Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7664

Search results for: cultural growth

7664 Female Entrepreneurship and Cultural Influence in Emerging Economy: The Case of Bangladesh

Authors: Nawreen Sobhan, Abeer Hassan, Dina Nziku

Abstract:

There has been a dramatic rise in the percentage of female entrepreneurship in both developed and developing countries as it is now considering as an important source of economic growth. Therefore, there has been a growing research interest in female entrepreneurship as they represent an unrecognized engine for economic growth especially in transition economy. This study will determine the role of cultural influence on female entrepreneurship in the growth of economic development which will add new dimensions to the field of female entrepreneurial studies in informal sector of Bangladesh. A systematic literature review has been conducted on female entrepreneurship and cultural studies in both developed and developing country in this research study. There is lack of research on this field as most of the cultural studies on female entrepreneurship have been conducted globally and most of them are either comparative or based on single developed country. This study addresses this gap by using North’s institutional theory to investigate the influence of socio cultural factors on the development of businesses run by female entrepreneurs in Bangladesh. The study, therefore, has practical implications for policy makers and enhancing micro business performance by female entrepreneurs and contributes to the on-going theoretical understanding of cultural influence in female entrepreneurship in an Asian context.

Keywords: culture, socio cultural factors, female entrepreneurship, informal sectors, formal and informal institution and sustainable economic development

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7663 The Impact of Socio – Cultural Factors on Female Entrepreneurial Intention: The Case of Algeria

Authors: Nesrine Bouguerra

Abstract:

Entrepreneurship is seen as a necessary ingredient for stimulating economic growth and employment opportunities in all societies. SMEs account for a wide share of economic activity and development. they are the primary engine of job creation, income growth and poverty reduction. Indeed, government support for entrepreneurship is a strategic option to foster economic growth and females’ input in this regard, is of equal significance not only for employability and productivity but also to narrow the gender gap created by social attitudes and beliefs. This study investigates the impact of socio–cultural factors, among other barriers on female entrepreneurial intention in Algeria. Data will be collected using a mixed method approach (Questionnaires and Interviews) from women intending to become entrepreneurs and those already in the field. This study has conceptual, theoretical and empirical contributions to the field of entrepreneurship which will be unveiled throughout.

Keywords: female entrepreneurship, SMEs, women, socio –cultural values, barriers

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7662 An Overview of Smart Growth Concept from Ecological Planning Perspective

Authors: Ozge Celik, Elvan Ender

Abstract:

With rapidly increasing population growth and industrial revolution in the 1950s, in Turkey migration began to the cities from the countryside. Along the rapid growth of urban population has started to bring many problems. Depending on the uncontrolled urban development, concerns about the protection of natural values has increased day by day. As a result of disturbance on the natural environment, human health has started to be under threat. After all, much urban planning approaches outspread that protecting natural resources by respect to human health and troubleshooting problems emerging with anthropogenic effects. Smart growth concept is one of the chosen methods to resolve the problems in Turkey. In this paper, smart growth concept idea and its criteria will be explained while ecological planning and urban planning problems will be mentioned in Turkey according to the need of concept. Studies, consisting of practical and theoretical smart growth ideas, shows that ecological landscape planning is not included in the urban development process in Turkey. The main idea is to initiate urban development plans considering social and cultural structures of cultural assets and also natural values.

Keywords: ecological landscape planning, smart growth, Turkey, urban development

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7661 The Sustainable Blue Economy Innovation and Growth: Data Based on China for 2006-2015 Years

Authors: Mingbao Chen

Abstract:

The blue economy is a new comprehensive marine economy integrated with resources, industries, and regions, and is an upgraded version of the marine economy. The blue economy attaches great importance to the coordinated development of the ecological environment and the economy, which is an emerging economic form advocated by all countries in the world. This paper constructs the model including four variables:natural capital, economic capital, intellectual capital, cultural capital. Theoretically, this paper deduces the function mechanism of variables on economic growth, and empirically calculates the driving force and influence of the blue economy on the national economy by using data of China's 2006-2015 year. The results show that natural capital and economic capital remain the main factors of blue growth in the blue economy. And with the development of economic society and technological progress, the role of intellectual capital and cultural capital is bigger and bigger. Therefore, promoting the development of marine science and technology and culture is the focus of the future blue economic development.

