimental step. The first part is based on the realisation of sample oscillator; the second part is consisted of visualization, production and manipulation of microdrops.

Keywords: modelling, miscible, micro drops, production, oscillator sample, capillary

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