Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 264

Search results for: Sajid Iqbal Sheikh

264 Political Islam: From Coinage to Hot Debate

Authors: Sajid Iqbal Sheikh

Abstract:

From almost last 100 years 'political islam' has diversity in its usage as terminology in the speculative works of both muslim and non-muslims theorists. 'Political islam' as a term was coined consciously as equal to the 'militant islam' and “Terrorist Islam” vs “Plain Islam” and “Modern Islam” etc. Many paradigm shifts tamed the term into one of the hottest debate of the day. This research paper aims to categorize historical linkage of its coinage, development phases and present status. Based on content analysis, Narrative approach has been utilized for the sake of dexterous conclusion. The paper treasures out that Western dominance on civilizational and political spheres of the holistic world considers 'political islam' a gigantic threat and plans to resist it in theoretic and practical fields simultaneously. Despite minor strategic variances, the ideological followers of Syed Qutab, Mulana Mudoodi and Hasan Al-Bana, are struggling hard for the achievement of their ultimate goal of Political change, specifically in the Muslim World in the prior phase. The paper concludes that Resistance to Islamic resurgence and its Political goals is being observed in most of the Muslim world, especially in the Turkey, Algeria, Egypt, Tsunia and Yeman etc, which is a basic cause of contrary reaction in the Muslim World.

Keywords: electoral process, islamic resurgence, islamic political theory, muslim response, resistance, western hegemony

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263 A Comparative-Analytic Study of the Treatises of "I'tiqāDāT" Written by Sheikh Saduq and Sheikh Mufid Concerning the Notions of Monotheism and Divine Justice

Authors: Forough Rahimpour

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Following the beginning of the major occultation of Imam Zaman, the Shiite great thinkers and theologians started to identify and elaborate on the fundamental beliefs, the ones which were subject to more elaboration and criticism later throughout the history. Sheikh Saduq in his Treatise on fundamental beliefs selected the most basic Shiite beliefs and through his special method which was based on traditions and narrations, explained his specific views. Sheikh Mufid, on the other hand, dealing with the same topics, applied a method consisted of intellectual-narrative approach and expressed his own views and also evaluated the ideas expressed by Sheikh Saduq. The present study aims to compare and analyze the theological similarities and differences between the views expressed by Saduq and Mufid about the notions of monotheism and dive justice. The main focus in this study is on the two treatises called "I'tiqādāt” and "Tashih al I'tiqādāt "-written by Saduq and Mufid respectively. Although Sheikh Mufid was Saduq's disciple, he sometimes disagreed with Saduq's ideas and sometimes criticized his methodology. DespiteIn Saduq's high status in the science of Hadith, Sheikh Mufid sometimes discredited the Hadiths narrated by him and considered them Khabar-e Vahid (isolated tradition).

Keywords: Saduq, Mufid, monotheism, divine justice, treatise of "I'tiqādāt"

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262 Zakariya Multaniand and his Role in the Spread of Islam and Suhrawardiyya in the Subcontinent

Authors: Mahdi Momeni

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The arrival of Mysticism to the subcontinent can be generally divided into two periods. The first period, was the Sporadic arrival of Sufis whom were traveling to the subcontinent according to the tradition of disquisition and the second period was; when the Sufi dynasties were sending missionaries and caliphs to guide and promote people from different direction to that land. Among the Sufi dynasty that entered to India in the thirteenth century, two dynasties of Chishti and Suhrawardîya were more successful than other Sufi dynasties. And thus they are very important in the spread of Islam and Mysticism to the subcontinent. Suhrawardiyya dynasty was founded by Sheikh Ziauddin Abu Najib Suhrawardi and was developed and spread by his nephew Sheikh Shahabuddin Suhrawardi Abo hafs Omar. Sheikh Shahabuddin sent many Caliphs and missionaries to India. Among these missionaries were People like Sultan Sakhi Sarwar, Seyyed Noureddin Mobarak Ghaznavi, Sheikh Jalal al-din Tabrizi and Sheikh Zakariya Multani. Since Suhrawardiyya doctrine relies on Asceticism and Sharia, so one of the important elements among Suhrawardiyya missionaries was inviting people to Islam. Accordingly Sheikh Shahab Caliphs had a great role in the spread of Islam and Mysticism in different territories, especially India. Such that it can be pointed out is the the role of Sheikh Baha-ud-din Zakariya Multani, the founder of Suhrawardiyya Dynasty in India. Sheikh Zakaria Multani after working in three areas, establishing monasteries, training managers, having numerous trips to different places, participating to social affairs provided the spread of Islam and Mysticism in subcontinent. This paper studies his role and actions in the subcontinent.

Keywords: islam, sufism, Suhrawardiyya, subcontinent, Multan

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261 Iqbal's Philosophy of Action in the Light of Contemporary Philosophy of Action