Keywords: blue growth, natural capital, intellectual capital, cultural capital

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7660 Detonating Culture, Statistic and Developmenet in Imo State of Nigeria

Authors: Ejikeme Ugiri

Abstract:

In an executive summary, UNESCO describes Framework for Cultural Statistics as a tool for organizing cultural statistics both nationally and internationally. This is based on conceptual foundation and a common understanding of culture that will enable the measurement of a wide range of cultural expressions. This means therefore that cultural expression in whatever guise has the potentiality of contributing reasonably to the development of a given society. The paper looked into the various tangible and intangible cultures in Imo State of Nigeria. Due to government’s insensitivity, there is need to remind ourselves of the need to pay adequate attention to the cultural heritage bequeathed to us by our forefathers for the sake of posterity. Documenting this information in written form therefore becomes imperative. The study concludes that culture if developed, could reasonably contribute to economic and social growth of the society.

Keywords: culture, detonation, development, statistics

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7659 Detonating Culture, Statistics and Development in Imo State of Nigeria

Authors: Ugiri Ejikeme

Abstract:

In an executive summary, UNESCO describes Framework for Cultural Statistics as a tool for organizing cultural statistics both nationally and internationally. This is based on conceptual foundation and a common understanding of culture that will enable the measurement of a wide range of cultural expressions. This means therefore that cultural expression in whatever guise has the potentiality of contributing reasonably to the development of a given society. The paper looked into the various tangible and intangible cultures in Imo State of Nigeria. Due to government’s insensitivity, there is need to remind ourselves of the need to pay adequate attention to the cultural heritage bequeathed to us by our forefathers for the sake of posterity. Documenting this information in written form therefore becomes imperative. The study concludes that culture if developed, could reasonably contribute to economic and social growth of the society.

Keywords: detonating culture, statistics and development, Imo State, Nigeria

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7658 The Influence of Substrate and Temperature on the Growth of Phytophthora palmivora of Cocoa Black Pod Disease

Authors: Suhaida Salleh, Tee Yei Kheng

Abstract:

Black pod is the most commonly destructive disease of cacao (Theobroma cacao) which cause major losses to global production of cocoa beans. The genus of Phytophthora is the important pathogen of this disease worldwide. The species of P. megakarya causes black pod disease in West Africa, whereas P. capsici and P. citrophthora cause the incident in Central and South America. In Malaysia, this disease is caused by P. palmivora which infect all stages of pod development including flower cushion, cherelle, immature and mature pods. This pathogen destroys up to 10% of trees yearly through stem cankers and causes 20 to 30% pod damages through black pod rot. Since P. palmivora has a high impact on cocoa yield, it is crucial to identify some of the abiotic factors that can constrain their growth. In an effort to evaluate the effect of different substrates and temperatures to the growth of P. palmivora, a laboratory study was done under a different range of temperatures. Different substrate for the growth of P. palmivora were used which are corn meal agar (CMA) media and detached pod of cocoa. An agar plug of seven days old of P. palmivora growth was transferred on both substrates and incubated at 24, 27, 30, 33 and 36ᵒC, respectively. The diameter of lesion on pod and the cultural growth of pathogen was recorded for 7 consecutive days. The optimum incubation temperature of P. palmivora on both substrates is at 27ᵒC. However, the growth tends to be inhibited as the temperature increases. No lesion developed on pod surface incubated at 36ᵒC and only a small lesion observed at 33ᵒC. The sporulation with the formation of white mycelial growth on pod surface was only visible at optimum temperature, 27ᵒC. On CMA, the pathogen grew over the entire range of temperatures tested. The study is, therefore, concluded that P. palmivora grow the best at temperature of 27ᵒC on both substrates and their growth begin to inhibit when the temperature rises to more than 27ᵒC. The growth pattern of this pathogen is similar on both pod surface and cultural media.

