Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 835

Search results for: heritage street

835 Augmented Reality and Storytelling in Cities: An Application to Lisbon Street Art

Authors: Francisco Guimarães, Mauro Figueiredo, José Rodrigues

Abstract:

Cities are spaces of memory with several zones (parts of cities) with their own history and cultural events. Today, cities are also marked by a form of intangible cultural heritage like street art, which creates a visual culture based on the process of reflection about the city and the world. To link these realities and create a personal user interaction with this cultural heritage it is important to capture the story and aesthetics, and find alternatives to immerse the user in these spaces of memory. To that end, this article presents a project which combines Augmented Reality technologies and concepts of Transmedia Storytelling applied to Lisbon City, using Street Art artifacts as markers in a framework of digital media-art.

Keywords: augmented reality, cultural heritage, street art, transmedia storytelling, digital media-art

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834 A Topological Study of an Urban Street Network and Its Use in Heritage Areas

Authors: Jose L. Oliver, Taras Agryzkov, Leandro Tortosa, Jose F. Vicent, Javier Santacruz

Abstract:

This paper aims to demonstrate how a topological study of an urban street network can be used as a tool to be applied to some heritage conservation areas in a city. In the last decades, we find different kinds of approaches in the discipline of Architecture and Urbanism based in the so-called Sciences of Complexity. In this context, this paper uses mathematics from the Network Theory. Hence, it proposes a methodology based in obtaining information from a graph, which is created from a network of urban streets. Then, it is used an algorithm that establishes a ranking of importance of the nodes of that network, from its topological point of view. The results are applied to a heritage area in a particular city, confronting the data obtained from the mathematical model, with the ones from the field work in the case study. As a result of this process, we may conclude the necessity of implementing some actions in the area, and where those actions would be more effective for the whole heritage site.

Keywords: graphs, heritage cities, spatial analysis, urban networks

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833 Urban Conservation Methodology for Heritage Areas Case Study "Qabel Street, Old Jeddah"

Authors: Hossam Elborombaly, Nader Y. Azab

Abstract:

The Middle East region is rich with its architecture and urban settings. This makes it viable for exploring and applying different strategies that deal with conservation. Current context characterized by pollution, socioeconomic issues, behavioral problems, etc. affects architectural and urban heritage –literally- in all Middle Eastern countries. Although there have been numerous strategies in place to preserve and/ or rehabilitate heritage, all has been designed and implemented following political more than technical or methodical processes. This only resulted in more deterioration of the targeted areas. This paper explores different approaches in some selected Arab countries and relies on comparative analysis with some successful European experiences. The aim is to establish some solid basis for dealing with heritage areas; an approach that respects heritage and traditions without compromising sustainability or socioeconomic opportunities.

Keywords: conservation, heritage, identity, urban conservation methodology,

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832 Urban Conservation Methodology for Heritage Areas: A Case Study in Qabel Street, Old Jeddah

Authors: Hossam Hassan Elborombaly, Nader Y. Azab

Abstract:

The Middle East region is rich with its architecture and urban settings. This makes it viable for exploring and applying different strategies that deal with conservation. Current context characterized by pollution, socioeconomic issues, behavioral problems, etc. affects architectural and urban heritage –literally- in all Middle Eastern countries. Although there have been numerous strategies in place to preserve and/ or rehabilitate heritage, all has been designed and implemented following political more than technical or methodical processes. This only resulted in more deterioration of the targeted areas. This paper explores different approaches in some selected Arab countries and relies on comparative analysis with some successful European experiences. The aim is to establish some solid basis for dealing with heritage areas; an approach that respects heritage and traditions without compromising sustainability or socioeconomic opportunities.

Keywords: rehabilitation, socioeconomic, urban conservation, urban strategy

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831 Reinvestment of the Urban Context in Historic Cities: The Case Study of El Sheikh Kandil Street, Rosetta, Egypt

Authors: Riham A. Ragheb, Ingy M. Naguib

Abstract:

Conservation and urban investment are a prerequisite to improve the quality of life. Since the historic street is a part of the economic system, it should be able to play an important role in the city development by upgrading all services, public open spaces and reuse of historical buildings and sites. Furthermore, historical conservation enriches the political, economic, social, cultural and functional aspects of the site. Rosetta has been selected as an area of study because it has a unique character due to its possession of a variety of monuments and historical buildings. The aim of this research is to analyze the existing situation of an historic street named El Sheikh Kandil, to be able to identify the potentials and problems. The paper gives a proposal for the redesign and reinvestment of the street and the reuse for the historical buildings to serve the community, users and visitors. Then, it concludes with recommendations to improve quality of life through the rehabilitation of the historical buildings and strengthening of the cultural and historical identity of the street. Rosetta city can benefit from these development proposals by preserving and revitalizing its unique character which leads to tourism development and benefits from the new investments.