Authors: Sevcan Ozturk

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The aim of this paper is to analyze the twentieth-century Muslim philosopher Muhammad Iqbal’s philosophy of action in the light of the main issues of contemporary philosophy of action. Iqbal is one of the most celebrated and eminent figures of modern Islamic thought. However, a review of the works on Iqbal shows that most of the central concepts of his philosophy have not received enough attention. His notion of ‘action’ in its philosophical context is one of these concepts. One of the main characteristics of Iqbal’s approach is that he develops his discussion around the main themes of contemporary philosophy of action, which includes ontological and conceptual questions regarding the nature of human actions. He also discusses that action is the only way to develop human personality, and that the human being can only achieve immortality promised by Islam through his actions. Therefore, while presenting an approach that can be read in the light of contemporary philosophy of action, which has become one of the significant parts of modern philosophical discussions in the west particularly since the nineteenth century, he, at the same time, develops his own philosophy of action in the light of Islamic resources. Consequently, these two main characteristics of his discussion of the notion of action make his philosophy of action an important contribution to contemporary philosophy of action, a field that ignores the discussions of Muslim philosophers on action. Therefore, this paper aims at highlighting Iqbal’s contribution to the modern debate of action by analysing Iqbal’s notion of action in the light of the contemporary issues of philosophy of action. This will, first of all, include an examination of contemporary action theory. Although the main discussions of contemporary philosophy of action will provide the methodology of this study, the main paradigms of Iqbal’s approach to the notion of action will also be considered during the examination of the discussions of philosophy of action. Then, Iqbal’s own philosophy of action will be established in the light of the contemporary philosophy of action. It is hoped that this paper will cultivate a dialogue between Iqbal scholars and those working in the field of philosophy of action, and that it will be a contribution to the fields of Iqbal studies, philosophy of action, and intercultural philosophy.

Keywords: action, development of personality, Muhammad Iqbal, philosophy of action

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260 A Kierkegaardian Reading of Iqbal's Poetry as a Communicative Act

Authors: Sevcan Ozturk

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The overall aim of this paper is to present a Kierkegaardian approach to Iqbal’s use of literature as a form of communication. Despite belonging to different historical, cultural, and religious backgrounds, the philosophical approaches of Soren Kierkegaard, ‘the father of existentialism,' and Muhammad Iqbal ‘the spiritual father of Pakistan’ present certain parallels. Both Kierkegaard and Iqbal take human existence as the starting point for their reflections, emphasise the subject of becoming genuine religious personalities, and develop a notion of the self. While doing these they both adopt parallel methods, employ literary techniques and poetical forms, and use their literary works as a form of communication. The problem is that Iqbal does not provide a clear account of his method as Kierkegaard does in his works. As a result, Iqbal’s literary approach appears to be a collection of contradictions. This is mainly because despite he writes most of his works in the poetical form, he condemns all kinds of art including poetry. Moreover, while attacking on Islamic mysticism, he, at the same time, uses classical literary forms, and a number of traditional mystical, poetic symbols. This paper will argue that the contradictions found in Iqbal’s approach are actually a significant part of Iqbal’s way of communicating his reader. It is the contention of this paper that with the help of the parallels between the literary and philosophical theories of Kierkegaard and Iqbal, the application of Kierkegaard’s method to Iqbal’s use of poetry as a communicative act will make it possible to dispel the seeming ambiguities in Iqbal’s literary approach. The application of Kierkegaard’s theory to Iqbal’s literary method will include an analysis of the main principles of Kierkegaard’s own literary technique of ‘indirect communication,' which is a crucial term of his existentialist philosophy. Second, the clash between what Iqbal’s says about art and poetry and what he does will be highlighted in the light of Kierkegaardian theory of indirect communication. It will be argued that Iqbal’s literary technique can be considered as a form of ‘indirect communication,' and that reading his technique in this way helps on dispelling the contradictions in his approach. It is hoped that this paper will cultivate a dialogue between those who work in the fields of comparative philosophy Kierkegaard studies, existentialism, contemporary Islamic thought, Iqbal studies, and literary criticism.

Keywords: comparative philosophy, existentialism, indirect communication, intercultural philosophy, literary communication, Muhammad Iqbal, Soren Kierkegaard

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259 Linguistic Trend in the Qur'anic Tafsir of 'Al Tahreer Wa Al Tanveer' by Sheikh Tahir Bin A'shur

Authors: Numan Hasan

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We have tried to highlight the linguistic trend in the Qur’anic Tafsir of ‘Al Tahreer wa Al Tanveer’ by Sheikh Tahir Bin A’shur, the brightest linguistic commentator in the modern era. We have started studying the life of Bin A’shur and his contributions to the field of Qur’anic knowledge. We have also studied to focus on the linguistic approach of ‘Al Tahreer wa Al Tanveer’ and emphasized the importance of linguistic interpretations. We have tried to have a clear understanding about the features and characteristics of his Tafsir. We have also reflected on the methodological approach and linguistic reference of his interpretation. In the conclusion we presented the main results of a research.

Keywords: Sheikh Tahir Bin A’shur, tafsir, linguistics, interpretation, Islamic studies

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258 Infectivity of Hyalomma Ticks for Theileria annulata Using 18s rRNA PCR

Authors: Muhammad S. Sajid, A. Iqbal, A. Kausar, M. Jawad-ul-Hassan, Z. Iqbal, Hafiz M. Rizwan, M. Saqib

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Among the ixodid ticks, species of genus Hyalomma are of prime importance as they can survive in harsh conditions better than those of other species. Similarly, among various tick-borne pathogens, Theileria (T.) annulata, the causative agent of tropical theileriosis in large ruminants, is responsible for reduced productivity and ultimately substantial economic losses due to morbidity and mortality. The present study was planned to screening of vector ticks through molecular techniques for determination of tick-borne theileriosis in district Toba Tek Singh (T. T. Singh), Punjab, Pakistan. For this purpose, among the collected ticks (n = 2252) from livestock and their microclimate, Hyalomma spp. were subjected to dissection for procurement of salivary glands (SGs) and formation of pool (averaged 8 acini in each pool). Each pool of acini was used for DNA extraction, quantification and primer-specific amplification of 18S rRNA of Theileria (T.) annulata. The amplicons were electrophoresed using 1.8% agarose gel following by imaging to identify the band specific for T. annulata. For confirmation, the positive amplicons were subjected to sequencing, BLAST analysis and homology search using NCBI software. The number of Theileria-infected acini was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in female ticks vs male ticks, infesting ticks vs questing ticks and riverine-collected vs non-riverine collected. The data provides first attempt to quantify the vectoral capacity of ixodid ticks in Pakistan for T. annulata which can be helpful in estimation of risk analysis of theileriosis to the domestic livestock population of the country.