Keywords: cocoa, Phytophthora palmivora, substrate, temperature

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7657 Antagonistic Potential of Trichoderma Strains against Colletotrichum musae

Authors: Shah Md. Asraful Islam, Shabina Yeasmin, Fatima Aktar Mousumi

Abstract:

The experiment was conducted to evaluate the antagonistic potential of three commercially available Trichoderma strains viz., T. harzianum (armigera), T. harzianum (Ispahani), and T. viride against Colletotrichum musae isolates from three banana varieties viz., sagar, sobri, and katali. Mycelial growth rates of C. musae isolates were observed, the highest mycelial growth (11.62, 15.75, and 23.12 mm diameter) was observed by C. musae from sagor banana at 1, 2 and 3 days after inoculation, respectively. All the Trichoderma strains were capable of growth inhibition of C. musae isolates. After 4 days of duel culture, the highest mycelial growth reduction (10.33 mm diameter) was observed by the interaction between T. harzianum (armigera) with C. musae from sagor banana. Moreover, the highest growth inhibition (46.29%) was observed by the interaction between T. harzianum (armigera) with C. musae from the sobri banana. All the Trichoderma strains fully affected the viability of all the Colletotrichum isolates. Interestingly, both cultural filtrates and mycelial powders of all the Trichoderma strains showed a very nice inhibitory effect against C. musae isolates, where cultural filtrates were more potential than that of mycelial powders. So, all the tested Trichoderma strains may be used for the control of banana anthracnose disease.

Keywords: biological control, banana, anthracnose, Trichoderma, Colletotrichum

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7656 Economic Integration vs. Conflicts in Northeast Asia

Authors: Heeho Kim, Byeong-Hae Sohn

Abstract:

This study has examined the culture commonality of Northeast Asian countries based on Confucian values, and their relations to institutional economic integration. This study demonstrates that Confucian values inherent in the Northeast Asian countries have served as the cultural ethos for the rapid economic growth of this region since the 1960s and will be able to form the foundation of Northeast Asian values in the future. This paper re-appreciates these cultural values as a necessary condition for regional integration to catalyze the stagnated discussions about economic integration and extends its inter-weaving connection role for intra-regional transaction among China, Japan and Korea.

Keywords: Confucianism, Northeast Asia, economic integration, economic growth, regional conflicts

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7655 Mechanisms of Cultural Change Resistance through Cultures

Authors: Horaya Mostafa Ahmed

Abstract:

All cultures are inherently predisposed to change and, at the same time, to resisting change. There are dynamic processes operating that encourage the acceptance of new ideas and things, while there are others that encourage changeless stability. Despite the dramatic changes that have taken place in all human cultures, there are cultures still steadfast and resist change. These cultures resist through some culture mechanisms like, cultural boundaries, ethnocentrism, religion, and cultural relativity. So this paper is an attempt to discover these mechanisms of cultural change resistance and to ask is cultural change always required.

Keywords: cultural change, cultural boundaries, cultural relativity, ethnocentrism, religion, resistance

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7654 Analyzing the Relationship between the Spatial Characteristics of Cultural Structure, Activities, and the Tourism Demand

Authors: Deniz Karagöz

Abstract:

This study is attempt to comprehend the relationship between the spatial characteristics of cultural structure, activities and the tourism demand in Turkey. The analysis divided into four parts. The first part consisted of a cultural structure and cultural activity (CSCA) index provided by principal component analysis. The analysis determined four distinct dimensions, namely, cultural activity/structure, accessing culture, consumption, and cultural management. The exploratory spatial data analysis employed to determine the spatial models of cultural structure and cultural activities in 81 provinces in Turkey. Global Moran I indices is used to ascertain the cultural activities and the structural clusters. Finally, the relationship between the cultural activities/cultural structure and tourism demand was analyzed. The raw/original data of the study official databases. The data on the cultural structure and activities gathered from the Turkish Statistical Institute and the data related to the tourism demand was provided by the Republic of Turkey Ministry of Culture and Tourism.

