Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 156

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156 Metamorphosis in Nature through Adéquation: An Ecocritical Reading of Charles Tomlinson's Poetry

Authors: Zahra Barzegar, Reza Deedari, Behzad Pourgharib


This study examines how metamorphosis in nature is depicted in Charles Tomlinson's poetry through Lawrence Buell's mimesis and referential strategy of adéquation. This study aims to answer the questions that what is the relationship between Tomlinson's selected poems and nature, and how does Tomlinson's poetry bring the reader close to the natural environment. Adéquation is a way that brings the reader close to nature, not by imitating nature but by referring to it imaginatively and creating a stylized image. Using figurative language, namely imagery, metaphor, and analogy, adéquation creates a stylized image of metamorphosis in a nature scene that acts as a middle way between the reader and nature. This paper proves that adéquation reinvents the metamorphosis in natural occurrences in Charles Tomlinson's selected poems. Thus, a reader whose imagination is addressed achieves closeness with nature and a caring outlook toward natural happenings. This article confirms that Tomlinson's poems are potential enough to represent metamorphosis in nature through adéquation. Therefore, the reader understands nature beyond the poem as the poem presents a gist of nature through adéquation.

Keywords: adéquation, metamorphosis, nature, referentiality

Procedia PDF Downloads 85
155 The Resistance Reader Program Based on Image Processing

Authors: Janpen Srijan, Nahathai Tanmang, Thanit Purathanang, Anun Dowchern, Saksit Summart, Seangduan Kampimpa


This paper presents the resistance reader program based on image processing by using MATLAB. The proposed program is divided into six parts; the first part is the web camera; the second part is a watt selection before shooting the resistor; the third part is a part of finding the position of the color on the mid-point of resistor; the fourth part is a part of identifying color code of the resistor; the fifth part is a part of taking the number of values for each color for resistance calculation and the last part is a part of displaying result of resistance value. The experimental result of the resistance reader program based on image processing was able to display the resistance value of resistor. The accuracy of proposed program is 85 percent for 1 watt resistor. It has 15 percent of reading error because a problem with the color code of some resistor was too bright.

Keywords: resistance reader program, image processing, resistor, MATLAB

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
154 Performance Analysis of Different PSK Scheme on Receiver Sensitivity and Round Trip Distance for Chipless RFID System for UWB with Rayleigh Fading Channels in Outdoor NLOS Environment

Authors: Khalid Mahmud


In this paper, an analytic approach is presented to evaluate the Bit Error Rate (BER) and round trip distance for a UWB chipless RFID system using diversity technique at the reader receiver using different modulation technique. The analysis is carried out with multiresonator based chipless RFID tags using frequency range from 3 GHz − 6 GHz and bandwidth of 500 M Hz in outdoor non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environment. SISO configuration is used to communicate from the reader to the tag and SIMO configuration is used do vice versa. Maximal Ratio Combining (MRC) technique is used in the reader. MPSK, DQPSK, DBPSK, BPSK, QPSK and DMPSK modulation techniques are considered with coherent demodulation to evaluate the BER performance. From the numerical analysis of the results, it is found that at a given BER maximum possible round trip distance can be achieved using DMPSK modulation technique. In addition, it has been proved that, while using DMPSK modulation technique, the application of diversity has very little effect on the overall improvement in reader receiver sensitivity and achievable distance. Finally the method not only proves to be a very good way for tag detection in case of a chipless RFID system but also gives a clear insight regarding the interrelationship between BER, read range, reader received power, number of receiving antenna in outdoor NLOS environment.

Keywords: EGC, MRC, BER, read range, diversity

Procedia PDF Downloads 285
153 Application of Reception Theory to Analyze the Translation as a Continuous Reception

Authors: Mina Darabi Amin


In 1972, Hans Robert Jauss introduced the Reception Theory a version of Reader-response criticism, that suggests the literary critics to re-examine the relationship between the author, the work and the reader. The revealing of these relationships has shown that, besides the creation, the reception and the reading of the text have different levels which exempt it from a continuous reference to the meaning intended by the artist and could lead to multiplicity of possible interpretations according to the ‘Horizon of Expectations’. This theory could be associated with another intellectual process called ‘translation’, a process that is always confronted by different levels of readers in the target language and different levels of reception by these readers. By adopting the perspective of Reception theory in translation, we could ignore a particular kind of translation and consider the initiation to a literary text, its translation and its reception as a continuous process. Just like the creation of the text, the translation and its reception, are not made once and for all; they are confronted with different levels of reception and interpretation which are made and remade endlessly. After having known and crossing the first levels, the Horizons of Expectation could be extended and the reader could be initiated to the higher levels. On the other hand, we could say that the faithful and free translation are not opposed to each other, but depending on the type of reception by the readers and in a particular moment, the existence of both is necessary. In fact, it is the level of reception in readers and their Horizon of Expectations that determine the degree of fidelity and freedom of translation.