Keywords: adaptive reuse, heritage street, historic investment, restoration, urban design

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830 Health Status and Psychology Wellbeing of Street Children in Kuala Lumpur

Authors: Sabri Sulaiman, Siti Hajar Abu Bakar Ah, Haris Abd Wahab

Abstract:

Street children is a global phenomenon and declared as a social problem by social researcher and scholars across the world. The insecure street environment exposes street children into various risk factors. One of them is the health and psychological problem. The objective of this study is to assess the health problem and psychological wellbeing of street children in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The cross-sectional study involved 303 street children in Chow Kit, Kuala Lumpur. The study confirmed that the majority (95.7%) of street children who participated in the study have a health problem. The findings also demonstrated that the majority of them have issues related to their psychological wellbeing. The inputs from this study are instrumental for the suggestion of specific intervention to improve the health and psychology wellbeing of street children in Malaysia. Agencies which are responsible for the street children well-being can utilise the inputs to framing and improving the social care programmes for the children.

Keywords: street children, health status, psychology wellbeing, homeless

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829 Street Art Lenses: A Glimpse into the Street Artists’ Identity and Socio-Political Perspective in Brussels

Authors: José Francisco Urrutia Reyes, Judith Espinosa Real

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This paper is meant to re-examine the role of street art in the contemporary world. By studying this form of art in Brussels, it can be explained how murals show the socio-political reality of a given community and influence on its interaction. Through the definitions of street art, murals and street artists, and analysing their role in Brussels, it is possible to understand how this counter culture movement serves as an engine of social development, as it interacts with its surroundings sending a clear message to a wider audience. Street art impacts on its environment because it interacts with the people who occupies the day-to-day public space. This has proven to be effective in the arouse of social consciousness, up to the point of being adopted by the government of Brussels to promote social movements such as the AIDS-HIV campaign along with the Plate-Forme Prévention Sida. It can be concluded that street art has evolved since its vandalic beginnings, to become a form of art that has not lost it counter official status, but now has a critical vision that can promote social awakening. Street art is now a global trend that uses visual inputs to create a positive impact.

Keywords: street art, Brussels, social impact, political perspective

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828 Linguistic Attitudes and Language Learning Needs of Heritage Language Learners of Spanish in the United States

Authors: Sheryl Bernardo-Hinesley

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Heritage language learners are students who have been raised in a home where a minority language is spoken, who speaks or merely understand the minority heritage language, but to some degree are bilingual in the majority and the heritage language. In view of the rising university enrollment by Hispanics in the United States who have chosen to study Spanish, university language programs are currently faced with challenges of accommodating the language needs of heritage language learners of Spanish. The present study investigates the heritage language perception and language attitudes by heritage language learners of Spanish, as well as their classroom language learning experiences and needs. In order to carry out the study, a qualitative survey was used to gather data from university students. Analysis of students' responses indicates that heritage learners are motivated to learn the heritage language. In relation to the aspects of focus of a language course for heritage learners, results show that the aspects of interest are accent marks and spelling, grammatical accuracy, vocabulary, writing, reading, and culture.

Keywords: heritage language learners, language acquisition, linguistic attitudes, Spanish in the US

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827 Resistance towards Education System through Street Library Movement: A Study in Sukabumi, Indonesia

Authors: M. Inbar Daeribi, Vara Leoni

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Street Library Movement has been established and started to grow in some cities in Indonesia as a social movement. In the beginning, this movement emerged as a response to Indonesian lack of reading culture. Nevertheless, this study found out that street library movement is not only a literacy movement for developing reading culture. Furthermore, this movement is also a resistance towards education system in Indonesia. Street library movement is a critical consciousness driven by autonomous working group (community) as counter-public form towards Indonesia’s education condition legitimated by the government. This study, conducted in qualitative method with street library movement in Sukabumi, West Java, Indonesia as the object of study, will examine resistance forms of this movement and its social impacts. By studying this paper, it can be explained how street library movement served as an engine for social development.