Keywords: Hyalomma anatolicum, ixodids, PCR, Theileria annulata

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257 Evaluation of Flange Effects on the Lateral In-Plane Response of Brick Masonry Walls

Authors: Hizb Ullah Sajid, Muhammad Ashraf, Naveed Ahmad Qaisar Ali, Sikandar Hayat Sajid

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This research study investigates experimentally the effects of flanges (transverse walls) on the lateral in-plane response of brick masonry walls. The experimental work included lateral in-plane quasi-static cyclic tests on full-scale walls (both with & without flanges). The flanges were introduced at both ends of the in-plane wall. In particular the damage mechanism, lateral in-plane stiffness & strength, deformability and energy dissipation of the two classes of walls are compared and the differences are quantified to help understand the effects of flanges on the in-plane response of masonry walls. The available analytical models for the in-plane shear strength & deformation evaluation of masonry walls are critically analyzed. Recommendations are made for the lateral in-plane capacity assessment of brick masonry walls including the contribution of transverse walls.

Keywords: brick masonry, damage mechanism, flanges effects, in-plane response

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256 Distribution of Spotted Fever Group in Ixodid Ticks, Domestic Cattle and Buffalos of Faisalabad District, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Qurat-ul-Ain, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Nisar Khan, Asma Kausar, Adil Ejaz

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Rickettsiosis, caused by a Spotted Fever Group Rickettsiae (SFGR), is considered as an emerging infectious disease from public and veterinary perspective. The present study reports distribution of SFGR in the host (buffalo and cattle) and vector (ticks) population determined through gene specific amplification through PCR targeting outer membrane protein (ompA). Tick and blood samples were collected using standard protocols through convenient sampling from district Faisalabad. Ticks were dissected to extract salivary glands (SG). Blood and tick SG pools were subjected to DNA extraction and amplification of ompA using PCR. Overall prevalence of SFGR was reported as 21.5% and 33.6 % from blood and ticks, respectively. Hyalomma anatolicum was more prevalent tick associated with SFGR as compared to Rhipicephalus sp. Higher prevalence of SFGR was reported in cattle (25%) population as compared to that of buffalo (17.07%). On seasonal basis, high SFGR prevalence was recorded during spring season (48.1%, 26.32%, 17.76%) as compared to winter (27.9%, 21.43%, 15.38%) in vector and host (cattle and buffalo respectively) population. Sequencing analysis indicated that rickettsial endo-symbionts were associated with ticks of the study area. These results provided baseline information about the prevalence of SFGR in vector and host population.

Keywords: Rickettsia, livestock, polymerase chain reaction, sequencing, ticks, vectors

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255 Re-Visiting Rumi and Iqbal on Self-Enhancement for Social Responsibility

Authors: Javed Y. Uppal

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The background of this study is the great degree of stress that the world is experiencing today, internationally among the countries, within a community among people, and even individually within one’s own self. The significance of the study is the attempt to find a solution of this stress in the philosophy of the olden times of Jalaluddin Rumi and comparatively recently of that of Allama Iqbal. The methodology adopted in this paper is firstly exploration of the perspectives of these philosophers that are being consolidated by a number of psychic and spiritual experts of today, who are being widely read but less followed. This paper further goes on presenting brief life sketches of Rumi and Iqbal. It expounds the key concepts proposed by them and the social change that was resulted in the times of the two above mentioned metaphysical philosophers. It is further amplified that with the recent advancements, in both metaphysics and the physical sciences, the gap between the two is closing down. Both Rumi and Iqbal emphasized their common essence. The old time's concepts, postulates, and philosophies are hence once again becoming valid. The findings of this paper are that the existence of human empathy, affection and mutual social attraction among humans is still valid. The positive inner belief system that dictates our thoughts and actions is vital. As a conclusion, empathy should enable us solving our problems collectively. We need to strengthen our inner communication system, to listen to the messages that come to our inner-selves. We need to get guidance and strength from them. We need to value common needs and purposes collectively to achieve results. Spiritual energy among us is to be harnessed and utilized. Connectivity is to be recognized to unify and strengthen ties among people. Mutual bonding at small and large group levels is to be employed for the survival of the disadvantaged, and sustainability of the empowering trends. With the above guidelines, hopefully, we can define a framework towards a brave and happy new humane world.