Keywords: cultural activities, cultural structure, spatial characteristics, tourism demand, Turkey

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7653 Tourism and Urban Planning for Intermediate Cities: An Empirical Approach toward Cultural Heritage Conservation in Damavand, Iran

Authors: M. Elham Ghabouli

Abstract:

Intermediate cities which also called medium size cities have an important role in the process of globalization. It is argued that, in some cases this type of cities may be depopulated or in otherwise may be transformed as the periphery of metropolitans so that the personal identity of the city and its local cultural heritage could suffer from its neighbor metropolitan. Over the last decades, the role of tourism in development process and the cultural heritage is increased. The effect of tourism in socio-economic growth makes motivation for study on tourism development in regional and urban planning process. Tourism potentially has a specific role in promoting sustainable development especially by its economic and socio-cultural effects. The positive role of tourism in local development and in cultural heritage should be empowered by urban and regional planning. Damavand is an intermediate city located in Tehran province, Iran. Considering its local specific characteristic like social structure, antiquities and natural monuments made a suitable case study for studying on urban tourism planning method. Focusing on recognition of historical and cultural heritage of Damavand, this paper tried to peruse cultural-historical heritage protecting issue through “base plan methodology” which is introduced as a first step of urban planning for intermediate cities.

Keywords: urban planning, tourism, cultural heritage, intermediate cities

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7652 From Cultural Policy to Social Practice: Literary Festivals as a Platform for Social Inclusion in Pakistan

Authors: S. Jabeen

Abstract:

Though Pakistan has a rich cultural history and a diverse population; its global image is tarnished with labels of Muslim ‘fundamentalism’ and ‘extremism.’ Cultural policy is a tool that can be used by the government of Pakistan to ameliorate this image, but instead, this fundamentalist reputation is reinforced in the 2005 draft of Pakistan’s cultural policy. With its stern focus on a homogenized cultural identity, this 2005 draft bases itself largely on forced participation from the largely Muslim public and leaves little or no benefits to them or cultural minorities in Pakistan. The effects of this homogenized ‘Muslim’ identity linger ten years later where the study and celebration of the cultural heritage of Pakistan in schools and educational festivals focus entirely on creating and maintaining a singular ‘Islamic’ cultural identity. The current lack of inclusion has many adverse effects that include the breeding of extremist mindsets through the usurpation of minority rights and lack of safe cultural public spaces. This paper argues that Pakistan can improve social inclusivity and boost its global image through cultural policy. The paper sets the grounds for research by surveying the effectiveness of different cultural policies across nations with differing socioeconomic status. Then, by sampling two public literary festivals in Pakistan as case studies, the National Youth Peace Festival hosted with a nationalistic agenda using public funds and the Lahore Literary Festival (LLF) that aims to boost the cultural literacy scene of Lahore using both private and public efforts, this paper looks at the success of the private, more inclusive LLF. A revision of cultural policy is suggested that combines public and private efforts to host cultural festivals for the sake of cultural celebration and human development, without a set nationalistic agenda. Consequently, this comparison which is grounded in the human capabilities approach, recommends revising the 2005 draft of the Cultural Policy to improve human capabilities in order to support cultural diversity and ultimately contribute to economic growth in Pakistan.

Keywords: cultural policy, festivals, human capabilities, Pakistan

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7651 A Comparative Study of Corporate Cultural Values in Mergers and Acquisitions

Authors: Renzhong Peng, Weiping Wu

Abstract:

Based on the framework of Hofstede’s cultural dimension, this study conducted a comparative study on the similarities and differences between national cultures and corporate cultural values, analyzed and interpreted the reasons why Chinese overseas Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) cultural integration results in the success or failure. The findings of this study indicate that in the process of M&A, the corporate cultural values from Chinese and western corporations are proved to be quite different as a result of their diversities of national cultures, and the strategies for the integration of cultural corporate values are of vital importance and can determine the effects of the M&A, which can be referential to managers who intend to have the idea of M&A and those who have cultural integration in the process of M&A.