Keywords: street library movement, social movement, resistance, education system

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826 Heritage Tree Expert Assessment and Classification: Malaysian Perspective

Authors: B.-Y.-S. Lau, Y.-C.-T. Jonathan, M.-S. Alias

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Heritage trees are natural large, individual trees with exceptionally value due to association with age or event or distinguished people. In Malaysia, there is an abundance of tropical heritage trees throughout the country. It is essential to set up a repository of heritage trees to prevent valuable trees from being cut down. In this cross domain study, a web-based online expert system namely the Heritage Tree Expert Assessment and Classification (HTEAC) is developed and deployed for public to nominate potential heritage trees. Based on the nomination, tree care experts or arborists would evaluate and verify the nominated trees as heritage trees. The expert system automatically rates the approved heritage trees according to pre-defined grades via Delphi technique. Features and usability test of the expert system are presented. Preliminary result is promising for the system to be used as a full scale public system.

Keywords: arboriculture, Delphi, expert system, heritage tree, urban forestry

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825 Survival Strategies of Street Children Using the Urban Space: A Case Study at Sealdah Railway Station Area, Kolkata, West Bengal, India

Authors: Sibnath Sarkar

Abstract:

Developing countries are facing many Social problems. In India, too there are several such problems. The problem of street children is one of them. No country or city anywhere in the world today is without the presence of street children, but the problem is most acute in developing countries. Thousands of street children can be seen in our populous cities like Mumbai, Kolkata, Delhi, and Chennai. Most of them are in the age group of 5-15 years. The number of street children is increasing gradually. Poverty, unemployment, rapid urbanization, rural-urban migrations are the root causes of street children. Being deprive from many of their, they have escaped to the street as a safe place for living. Street children always related with the urban spaces in the developing world and it represents a sad outcome of the rapid urbanization process. After coming to the streets, these children have to cope with the new situation every day. They also adopt or develop many complex survival strategies and a variety of different informal or even illegal activities in public space and form supportive social networks in order to survive in street life. Street children use the different suitable urban spaces as their earning, living, entertaining spot. Therefore, the livelihoods of young people on the street should analyze in relation to the spaces they use, as well as their age and length of stay on the streets. This paper tries to explore the livelihood strategies and copping situation of street children in Sealdah station area. One hundred seventy-five street living children are included in the study living in and around the railway station.

Keywords: strategies, street children, survive, urban-space

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824 The Shifting Urban Role of Buildings’ Facade Design: A Diachronic Analysis of a Case Study in Korba

Authors: Virginia Bassily, Sherif Goubran

Abstract:

In heritage conservation and revival, much of the focus is placed on the techniques and methods to preserve, restore, and revive heritage structures and locations. This is especially important in locations that are currently in a deteriorated or critical state. However, less research examines how deterioration happens and its effect on the heritage locations’ character and socio-economic functions. To this end, this research aims to examine the decline and its effect in the Korba area in Heliopolis, Cairo, Egypt. Constructed in 1906 by Baron Empain, Korba was designed to have a unique architectural character intended to stimulate social and economic life in the then newly designed desert oasis. However, the area has been on a path of physical deterioration over the years, and this resulted in the corrosion in the social life of its streets. Previous research proposed a framework that connected six street-level façade design parameters to the social interactions on streets and sidewalks, namely: complexity and architectural character, permeability, territoriality and personalization, enclosure, ground-floor use, and physical comfort. This research builds on this framework to study the changes in Korba’s buildings’ architectural features through a diachronic analysis in Ibrahim El-Lakkani Street of Korba. We select two distinct periods, the present (2021) and the original state of the building (1906). Specifically, architectural features of the street level are broken down and categorized in those six parameters to understand their decline or improvement over time. We Used descriptive analysis; the paper then connects the physical deterioration with potential deterioration in the social life on the streets and sidewalks of Korba and underscores the critical physical changes that are likely causing such decline. We find that the parameters that have decreased enough over the years and caused the deterioration are complexity and architectural character, permeability, territoriality and personalization, and physical comfort. The results verify that the street has overgone deterioration in their overall socialization levels and that the physical deterioration can indeed be used as a predictor of social interaction decline in urban areas. The findings propose a process by which revival projects can focus on physical parameters that create synergistic benefits by preserving and renewing heritage locations and revitalizing their socio-economic potentials.