Keywords: belief system, connectivity, human empathy, inner-self, mutual bonding, spiritual energy

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254 Experimental Lead Toxicity in Lohi Sheep: Risks and Impact on Edible Tissues

Authors: Muhammad Younus, Muhammad Sajid, Muti-ur-Rehman Khan, Aftab Ahmad Anjum, Muhammad Asif Idrees, Iahtasham Khan, Aman Ullah Khan, Sajid Umar, Raheela Akhtar

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The present study was conducted to investigate the hazardous effects of lead on health and edible organs of Lohi sheep. The adult Lohi sheep (n=48) were randomly divided into two equal groups. The first group was administered lead acetate at dose of 70 mg/kg live body weight daily as 10% solution by oral route for a period of 90 days and the second group served as a negative control. Blood and tissue samples were collected at day 0, 30, 60 and 90 and analyzed for lead concentration by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The kidney showed the highest lead concentration (p < 0.05) followed by liver and then muscle. Lead acetate treated sheep showed structural and behavioral changes during the last month of trial. Liver showed necrosis, hemorrhages and hyperactivation of macrophages. Kidney showed degenerative and necrotic changes in glomeruli and tubules and the characteristic intranuclear inclusion bodies in tubular epithelial cells on H and E staining. It was concluded that Lohi sheep is affected by lead intoxication at low dose for longer period and hence exhibits lead accumulation in edible tissues.

Keywords: Lohi sheep, lead acetate, edible tissue, histopathology

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253 Evaluation and Association of Thyroid Function Tests with Liver Function Parameters LDL and LDH Level Before and after I131 Therapy

Authors: Sabika Rafiq, Rubaida Mehmood, Sajid Hussain, Atia Iqbal

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Background and objectives: The pathogenesis of liver function abnormalities and cardiac dysfunction in hyperthyroid patients after I131 treatment is still unclear. This study aimed to determine the effects of radioiodine I131 on liver function parameters, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and low-density lipoproteins (LDL) before and after I131 therapy hyperthyroidism patients. Material & Methods: A total of 52 patients of hyperthyroidism recommended for I131were involved in this study with ages ranging from 12–65 years (mean age=38.6±14.8 & BMI=11.5±3.7). The significance of the differences between the results of 1st, 2nd and 3rd-time serum analysis was assessed by unpaired student’s t-test. Associations between the parameters were assessed by Spearman correlation analysis. Results: Significant variations were observed for thyroid profile free FT3 (p=0.04), FT4 (p=0.01), TSH (p=0.005) during the follow-up treatment. Before taking I131 (serum analyzed at 1st time), negative correlation of FT3 with AST (r=-0.458, p=0.032) and LDL (r=-0.454, p=0.039) were observed. During 2nd time (after stopping carbimazole), no correlation was assessed. Two months after the administration of I131 drops, a significant negative association of FT3 (r=-0.62, p=0.04) and FT4(r=-0.61, p=0.02) with ALB were observed. FT3(r=-0.82, p=0.00) & FT4 (r=-0.71, p=0.00) also showed negative correlation with LDL after I131 therapy. Whereas TSH showed significant positive association with ALB (r=0.61, p=0.01) and LDL (r=0.70, p=0.00) respectively. Conclusion: Current findings suggested that the association of TFTs with biochemical parameters in patients with goiter recommended for iodine therapy is an important diagnostic and therapeutic tool. The significant changes increased in transaminases and low-density lipoprotein levels after taking I131drops are alarming signs for heart and liver function abnormalities and warrant physicians' attention on an urgent basis.

Keywords: hyperthyroidism, carbimazole, radioiodine I131, liver functions, low-density lipoprotein

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252 Association of Phytomineral Supplementation with the Seasonal Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Grazing Sheep in the Scenario of Climate Change

Authors: Muhammad Sohail Sajid, Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan, Ashfaq Ahmad Chatta, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Saqib

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Changes in the climate are posing threats to the livestock community throughout the globe. Agro-grazing animals and natural vegetation as their forages are the most important components of animal production. Climate and local conditions not only determine the nature and kind of plants, their distribution, composition and nutritive value in different cropping belts and grazing sites but also influence number and kinds of grazing animals. Phytomineral supplementation can act as an indirect tool to boost-up immunological profile of animals leading to the development of resilience against parasitic infections. The present study correlates the trace element (Cu, Co, Mn, Zn) profile of grazing sheep, feedstuffs, respective soils and their GI helminths in a selected district of Sialkot, Punjab, Pakistan. Ten species of GI helminths were found during the survey. A significant (P < 0.05) variation in the concentrations (conc.) of Zn, Cu, Mn and Co was recorded in a total of 16 collected forages. During autumn, mean conc. of Cu, Zn and Co in sera were inversely proportional to the GI helminth burden; while, during spring, only Zn was inversely proportional to the GI helminth burden in grazing sheep. During autumn the highest conc. of Zn, Cu, Mn and Co were recorded in Echinochloa colona, Amaranthus viridis, Cannabis sativa, and Brachiaria ramose and during spring in Cichorium intybus, Cynodon dactylon, Parthenium hysterophorus and Coronopus didymus respectively. The trace element-rich forages, preferably Zn, found effective against helminth infection are advisable supplemental remedies to improve the trace element profile in grazing sheep. This mitigation strategy may ultimately improve the resilience against GI helminth infections especially in the resource poor countries like Pakistan.