Keywords: comparative study, cultural integration, corporate cultural values, Mergers and Acquisitions

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7650 Cultural Studies in the Immigration Movements: Memories and Social Collectives

Authors: María Eugenia Peltzer, María Estela Rodríguez

Abstract:

This work presents an approach to the cultural aspects of the Immigrants as part of the Cultural Intangible Heritage of Argentina. The intangible cultural heritage consists of the manifestations, practices, uses, representations, expressions, knowledge, techniques and cultural spaces that communities and groups recognize as an integral part of their cultural heritage. This heritage generates feelings of identity and establishes links with the collective memory, as well as being transmitted and recreated over time according to its environment, its interaction with nature and its history contributing to promote respect for cultural diversity and Human creativity. The Immigrants brings together those who came from other lands and their descendants, thus maintaining their traditions through time and linking the members of each cultural group with a strong sense of belonging through a communicative and effective process.

Keywords: cultural, immigration, memories, social

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7649 Participatory and Experience Design in Advertising: An Exploratory Study of Advertising Styles of Cultures

Authors: Irem Ela Yildizeli

Abstract:

Advertising today has become an indispensable phenomenon both for businesses and consumers. Due to the conditions of rapid changes in the market and growth of competitiveness, the success of many of firms that produce similar merchandise depends largely on how professionally and effective they use marketing communication elements which also must have some sense of shared values between the message provider and the receiver within cultural and global trend. This paper demonstrates how consumer behaviour and communication through cultural values evaluate advertising styles. Using samples of award-winning ads from both author's and other professional's creative works, the study reveals a significant correlation between the cultural elements and advertisement reception for language and cultural norms respectively. The findings of this study draw attention to the change of communication in the beginning of the 21st century which has shaped a new style of Participatory and Experience Design in advertising.

Keywords: advertising, advertising style, culture, experience design, participatory design

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7648 Examining the Role of Willingness to Communicate in Cross-Cultural Adaptation in East-Asia

Authors: Baohua Yu

Abstract:

Despite widely reported 'Mainland-Hong Kong conflicts', recent years have witnessed progressive growth in the numbers of Mainland Chinese students in Hong Kong’s universities. This research investigated Mainland Chinese students’ intercultural communication in relation to cross-cultural adaptation in a major university in Hong Kong. The features of intercultural communication examined in this study were competence in the second language (L2) communication and L2 Willingness to Communicate (WTC), while the features of cross-cultural adaptation examined were socio-cultural, psychological and academic adaptation. Based on a questionnaire, structural equation modelling was conducted among a sample of 196 Mainland Chinese students. Results showed that the competence in L2 communication played a significant role in L2 WTC, which had an influential effect on academic adaptation, which was itself identified as a mediator between the psychological adaptation and socio-cultural adaptation. Implications for curriculum design for courses and instructional practice on international students are discussed.

Keywords: L2 willingness to communicate, competence in L2 communication, psychological adaptation, socio-cultural adaptation, academic adaptation, structural equation modelling

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7647 Integrating Cultures in Institutions of Higher Learning in South Africa

Authors: N. Mesatywa

Abstract:

The aim of the article is to emphasize and motivate for the role of integrating cultures in institutions of learning. The article has used a literature review methodology. Findings indicate that cultures espouse immense social capital that can: facilitate and strengthen moral education that will help learners in mitigating moral decadence and HIV/AIDS; embrace and strengthen the tenets of peace and tranquility among learners from different backgrounds; can form education against xenophobia; can facilitate the process of cultural paradigm shift that will slow down cultural attrition and decadence; can bring back cultural strength, cultural revival, cultural reawakening and cultural emancipation, etc. The article recommends governments to finance cultural activities in institutions of learning; to allow cultural practitioners to be part and parcel of cultural education; and challenge people to pride in the social capital of their indigenous cultures.