Keywords: architectural character, conservation, enclosure, ground-floor use, Korba, permeability, personalization, physical comfort, social life, territoriality

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823 Community Development and Preservation of Heritage in Igbo Area of Nigeria

Authors: Elochukwu A. Nwankwo, Matthias U. Agboeze

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Many heritage sites abound in the shores of Nigeria with enormous tourism potentials. Heritage sites do not only depict the cultural and historical transmutation of people but also functions in the image design and promotion of a locality. This reveals the unique role of heritage sites to structural development of an area. Heritage sites have of recent been a victim of degradation and social abuse arising from seasonal ignorance; hence minimizing its potentials to the socio-economic development of an area. This paper is emphasizing on the adoption of community development approaches in heritage preservation in Igbo area. Its modalities, applications, challenges and prospect were discussed. Such understanding will serve as a catalyst in aiding general restoration and preservation of heritage sites in Nigeria and other African states.

Keywords: heritage resources, community development, preservation, sustainable development, approaches

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822 Research of Street Aspect Ratio on a Wind Environmental Perspective

Authors: Qi Kan, Xiaoyu Ying

Abstract:

With a rapid urbanization in China, the high-density new urban-center districts have already changed the microclimate in the city. Because of the using characters of building the commercial pedestrian streets which have emerged massively making a large number of pedestrians appear in there, pedestrian comfort in the commercial streets of the new urban-center districts requires more attention. The different street spatial layout will change the wind environment in the street and then influence the pedestrian comfort. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models are used to study the correlation between the street aspect ratio and wind environment, under the simulation with relevant weather conditions. The results show that the wind speed in the city streets is inversely proportional to the street aspect ratio. The conclusion will provide an evaluation basis for urban planners and architects at the beginning stage of the design to effectively avoid the potential poor physical environment.

Keywords: street spatial layout, wind environment, street aspect ratio, pedestrian comfort

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821 The Effect of Street Dust on Urban Environment

Authors: Turki M. Habeebullah, Abdel Hameed A. A. Awad, Said Munir, Atif M. F. Mohammed, Essam A. Morsy, Abdulaziz R. Seroji

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Street dust has been knoweldged as an important source of air pollution. It does not remain deposited in a place for long, as it is easily resuspended back into the atmosphere. Street dust is a complex mixture derived from different sources: Deposited dust, traffic, tire, and brake wear, construction and demolition processes. The present study aims to evaluate the elementals ”iron, calcium, lead, cadmium, nickel, silicon, and selenium” and microbial “bacteria and fungi” contents associated street dust at the holy mosque areas. The street dust was collected by sweeping an arera~1m2 along the both sides of the road. The particles with diameter ≤ 1.7 µm constitued the highest percentages of the total particulate ≤45 µm. Moreover, The crustal species: iron and calcium were found in the highest concentrations, and proof that demolition and constricution were the main source of street dust. Also, the low biodiversity of microorganisms is attributed to severe weather conditions and characteristics of the arid environment.

Keywords: dust, microbial, environment, street

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820 Not so Street Theatre: Politics in Theatre of Roots

Authors: Dani Karmakar

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In India, the journey of street theatre was started with Indian peoples Theatre Association (IPTA) as a tool for anti-establishment that was categorized as by the people and for the people. It has expressed common people’s feelings, problems, day to day life. It has brought a social change that is downtrodden. By its nature, it is based on communist ideology. Street theatre is a theatre of protest. In India, many folk theatres translate directly ‘Street Theatre’, those are Veedhi Natakam in Andhra Pradesh and Therukoothu in Tamil Nadu. But they do not covey to common definition of street theatre. There are different folk theatres of different regions in India. All folk theatres have individual characteristic, criteria, taste and flavor that can render distinctive each others. In festivals or special occasions, whole communities come together to enjoy collectively and express their feelings. The Veedhi Natakam means 'street theatre'. Theru koothu is a traditional street theatre in the northern districts of Tamilnadu. Folk theatre has potential to deliver strong messages. It has a socially significant role. At Veedhi Natakam, Vidhushaka takes part for social criticism. Gambhira is also a socio-political folk drama presentation in West Bengal.