Keywords: coprological examination, Trace elements, Sheep, Gastro-intestinal parasites, Prevalence, Sialkot, Pakistan

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251 Reinvestment of the Urban Context in Historic Cities: The Case Study of El Sheikh Kandil Street, Rosetta, Egypt

Authors: Riham A. Ragheb, Ingy M. Naguib

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Conservation and urban investment are a prerequisite to improve the quality of life. Since the historic street is a part of the economic system, it should be able to play an important role in the city development by upgrading all services, public open spaces and reuse of historical buildings and sites. Furthermore, historical conservation enriches the political, economic, social, cultural and functional aspects of the site. Rosetta has been selected as an area of study because it has a unique character due to its possession of a variety of monuments and historical buildings. The aim of this research is to analyze the existing situation of an historic street named El Sheikh Kandil, to be able to identify the potentials and problems. The paper gives a proposal for the redesign and reinvestment of the street and the reuse for the historical buildings to serve the community, users and visitors. Then, it concludes with recommendations to improve quality of life through the rehabilitation of the historical buildings and strengthening of the cultural and historical identity of the street. Rosetta city can benefit from these development proposals by preserving and revitalizing its unique character which leads to tourism development and benefits from the new investments.

Keywords: adaptive reuse, heritage street, historic investment, restoration, urban design

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250 The Impact of Motivation on English Language Learning: A Study of HSC Students of Jatir Janak Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Government College, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Authors: Farina Yasmin

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Motivation is an important issue in an EFL setting where very little exposure to English in everyday life is clearly evident. In Bangladesh, English is taught as a foreign language. Language teachers cannot effectively teach a language if they do not understand the relationship between motivation and its effect on foreign language learning. The main purpose of this research is to explore the fact why HSC students are less motivated towards English language learning, what factors are affecting motivation, how to motivate them and the role of motivation in their success. The research questions were (a) what are the reasons of lack of motivation? and (b) what are the impacts of motivation on English language learning? The study was both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The data was collected via pretest - posttest, interviews, and a questionnaire on the five point Likert scale. Triangulation of the data was made for the validity of the research. The population of this research consisted of 50 HSC level students from Jatir Janak Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Government College, Dhaka, Bangladesh. The data was analyzed with means, comparison and t-test. The results showed that there is a strong relation between motivation and success in foreign language learning. Finally, some pedagogical implications and suggestions were presented to arouse the students’ motivation to learn English.

Keywords: EFL, HSC, motivation, success

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249 Emotional Intelligence and Age in Open Distance Learning

Authors: Naila Naseer

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Emotional Intelligence (EI) concept is not new yet unique and interesting. EI is a person’s ability to be aware of his/her own emotions and to manage, handle and communicate emotions with others effectively. The present study was conducted to assess the relationship between emotional intelligence and age of graduate level students at Allama Iqbal Open University (AIOU). Population consisted of Allama Iqbal Open University students (B.Ed 3rd Semester, Autumn 2007) from Rawalpindi and Islamabad regions. Total number of sample consisted of 469 participants was randomly drawn out by using table of random numbers. Bar-On EQ-i was administered on the participants through personal contact. The instrument was also validated through pilot study on a random sample of 50 participants (B.Ed students Spring 2006), who had completed their B.Ed degree successfully. Data was analyzed and tabulated in percentages, frequencies, mean, standard deviation, correlation, and scatter gram in SPSS (version 16.0 for windows). The results revealed that students with higher age group had scored low on the scale (Bar-On EQ-i). Moreover, the students in low age groups exhibited higher levels of EI as compared with old age students.

Keywords: emotional intelligence, age level, learning, emotion-related feelings

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
248 Seasonal Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites and Their Association with Trace Element Contents in Sera of Sheep, Grazing Forages and Soils of Sialkot District, Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Hafiz M. Rizwan, Muhammad S. Sajid, Zafar Iqbal, Muhammad Saqib

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Gastro-intestinal (GI) helminths infection in sheep causes a substantial loss in terms of productivity and constitutes serious economic losses in the world. Different types of forages are rich in trace element contents and may act as a natural resource to improve the trace element deficiencies leading to immunity boost-up in general and against gastrointestinal parasitic infections in particular. In the present study, the level of trace elements (Cu, Co, Mn, Zn) determined in sera of different breeds of sheep, available feedstuffs, respective soil samples and their association with GI helminths in Sialkot district, Punjab, Pakistan. Almost similar prevalence of GI helminths was recorded (32.81%) during spring 2015 and (32.55%) during autumn 2014. The parasitic species identified from the microscopically scanned faecal samples of district Sialkot were Fasciola (F.) hepatica, F. gigantica, Haemonchus contortus, Eimeria crandallis, Gongylonema pulchrum, Oesophagostomum sp., Trichuris ovis, Strongyles sp., Cryptosporidium sp. and Trichostrongylus sp. Among variables like age, sex, and breed, only sex was found significant in district Sialkot. A significant (P < 0.05) variation in the concentration of Zn, Cu, Mn, and Co was recorded in collected forages species. Soils of grazing field showed insignificant (P > 0.05) variation among soils of different tehsils of Sialkot district. Statistically, sera of sheep showed no variation (P > 0.05) during autumn 2014, While, variation (P < 0.05) among different tehsils of Sialkot district during spring 2015 except Co. During autumn 2014 the mean concentration of Cu, Zn, and Co in sera was inversely proportional to the mean EPG of sheep while during spring 2015 only Zn was inversely proportional to the mean EPG of sheep. The trace element-rich forages preferably Zn were effective ones against helminths infection. The trace element-rich forages will be recommended for their utilization as an alternate to improve the trace element deficiencies in sheep which ultimately boost up the immunity against gastrointestinal parasitic infections.