Keywords: cultures, cultural practitioners, integration, traditional healers

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7646 Transformative Learning and the Development of Cultural Humility in Social Work Students

Authors: Ruilin Zhu, Katarzyna Olcoń, Rose M. Pulliam, Dorie J. Gilbert

Abstract:

Cultural humility is increasingly important in social work literature, given its emphasis on mitigating power imbalances in helping relationships, particularly across cultural differences. Consequently, there is a need to understand whether and how cultural humility can be taught in social work education. Relying on ethnographic observations and reflective journals from a cultural immersion program, this study identified the learning process required to develop cultural humility: confusion and discomfort, re-moulding, and humility in action.

Keywords: social work education, cultural humility, transformative learning theory, study abroad, ethnographic observations

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7645 An Analysis of the Relationship between Manufacturing Growth and Economic Growth in South Africa: A Cointegration Approach

Authors: Johannes T. Tsoku, Teboho J. Mosikari, Diteboho Xaba, Thatoyaone Modise

Abstract:

This paper examines the relationship between manufacturing growth and economic growth in South Africa using quarterly data ranging from 2001 to 2014. The paper employed the Johansen cointegration to test the Kaldor’s hypothesis. The Johansen cointegration results revealed that there is a long run relationship between GDP, manufacturing, service and employment. The Granger causality results revealed that there is a unidirectional causality running from manufacturing growth to GDP growth. The overall findings of the study confirm that Kaldor’s first law of growth is applicable in South African economy. Therefore, investment strategies and policies should be alignment towards promoting growth in the manufacturing sector in order to boost the economic growth of South Africa.

Keywords: cointegration, economic growth, Kaldor’s law, manufacturing growth

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7644 Strategies for the Development of Cultural Intelligence in the Foreign Language Classroom

Authors: Azucena Yearby

Abstract:

This study examined if cultural intelligence can be developed through the study of a foreign language. Specifically, the study sought to determine if strategies such as the Arts/History, Vocabulary and Real or Simulated Experiences have an effect on the development of cultural intelligence in the foreign language classroom. Students enrolled in Spanish 1114 or level 1 Spanish courses at the University of Central Oklahoma (UCO) completed Linn Van Dyne’s 20-item questionnaire that measures Cultural Intelligence (CQ). Results from the study indicated a slight cultural intelligence increase in those students who received an intervention. Therefore, the study recommended that foreign language educators implement the considered strategies in the classroom in order to increase their students’ cultural intelligence.

Keywords: cultural competency, cultural intelligence, foreign language, language

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7643 Cultural Heritage Management and Tourism in Kosovo

Authors: Valon Shkodra

Abstract:

In our paper, we will give an overview of the cultural heritage and tourism in Kosovo. Kosovo has a history, culture, tradition and architecture that are different from those of other countries in the region, and each country has its own characteristics and peculiarities. In this paper, we will mainly present the situation of cultural heritage and its interpretation. The research is based on fieldwork and the aim of the research is to live the situation of cultural heritage and tourism. The reason why we chose this topic is that cultural heritage and tourism are now the most important industry developing many countries in the world. Besides the benefits that tourism brings, it also has an impact on the preservation, protection and promotion of culture in general. Kosovo, with its cultural diversity and very good geographical location, is also very well suited to develop these two areas as a bridge to each other. The cultural heritage holds traces from the earliest eras and shows a diversity of different civilizations that have just begun to be explored and presented.

Keywords: cultural heritage, economy, tourism, development, institutions, protection

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7642 Women’s Rights in Conflict with People’s Cultural Autonomy: Problems of Cultural Accommodation

Authors: Nazia Khan

Abstract:

The paper explores the cultural rights accommodation by the state which has left many unresolved problems. The cultural rights sometimes violate the basic individual rights of the members inside the community like women. The paper further explicates certain cultural norms and practices which violates the rights of women inside the community in the name of culture.