Keywords: folk theatre, Gambhira, politics, street theatre

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819 The World Heritage List: A Big Data Spatial Econometrics Approach to Sites Promoting the Brand

Authors: David Wuepper, Marc Patry

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UNESCO’s World Heritage program requests the inscribed locations to promote the World Heritage brand by clearly presenting information about it on-site. Based on feedback from over 319,000 visitors at 791 locations, we create an index that shows how much the World Heritage sites actually brand themselves as such. We find great heterogeneity throughout the list and explain this econometrically mostly with the economic benefit for the sites but also with cultural brand preferences, which are highest in Asia, followed by Europe and North America. We also find a positive relationship between World Heritage branding and conservation status and a U-shaped relationship between visitor numbers and WH branding. Based on our findings, we recommend to make clear World Heritage branding mandatory for all sites.

Keywords: UNESCO World Heritage, collective brand, cultural tourism, heritage conservation, brand equity, spatial econometrics

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818 A Study for Turkish Underwater Sports Federation Athletes: Evaluation of the Street Foods Consumption

Authors: Su Tezel

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The paper deals with licensed athletes affiliated with the Turkish Underwater Sports Federation to assess the consumption status of street food. The aim of the paper is the frequency of training during competition preparatory training or season periods, the athletes' economic situation, social life, work-life or education situations are the directs them to street food? Also to evaluate the importance that athletes attach to their nutritional status. Data were collected with survey method. 141 underwater sports athletes participated in the survey. Empirical findings on 141 respondents are related to athletes' demographic information, which underwater sports branch they doing (underwater hockey, underwater rugby and free diving), with whom they live, training hours and frequency, street food consumption frequency and preferences, which type drinks they prefer drink with or without street foods and other similar things. Most of the athletes were male (64.5%), female (35.5%) and the most athletes from the sports branches included in the survey belong to underwater hockey (95.7%). 93.7% of athletes have a training time between 08:00 pm to 00:00 am and the frequency of consuming street food after training is 88%. As a remarkable result, 48% of the reasons for consuming street food easy access to street foods after training. Statistical analyzes were made with the data obtained and the status of street food consumption of athletes, whether they were suitable for professional athlete nutrition and their attitudes were evaluated.

Keywords: nutrition, street foods, underwater hockey, underwater sport

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817 Blending Values for Historic Neighborhood Upliftment: Case of Heritage Hotel in Ahmedabad

Authors: Vasudha Saraogi

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Heritage hotels are architectural marvels and embody a number of values of heritage discourses within them. The adaptive re-use of old structures to make them commercially viable as heritage hotels, not only boosts tourism and the local economy but also brings in development for the neighborhood in which it is located. This paper seeks to study the value created by heritage hotels in general and French Haveli (Ahmedabad) in particular using the single case study methodology. The paper draws upon the concept of the Italian model of Albergo Diffuso and its implementation via French Haveli, for value creation and development in Dhal Ni Pol (a historic neighborhood) while recognizing the importance of stakeholders to the process of the historic neighborhood upliftment.

Keywords: heritage discourses, historic neighborhoods, heritage hotel, Old City Ahmedabad

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816 The Measurements of Nitrogen Dioxide Pollution in Street Canyons

Authors: Aukse Miskinyte, Audrius Dedele

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The impact of urban air pollution on human health effects has been revealed in epidemiological studies, which have assessed the associations between various types of gases and particles and negative health outcomes. The percentage of population living in urban areas is increasing, and the assessment of air pollution in certain zones in the city (like street canyons) that have higher level of air pollution and specific dispersion conditions is essential as these places tend to contain a lot of people. Street canyon is defined as a street surrounded by tall buildings on both sides that trapes traffic emissions and prevents pollution dispersion. The aim of this study was to determine the pollution of nitrogen dioxide in street canyons in Kaunas city during cold and warm seasons. The measurements were conducted using passive sampling technique during two-week period in two street canyon sites, whose axes are approximately north-south and north-northeast‒south-southwest. Both of these streets are two-lane roads of 7 meters width, one is in the central part of the city, and other is in the Old Town. The results of two-week measurements showed that the concentration of nitrogen dioxide was higher in summer season than in winter in both street canyon sites. The difference between the level of NO2 in winter and summer seasons was 5.1 and 19.4 µg/m3 in the first and in the second street canyon sites, respectively. The higher concentration of NO2 was determined in the second street canyon site than in the first, although there was calculated lower traffic intensity. These results could be related to the certain street canyon characteristics.