Keywords: coprological examination, gastro-intestinal parasites, prevalence, sheep, trace elements

Procedia PDF Downloads 241
247 Impact of Climate Shifting-Change on Rural People and Agricultural Life

Authors: Arshad A. Narejo, M. Javed Sheikh, G. Mujtaba Khushk, Naeem A Qureshi, M. Ali Sheikh

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Climate change not only influences on agriculture activities but also has certain effects on daily human activities, as well as on overall human health. Keeping in view the significance and huge research gap on the issues, the researchers have found an opportunity to conduct a study in Sindh province of Pakistan, in which the issue of climate shifting/change regarding temperature and precipitation were discussed with the local farmers of district Hyderabad. The quantified perception was gathered on a reliable and valid scale from 200 respondents and was analyzed through SPSS and AMOS software. The result of this study revealed that the significant changes are being occurred in summer (r²=0.96; M=6.78) and winter seasons (r²=0.71; M=6.57), therefore it is leaving bad effects on human health (r²=0.96) and behavior of the local population (r²=0.70). In addition, the change in the cropping calendar, i.e., timing of sowing (r²=0.69; M=8.42) and harvesting (r²=0.79; M=8.27) of different crops have been altered due to changes in local weather patterns. Since the local farmers are also facing seed germination (r²=0.57; M=7.98) problems, it is therefore recommended that concerned authorities/departments should revise the agricultural calendar. Besides this, respondents were in opinion that actual summer starts even before the vacation and cold season starts when winter vacations ended. Thus, the government and other concerned departments should reconsider or reschedule the vacation regulation policy (r²=0.70) at least at the provincial level.

Keywords: climate, climate shifting/change, impact on daily life, impact on agricultural activities

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246 Shia School of Thought and the Experience of Political Order in Contemporary Era

Authors: Abdulvahab Forati

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Religious intellectualism is the only stream of consciousness in Iran that its religious theories formed Democracy. The theory of Religious intellectualism was utilized in Constitutional Revolution and Islamic Revolution. To instate Democracy in Iran, in compare with West and sunnis, the theory of Religious Intellectualism is being used differently. Unlike Democracy in the west that has started with the concept of Individualism and Natural Rights or in Sunni world that has started with the concept of consultation, it has started in Iran with mima-la-nas-fih (what we don’t have any proof for)or mantaqa-alfiraq-altashri’ (area of vacuum from reason). Shia scholars first acquainted with the concept of Democracy through theories of Sheikh Mortiza Ansari, and later some of his followers, including Akhund-e-khorasani and Mirzaye naeini, regarding Sheikh Ansari’s thoughts, began to analyze its Constitutional system and Democratic elements. But Imam Khomeini, the great founder of Islamic Republic of Iran, with respect to RAKHS (religious permission for having a choice)could make connection between Islam and Democracy. Instead of focusing on Civil contracts, he relied on Sirah Ughala (Tradition) and accepted many of the current conducts, e.g. Democracy and Political Parties and acknowledged the authority (Hujiat) of them even in absence of Infallibles. These two are the most notable experiences of shia political thoughts about Democracy within the last 100 years. In this article, the author tries to explain the second experience in Imam Khomeini’s thoughts and Sirah.

Keywords: Shia school, Islamic revolution, democracy, political order

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245 Landfill Site Selection Using Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis A Case Study for Gulshan-e-Iqbal Town, Karachi

Authors: Javeria Arain, Saad Malik

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The management of solid waste is a crucial and essential aspect of urban environmental management especially in a city with an ever increasing population such as Karachi. The total amount of municipal solid waste generated from Gulshan e Iqbal town on average is 444.48 tons per day and landfill sites are a widely accepted solution for final disposal of this waste. However, an improperly selected site can have immense environmental, economical and ecological impacts. To select an appropriate landfill site a number of factors should be kept into consideration to minimize the potential hazards of solid waste. The purpose of this research is to analyse the study area for the construction of an appropriate landfill site for disposal of municipal solid waste generated from Gulshan e-Iqbal Town by using geospatial techniques considering hydrological, geological, social and geomorphological factors. This was achieved using analytical hierarchy process and fuzzy analysis as a decision support tool with integration of geographic information sciences techniques. Eight most critical parameters, relevant to the study area, were selected. After generation of thematic layers for each parameter, overlay analysis was performed in ArcGIS 10.0 software. The results produced by both methods were then compared with each other and the final suitability map using AHP shows that 19% of the total area is Least Suitable, 6% is Suitable but avoided, 46% is Moderately Suitable, 26% is Suitable, 2% is Most Suitable and 1% is Restricted. In comparison the output map of fuzzy set theory is not in crisp logic rather it provides an output map with a range of 0-1, where 0 indicates least suitable and 1 indicates most suitable site. Considering the results it is deduced that the northern part of the city is appropriate for constructing the landfill site though a final decision for an optimal site could be made after field survey and considering economical and political factors.

Keywords: Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP), fuzzy set theory, Geographic Information Sciences (GIS), Multi-Criteria Decision Analysis (MCDA)

Procedia PDF Downloads 399
244 Correlation between Microalbuminuria and Hypertension in Type 2 Diabetic Patients

Authors: Alia Ali, Azeem Taj, Muhammed Joher Amin, Farrukh Iqbal, Zafar Iqbal

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Background: Hypertension is commonly found in patients with Diabetic Kidney Disease (DKD). Microalbuminuria is the first clinical sign of involvement of kidneys in patients with type 2 diabetes. Uncontrolled hypertension induces a higher risk of cardiovascular events, including death, increasing proteinuria and progression to kidney disease. Objectives: To determine the correlation between microalbuminuria and hypertension and their association with other risk factors in type 2 diabetic patients. Methods: One hundred and thirteen type 2 diabetic patients were screened for microalbuminuria and raised blood pressure, attending the diabetic clinic of Shaikh Zayed Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. The study was conducted from November 2012 to June 2013. Results: Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1, those with normoalbuminuria (n=63) and Group 2, those having microalbuminuria (n=50). Group 2 patients showed higher blood pressure values as compared to Group 1. The results were statistically significant and showed poor glycemic control as a contributing risk factor. Conclusion: The study concluded that there is high frequency of hypertension among type 2 diabetics but still much higher among those having microalbuminuria. So, early recognition of renal dysfunction through detection of microalbuminuria and to start treatment without any delay will confer future protection from end-stage renal disease as well as hypertension and its complications in type 2 diabetic patients.