Keywords: women, culture, communities, rights, vulnerable, accomadation

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7641 Event-Led Strategy for Cultural Tourism Development: The Case of Liverpool as the 2008 European Capital of Culture

Authors: Yi-De Liu

Abstract:

Cultural tourism is one of the largest and fastest growing global tourism markets and the cultures are increasingly being used to promote cities and to increase their competitiveness and attractiveness. One of the major forms of cultural tourism development undertaken throughout Europe has been the staging of a growing number of cultural events. The event of European Capitals of Culture (ECOC) is probably the best example of the new trends of cultural tourism in Europe, which is therefore used in this article to demonstrate some of the key issues surrounding the event-led strategy for cultural tourism development. Based on the experience of the 2008 ECOC Liverpool, UK, the study’s findings point to a number of ways in which the ECOC constitutes a boost for the development of cultural tourism in terms of realising experience economy, enhancing city image, facilitating urban regeneration, promoting cultural production and consumption, as well as establishing partnerships. This study is concluded by drawing some critical factors that event and tourism organisers should consider.

Keywords: cultural tourism, event tourism, cultural event, European capital of culture, Liverpool

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7640 Cultural Snapshot: A Reflection on Project-Based Model of Cross-Cultural Understanding in Teaching and Learning

Authors: Kunto Nurcahyoko

Abstract:

The fundamental perception used in this study is that teaching and learning activities in Indonesian classroom have potentially generated individual’s sensitivity on cross-cultural understanding. This study aims at investigating Indonesian university students’ perception on cross-cultural understanding after doing Cultural Snapshot Project. The data was critically analyzed through multicultural ideology and diversity theories. The subjects were 30 EFL college students in one of colleges in Indonesia. Each student was assigned to capture a photo which depicted the existence of any cultural manifestation in their surrounding such as discrimination, prejudice and stereotype. Students were then requested asked to reflect on the picture by writing a short description on the picture and make an exhibition using their pictures. In the end of the project, students were instructed to fill in questionnaires to show their perception before and after the project. The result reveals that Cultural Snapshot Project has given the opportunity for the students to better realize cross-cultural understanding in their environment. In conclusion, the study shows that Cultural Snapshot Project has specifically enhanced students’ perception of multiculturalism in three major areas: cultural sensitivity and empathy, social tolerance, and understanding of diversity.

Keywords: cultural snapshot, cross-cultural understanding, students’ perception, multiculturalism

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7639 Cultural Diversity and Challenges for Female Entrepreneurs: Empirical Study of an Emerging Economy

Authors: Amir Ikram, Qin Su, Muhammad Fiaz, Muhammad Waqas Shabbir

Abstract:

Women entrepreneurship witnessed a healthy rise in the last decade or so, and the scenario in Pakistan is not different. However female leaders are facing various, cultural, career oriented, and professional challenges. The study investigates the impact of social and industry-specific challenges on female entrepreneurship; social challenges was evaluated in terms of culture, and industry-specific challenges was measured in terms of team management and career growth. Purposive sampling was employed to collect data from 75 multicultural organizations operating in the culturally diverse and historic city of Lahore, Pakistan. Cronbach’s alpha was conducted to endorse the reliability of survey questionnaire, while correlation and regression analysis were used to test hypotheses. Industry-specific challenges were found to be more significant as compared to cultural factors. The paper also highlights the importance of female entrepreneurship for emerging economies, and suggests that bringing women to mainstream professions can lead to economic success.