Keywords: air pollution, nitrogen dioxide, passive sampler, street canyon

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815 Arts and Cultural Heritage Digitalization in Nigeria: Problems and Prospects

Authors: Okechukwu Uzoma Nkwocha, Edward Uche Omeire

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Information and communication technologies (ICT) undeniably, have expanded the sphere of arts and creativity. It proves to be an important tool for production, preservation, sharing and utilization of arts and cultural heritage. While art and heritage institutions around the globe are increasingly utilizing ICT for the promotion and sharing of their collections, the story seems different in most part of Africa. In this paper, we will examine the prospects and problems of utilizing ICT in promotion, preservation and sharing of arts and cultural heritage.

Keywords: arts, cultural heritage, digitalization, ICT

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814 A Future Urban Street Design in Baltimore, Maryland Based on a Hierarchy of Functional Needs and the Context of Autonomous Vehicles, Green Infrastructure, and Evolving Street Typologies

Authors: Samuel Quick

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The purpose of this paper is to examine future urban street design in the context of developing technologies, evolving street typologies, and projected transportation trends. The goal was to envision a future urban street in the year 2060 that addresses the advent and implementation of autonomous vehicles, the promotion of new street typologies, and the projection of current transportation trends. Using a hierarchy of functional needs for urban streets, the future street was designed and evaluated based on the functions the street provides to the surrounding community. The site chosen for the future street design is an eight-block section of West North Avenue in the city of Baltimore, Maryland. Three different conceptual designs were initially completed and evaluated leading to a master plan for West North Avenue as well as street designs for connecting streets that represent different existing street types. Final designs were compared with the existing street design and evaluated with the adapted ‘Hierarchy of Needs’ theory. The review of the literature and the results from this paper indicate that urban streets will have to become increasingly multi-functional to meet the competing needs of the environment and community. Future streets will have to accommodate multimodal transit which will include mass transit, walking, and biking. Furthermore, a comprehensive implementation of green infrastructure within the urban street will provide access to nature for urban communities and essential stormwater management. With these developments, the future of an urban street will move closer to a greenway typology. Findings from this study indicate that urban street design will have to be policy-driven to promote and implement autonomous bus-rapid-transit in order to conserve street space for other functions. With this conservation of space, urban streets can then provide more functions to the surrounding community, taking a holistic approach to urban street design.

Keywords: autonomous vehicle, greenway, green infrastructure, multi-modality, street typology

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813 Street Begging and Its Psychosocial Social Effects in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria

Authors: Temitope M. Ojo, Titilayo A. Benson

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This study investigated street begging and its psychosocial effect in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State, Nigeria. In carrying out this study, four research questions were used. The instrument used for data collection was a face-to-face and self-developed questionnaire. The results revealed there is high awareness level on the causes of street begging among the respondents, who also mentioned several factors contributing to street begging. However, respondents disagreed that lack of education is a factor contributing to street begging in Nigeria. The psycho-social effects of street begging, as identified by the respondents, are development of inferiority complex, lack of social interaction, loss of self-respect and dignity, increased mindset of poverty and loss of self-confident. Solution to street begging as identified by the respondents also includes provision of rehabilitation centers, provision of food for students in Islamic schools and monthly survival allowance. Specific policies and other legislative frameworks are needed in terms of age, sex, disability, and family-related issues, to effectively address the begging problem. Therefore, it is recommended that policy planners must adopt multi-faceted, multi-targeted, and multi-tiered approaches if they are to have any impact on the lives of street beggars in all four categories. In this regard, both preventative and responsive interventions are needed instead of rehabilitative solutions for each category of street beggars.