Keywords: hypertension, microalbuminuria, diabetic kidney disease, type 2 Diabetes mellitus

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243 Education as a Tool for Counterterrorism to Promote Peace and Social Justice: The Role of Sheikh Zayed Islamic Centre Pakistan

Authors: Ishtiaq Ahmad Gondal, Mubasher Hussain

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Although the world always has spent a lot to counter the terror, thousands of millions of dollars have been spent in this regard after 9/11 that result to thwart some dangerous plots of terrorists. It is also un-ignorable that the terrorists, keeping the counterterrorist actions in their mind, always planned new ways for their operations, yet there is one thing still common in most terrorists' attacks: to use the label of religion, regardless any specific religion, in any form. The terrorism, in past few years, has also hit state's security, its consistency and coherence for achieving their cultural, political and military objectives. So, if they are not treated harshly for making the people's minds and their society dirty they will continue spreading chaos, anarchy and destruction among the ignorant and innocent people. Australia is doing its best to eliminate terrorism by using different tools such as by educating people and reducing poverty. There is still need to improve the tool of education as it can be used as one of the most effective tools to counter the terrorism. It is, as this paper will highlight, the need of contemporary time for establishing some high level educational centers that can educate people and keep them safe from any kind of terror incident. This study also concluded that common man, to keep himself saved from such activities and incidents, can be educated through public awareness movements and campaigns on media and at social gatherings. There is, according to the study, a need to reorganize the curriculum taught in different educational institutions especially in Islamic Schools (Madāris) that are assumed by some western writers as place of extremists, for the better understanding of moral and social obligations, fundamental rights, religious beliefs as well as cultural and social values to promote social justice and equality. This paper is an attempt to show the role of the Sheikh Zayed Islamic Centre in this regard.

Keywords: social justice, counterterrorism, educational policy, religion, peace, terrorism

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242 Influence of Pseudomonas japonica on Growth and Metal Tolerance of Celosia cristata L.

Authors: Muhammad Umair Mushtaq, Ameena Iqbal, Muhammad Aqib Hassan Ali Khan, Ismat Nawaz, Sohail Yousaf, Mazhar Iqbal

Abstract:

Heavy metals are one of the priority pollutants as they pose serious health and environmental threats. They can be removed by various physiochemical methods but are costly and responsible for additional environmental problems. Bioremediation that exploits plants and their associated microbes have been referred as cost effective and environmental friendly technique. In this study, a pot experiment was conducted in a greenhouse to evaluate the potential of Celosia cristata and effects of bacteria, Pseudomonas japonica, and organic amendment moss/compost on tolerating/accumulating heavy metals. Two weeks old seedlings were transferred to soil in pots, and after four weeks they were inoculated with bacterial strain, while after growth of six weeks they were watered with a metal containing synthetic wastewater and were harvested after a growth period of nine weeks. After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters and metal content of plants were measured. The results showed highest plant growth and biomass production in case of organic amendments while highest metal uptake has been found in non-amended pots. Positive controls have shown highest Pb uptake of 2900 mg/kg DW, while P. japonica amended pots have shown highest Cd, Cr, Ni and Cu uptake of 963.53, 1481.17, 1022.01 and 602.17 mg/kg DW, respectively. In conclusion organic amendments have strong impacts on growth enhancement while P. japonica enhances metal translocation and accumulation to aerial parts with little significant involvement in plant growth.

Keywords: ornamental plants, plant microbe interaction, amendments, bacteria

Procedia PDF Downloads 186
241 Ziegler Nichols Based Integral Proportional Controller for Superheated Steam Temperature Control System

Authors: Amil Daraz, Suheel Abdullah Malik, Tahir Saleem, Sajid Ali Bhati

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In this paper, Integral Proportional (I-P) controller is employed for superheated steam temperature control system. The Ziegler-Nichols (Z-N) method is used for the tuning of I-P controller. The performance analysis of Z-N based I-P controller is assessed on superheated steam system of 500-MW boiler. The comparison of transient response parameters such as rise time, settling time, and overshoot is made with Z-N based Proportional Integral (PI) controller. It is observed from the results that Z-N based I-P controller completely eliminates the overshoot in the output response.

Keywords: superheated steam, process reaction curve, PI and I-P controller, Ziegler-Nichols Tuning

Procedia PDF Downloads 235
240 The Governance of UK Museums and Art Galleries: Implications for Accountability

Authors: Aminah Abdullah, Iqbal Khadaroo

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This paper investigates to what ends, how and by whom museums and art galleries in the UK are governed, and to whom they provide accounts to justify their behavior and activities. A theoretical framework is developed by drawing from the governance and accountability literature and is fleshed out by using empirical data from secondary sources. The findings show that the governance model used, informed by the new public management (NPM) philosophy, and has created tensions between the managerial and social forms of accountability. Museums and art galleries have adopted a managerial culture of getting done what gets measured.