Keywords: cultural challenges, emerging economy, female entrepreneurship, leadership

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7638 Multi-Faceted Growth in Creative Industries

Authors: Sanja Pfeifer, Nataša Šarlija, Marina Jeger, Ana Bilandžić

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to explore the different facets of growth among micro, small and medium-sized firms in Croatia and to analyze the differences between models designed for all micro, small and medium-sized firms and those in creative industries. Three growth prediction models were designed and tested using the growth of sales, employment and assets of the company as dependent variables. The key drivers of sales growth are: prudent use of cash, industry affiliation and higher share of intangible assets. Growth of assets depends on retained profits, internal and external sources of financing, as well as industry affiliation. Growth in employment is closely related to sources of financing, in particular, debt and it occurs less frequently than growth in sales and assets. The findings confirm the assumption that growth strategies of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in creative industries have specific differences in comparison to SMEs in general. Interestingly, only 2.2% of growing enterprises achieve growth in employment, assets and sales simultaneously.

Keywords: creative industries, growth prediction model, growth determinants, growth measures

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7637 Role of Vocational Education and Training in Economic Excellence and Social Inclusion

Authors: Muhammad Ali Asadullah, Zafarullah Amir

Abstract:

In recent years, Vocational Education and Training (VET) has been under discussion by the academic researchers and remained in focus in the political grounds. Due to potential contribution of VET, the World Bank and United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) support vocational education to reduce poverty, enhance economic growth and increase competitiveness. This paper examines the impact of Vocational Education and Training on the Economic Growth and Social Inclusion with direct and mediation effect of Social Inclusion. The basic purpose of this study is to assess economic pay-offs as a result of long term investments in VET. Based on the review of Anderson Nilsson, initially we explored the increasing or decreasing trend in investment on VET. Further, the study explores that the countries which invest more on VET, tend to get more economic growth and are socially more ‘inclusive’. It is a longitudinal / panel data study with 12 years of registered data which involves 24 OECD countries. The results of the study indicate the VET has positive association with Social Inclusion and Economic Growth. Further, there is also a positive association of VET and Economic Growth through mediation of Social Inclusion. The current study considers not only issue and challenges in developing VET systems but also contributes to develop the theoretical framework for considering how VET can directly and indirectly improve economic growth and social inclusion. A wider appreciation of how VET’s benefits operate may influence a country’s decisions to invest in it. If policy makers increase investment on VET, the result would be positive in Economic Growth and Social Inclusion. It is also recommended that the same OECD model may be implemented in developing countries like Pakistan.

Keywords: Vocational Education and Training (VET), Social Inclusion, Economic Growth, OECD countries

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7636 Values That Should Be Taken into Account in the Arts: The Tension between Economic Influences and Cultural Values

Authors: Mohammad Mehdi Mazaheri, Mohammad Motiee Lahromi

Abstract:

Recently the two matters of how to evaluate art and what the influencing economic effects on cultural values are have attracted many researchers to investigate them. Therefore, in the present article the researcher made an attempt to answer the above questions. However, the fundamental distinction between this article and the other ones is in comparing the economic value (shown by monetary phrases) with cultural values (that reflects the aesthetic values and the importance of the artist). This article shows a different and trivial distinction that has a very clearly pivotal significance in the process of cultural policy making. The economic activities would be influenced when there are cultural values. The increase of commercial activities is measured by impact assessment. In other words, the value of culture is reflected in the satisfaction of the users of cultural activities. This kind of value is measured by “willingness to pay” researches. The researcher believes that these two values are dominant in the cultural policy but they include many aspects and are presented by different kinds of communities.

Keywords: economic influence, cultural values, monetary phrases, aesthetic values

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7635 ANDASA: A Web Environment for Artistic and Cultural Data Representation

Authors: Carole Salis, Marie F. Wilson, Fabrizio Murgia, Cristian Lai, Franco Atzori, Giulia M. Orrù

Abstract:

ANDASA is a knowledge management platform for the capitalization of knowledge and cultural assets for the artistic and cultural sectors. It was built based on the priorities expressed by the participating artists. Through mapping artistic activities and specificities, it enables to highlight various aspects of the artistic research and production. Such instrument will contribute to create networks and partnerships, as it enables to evidentiate who does what, in what field, using which methodology. The platform is accessible to network participants and to the general public.

Keywords: cultural promotion, knowledge representation, cultural maping, ICT

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