Keywords: beggars, begging, psycho-social effect, respondents, street begging

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812 Management of Cultural Heritage: Bologna Gates

Authors: Alfonso Ippolito, Cristiana Bartolomei

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A growing demand is felt today for realistic 3D models enabling the cognition and popularization of historical-artistic heritage. Evaluation and preservation of Cultural Heritage is inextricably connected with the innovative processes of gaining, managing, and using knowledge. The development and perfecting of techniques for acquiring and elaborating photorealistic 3D models, made them pivotal elements for popularizing information of objects on the scale of architectonic structures.

Keywords: cultural heritage, databases, non-contact survey, 2D-3D models

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811 Traditional Management Systems and the Conservation of Cultural and Natural Heritage: Multiple Case Studies in Zimbabwe

Authors: Nyasha Agnes Gurira, Petronella Katekwe

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Traditional management systems (TMS) are a vital source of knowledge for conserving cultural and natural heritage. TMS’s are renowned for their ability to preserve both tangible and intangible manifestations of heritage. They are a construct of the intricate relationship that exists between heritage and host communities, where communities are recognized as owners of heritage and so, set up management mechanisms to ensure its adequate conservation. Multiple heritage condition surveys were conducted to assess the effectiveness of using TMS in the conservation of both natural and cultural heritage. Surveys were done at Nharira Hills, Mahwemasimike, Dzimbahwe, Manjowe Rock art sites and Norumedzo forest which are heritage places in Zimbabwe. It assessed the state of conservation of the five case studies and assessed the role that host communities play in the management of these heritage places. It was revealed that TMS’s are effective in the conservation of natural heritage, however in relation to heritage forms with cultural manifestations, there are major disparities. These range from differences in appreciation and perception of value within communities leading to vandalism, over emphasis in the conservation of the intangible element as opposed to the tangible. This leaves the tangible element at risk. Despite these issues, TMS are a reliable knowledge base which enables more holistic conservation approaches for cultural and natural heritage.

Keywords: communities, cultural intangible, tangible heritage, traditional management systems, natural

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810 A New Asset: The Role of Money in the Evolution of 20th Century Street Art

Authors: Eileen Kim

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As socioeconomic disparities grew in New York during the 1970s, artists represented new values that came with the times. Street art, in particular, was birthed from a distinctly urban, fringe setting to ultimately become one of the most lucrative forms of art today. Examining the economic and psychological reasons behind the rise of street art, this paper delves into the development of the art market as a parallel insight into human behaviors and economic models such as supply and demand. The purpose of this study is to show the role of the increasingly divided socioeconomic classes and the rise of art collecting as an asset-building form. This study concludes that the iconography and market value of street art represented distinct values that came from a series of intertwined social matters such as racial tensions and revolutions in industrial innovation.

Keywords: art industry, cultural representation, ethnicity, markets, public property, social classes, street art

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809 Planning Strategy for Sustainable Transportation in Heritage Areas

Authors: Hassam Hassan Elborombaly

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The pollution generated from transportation modes, congestion and traffic heritage has led to the deterioration of historic buildings and the urban heritage in historic cities. Accordingly, this paper attempts to diagnose the transport and traffic problems in historic cities. In general and in Heritage Cities, and to investigate methods for conserving the urban heritage from negative effects of traffic congestion and of the traditional red modes of transportation. It also attempts to explore possible areas for intervention to mitigate transportation and traffic problems in the light of the principles of the sustainable transportation framework. It aims to draw conclusion and propose recommendation that would increase the efficiency and effectiveness of transportation plans in historic Cairo and consequently achieve sustainable transportation. Problems In historic cities public paths compose an irregular network enclosing large residential plots (defined as super blocks quarters or hettas). The blocks represent the basic morphology units in historic Cities. Each super block incorporates several uses (i.e. residential, non-residential, service uses and others). Local paths reach the interior of the super blocks in an organized inter core, which deals mainly with residential functions mixed with handicraft activities and is composed of several local path units; (b) the other core, which is bound by the public paths and contains a combination of residential, commercial and social activities. Objectives: 1- To provide amenity convenience and comfort for visitors and people who live and work in the area. Pedestrianizing, accessibility and safety are to be reinforced while respecting the organic urban pattern. 2- To enhance street life, vitality and activity, in order to attract people and increase economic prosperity. Research Contents • Relation between residential areas and transportation in the inner core • Analytical studies for historic areas in heritage cities • Sustainable transportation planning in heritage cities • Dynamic and flexible methodology for achieving sustainable transportation network for the Heritage Cities • Result and Recommendation