Keywords: governance, accountability, UK museums and art galleries, public sector

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
239 Future Trends of Mechatronics Engineering in Pakistan

Authors: Aqeela Mir, Akhtar Nawaz Malik, Javaid Iqbal

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The paper presents a survey based approach in order to observe the level of awareness regarding Mechatronics in society of Pakistan and the factors affecting the future development trend of Mechatronics in Pakistan. With the help of these surveys a new direction for making a Mathematical model for the future development trend of Mechatronics in Pakistan is also suggested.

Keywords: mechatronics society survey, future development trend of mechatronics in pakistan, probability estimation, mathematical model

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238 Working Capital Management Effectiveness

Authors: Asif Iqbal

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Working capital management has its effect on liquidity as well as on profitability of a firm. In this research we have selected a sample of 100 respondents whose firms are listed on Karachi stock exchange. We have studied the effect of different variable s of working capital management. We find that organizations throughout the world as well as in Pakistan have to give immense recognition to the working capital management as it is an effective thing from their long term perspective especially to their shareholders to have a firm confidence over the companies for investment purpose.

Keywords: working capital management, Karachi stock exchange, shareholders, capital management

Procedia PDF Downloads 481
237 Evolution of Multimodulus Algorithm Blind Equalization Based on Recursive Least Square Algorithm

Authors: Sardar Ameer Akram Khan, Shahzad Amin Sheikh

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Blind equalization is an important technique amongst equalization family. Multimodulus algorithms based on blind equalization removes the undesirable effects of ISI and cater ups the phase issues, saving the cost of rotator at the receiver end. In this paper a new algorithm combination of recursive least square and Multimodulus algorithm named as RLSMMA is proposed by providing few assumption, fast convergence and minimum Mean Square Error (MSE) is achieved. The excellence of this technique is shown in the simulations presenting MSE plots and the resulting filter results.

Keywords: blind equalizations, constant modulus algorithm, multi-modulus algorithm, recursive least square algorithm, quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM)

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236 Preliminary Phytopharmacological Evaluation of Methanol and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Selected Vegetables of Bangladesh

Authors: A. Mohammad Abdul Motalib Momin, B. Sheikh Mohammad Adil Uddin, C. Md Mamunur Rashid, D. Sheikh Arman Mahbub, E. Mohammad Sazzad Rahman, F. Abdullah Faruque

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The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant and cytotoxicity potential of methanol and pet ether extracts of the Lagenaria siceraria (LM, LP), Cucumis sativus (CSM, CSP), Cucurbita maxima (CMM, CMP) plants. For the phytochemical screening, crude extract was tested for the presence of different chemical groups. In Lagenaria siceraria the following groups were identified: alkaloids, steroids, glycosides and saponins for methanol extract and alkaloids, steroids, glycosides, tannins and saponins are for pet ether extract. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in the methanol extract of Cucumis sativus; the pet ether extract has the alkaloids, steroids and saponins. Glycosides, steroids, alkaloids, saponins and tannins are present in both the methanolic and pet ether extract of Cucurbita maxima. In vitro antioxidant activity of the extracts were performed using DPPH radical scavenging, nitric oxide (NO) scavenging, total antioxidant capacity, total phenol content, total flavonoid content, and Cupric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity assays. The most prominent antioxidant activity was observed with the CSM in the DPPH free radical scavenging test with an IC50 value of 1667.23±11.00271 μg/ml as opposed to that of standard ascorbic acid (IC50 value of 15.707± 1.181 μg/ml.) In total antioxidant capacity method, CMP showed the highest activity (427.81±11.4 mg ascorbic acid/g). The total phenolic and flavonoids content were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu Reagent and aluminium chloride colorimetric method, respectively. The highest total phenols and total flavonoids content were found in CMM and LP with the value of 79.06±16.06 mg gallic acid/g & 119.0±1.41 mg quercetin/g, respectively. In nitric oxide (NO) scavenging the most prominent antioxidant activity was observed in CMM with an IC50 value of 8.119± 0.0036 μg/ml. The Cupric reducing capacity of the extracts was strong and dose dependent manner and CSM showed lowest reducing capacity. The cytotoxicity was determined by Brine shrimp lethality test and among these extracts most potent cytotoxicity was shown by CMM with LC50 value 16.98 µg/ml. The obtained results indicate that the investigated plants could be potential sources of natural antioxidants and can be used for various types of diseases.

Keywords: antioxidant, cytotoxicity, methanol, petroleum ether

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235 Clean Coal Using Coal Bed Methane: A Pollution Control Mechanism

Authors: Arish Iqbal, Santosh Kumar Singh

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Energy from coal is one of the major source of energy throughout the world but taking into consideration its effect on environment 'Clean Coal Technologies' (CCT) came into existence. In this paper we have we studied why CCT’s are essential and what are the different types of CCT’s. Also, the coal and CCT scenario in India is introduced. Coal Bed Methane one of major CCT area is studied in detail. Different types of coal bed methane and its methods of extraction are discussed. The different problem areas during the extraction of CBM are identified and discussed. How CBM can be used as a fuel for future is also discussed.

Keywords: CBM (coal bed methane), CCS (carbon capture and storage), CCT (clean coal technology), CMM (coal mining methane)

Procedia PDF Downloads 148