Keywords: irregular network, public paths, sustainable transportation, urban heritage

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808 Conflicts and Complexities: a Study of Hong Kong's Bilingual Street Signs from Functional Perspective on Translation

Authors: Ge Song

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Hong Kong’s bilingual street signs declare a kind of correspondence, equivalence and thus translation between the English and Chinese languages. This study finds four translation phenomena among the street signs: domestication with positive connotation, foreignization with negative connotation, bilingual incompatibilities, and cross-street complexities. The interplay of, and the tension between, the four features open up a space where the local and the foreign, the vulgar and the elegant, alternate and experiment with each other, creating a kaleidoscope of methods for expressing and domesticating foreign otherness by virtue of translation. An analysis of the phenomena from the functional perspective reveals how translation has been emancipated to inform a variety of dimensions. This study also renews our understanding of translation as both a concept and a practice.

Keywords: street signs, linguistic landscape, cultural hybridity, Hong Kong

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807 Ethnographic Approach for Street Performers as Cultural Entrepreneurs

Authors: Marta Polec

Abstract:

The paper outlines the problem of street performances in Poland in context of humanistic management studies. The Author perceives activity of street performers of various art and entertainment actions as a phenomenon of informal organizing, self-management and cultural entrepreneurship in urban sphere. What has to be highlighted, performative street art is not currently being an interest of scientific research as often as visual street art. That is why the Author indicates the need of including new approaches of humanistic and social disciplines, especially different management paradigms, in examining various aspects of the activity of street performers. The paper shows the results of ethnographic study based on anthropological interviews, participant observation non-participant observation, shadowing, field notes, audiovisual documentation and text analysis. The fieldwork was performed since 2014 in the old towns and major areas of several the most popular touristic Polish cities, mainly in Gdansk, Cracow, Lublin, Warsaw, and Wroclaw. The research group included street artists of various kinds of performative arts. The investigation was prepared within the ‘Ethnography of the informal organization of street artists in Poland’ project, as a part of Diamond Grant programme (the Ministry of Science and Higher Education in Poland). The first conclusion of the study is that street shows form a way of artistic self-realization and unusual promotion of creative activity in public space. As street performance helps to make some extra money and even earning a living in general, it seems to constitute a new profession. Street performers as a specific environment usually know each other and in many ways cooperate informally to carry on their shows successfully. Secondly, this activity brings plenty benefits for the local communities. Street shows attract inhabitants and tourists quite often by appealing to intangible cultural heritage and memorializing it. They also pose a space for discussing current social issues. Moreover, they disseminate relatively inexpensive public access to culture, but also state an example of social courage of choosing unconventional occupation. Finally, currently being used terms of street performers/street artists/buskers in different languages, as instance as in Polish, are still fluent and undefined. As a consequence, it brings implications for existing common knowledge about street performers, for example in establishing and implementing public policies. It impedes solving many ethical and social dilemmas concerning the question of performances in public sphere, which in some cases seem to be related to, as: children’s work, beggars’ practices or question of harmony of public space. The main aim of this study was to expose street performances as yet undefined profession, including different possibilities of interacting with the audience, based on providing impressions, experiences and memories. Although the issue seems to be current and common, in indicated context there is a lack of equal and unified approach of managing urban sphere, which in practice differs both in informal rules and official policies concerning street performances not only in cities in Poland, but also generally in Europe.

Keywords: informal, organizing, street performance, urban sphere

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806 Street Begging: A Loss of Human Resource in Nigeria

Authors: Sulaiman Kassim Ibrahim

Abstract:

Human Resource is one of the most important elements in any country. They are very important in actualizing the potential of every sector in the country, i.e Agric, Education, Finance, Judiciary and all formal and informal sectors. The purpose of this study is to investigate the loss of human resource in Nigeria through street begging. The study used intensive literature review. Finding from the review indicate that a significant number of human resource are into street begging in the country undeveloped and untapped. The paper recommend that policy should be initiated to discourage street begging, develop this resource through education and empowerment, stop rural-urban migration by providing infrastructure in the rural areas and abolish informal (Almajiri or beggars school) and transform it into formal school.

Keywords: human resource, street begging, Nigeria, Almajiri

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