Keywords: reception theory, reading, literary translation, horizons of expectation, reader

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152 Substitutional Inference in Poetry: Word Choice Substitutions Craft Multiple Meanings by Inference

Authors: J. Marie Hicks


The art of the poetic conjoins meaning and symbolism with imagery and rhythm. Perhaps the reader might read this opening sentence as 'The art of the poetic combines meaning and symbolism with imagery and rhythm,' which holds a similar message, but is not quite the same. The reader understands that these factors are combined in this literary form, but to gain a sense of the conjoining of these factors, the reader is forced to consider that these aspects of poetry are not simply combined, but actually adjoin, abut, skirt, or touch in the poetic form. This alternative word choice is an example of substitutional inference. Poetry is, ostensibly, a literary form where language is used precisely or creatively to evoke specific images or emotions for the reader. Often, the reader can predict a coming rhyme or descriptive word choice in a poem, based on previous rhyming pattern or earlier imagery in the poem. However, there are instances when the poet uses an unexpected word choice to create multiple meanings and connections. In these cases, the reader is presented with an unusual phrase or image, requiring that they think about what that image is meant to suggest, and their mind also suggests the word they expected, creating a second, overlying image or meaning. This is what is meant by the term 'substitutional inference.' This is different than simply using a double entendre, a word or phrase that has two meanings, often one complementary and the other disparaging, or one that is innocuous and the other suggestive. In substitutional inference, the poet utilizes an unanticipated word that is either visually or phonetically similar to the expected word, provoking the reader to work to understand the poetic phrase as written, while unconsciously incorporating the meaning of the line as anticipated. In other words, by virtue of a word substitution, an inference of the logical word choice is imparted to the reader, while they are seeking to rationalize the word that was actually used. There is a substitutional inference of meaning created by the alternate word choice. For example, Louise Bogan, 4th Poet Laureate of the United States, used substitutional inference in the form of homonyms, malapropisms, and other unusual word choices in a number of her poems, lending depth and greater complexity, while actively engaging her readers intellectually with her poetry. Substitutional inference not only adds complexity to the potential interpretations of Bogan’s poetry, as well as the poetry of others, but provided a method for writers to infuse additional meanings into their work, thus expressing more information in a compact format. Additionally, this nuancing enriches the poetic experience for the reader, who can enjoy the poem superficially as written, or on a deeper level exploring gradations of meaning.

Keywords: poetic inference, poetic word play, substitutional inference, word substitution

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151 The Novel of 'the Adventure of the Secrets': Character in Postmodern Labyrinth, the Problem of Time and Subject

Authors: Nargiz Ismayilova


In Kamal Abdulla's "The Adventure of Mysteries", the plot develops on two parallel lines. While reading the work, the future looks hazy on the background of the present and the past. It is impossible to predict the end of the work in particular. This can be considered the success of the author. The novel has reflected the features of postmodernism. The novel is characterized by a richness of intertwined plots, themes, meta- submission, device (fiction) typical of postmodern prose technique. The introduction and progress of the work takes the reader to the place, which is an unrecognizable unknown for him but at the same time, its native for him very well. Parts of the novel, divided into chapter techniques, force the reader to distinguish mystical repetitions from the artistic circulation of reality. This makes people think directly. Intertextual communication and the variety of fiction, intelligence, and informativeness determine the perspective of the exemplary reader. As is well known, “postmodern novels, which often use intertextual communication and superstructure techniques, focus on expression rather than on the subject, and benefit from history by combining fiction with historical facts, are able to attract attention with their extraordinary foreign fiction.

Keywords: Kamal Abdulla, postmodernism, parallelism, labyrinth, comparison, novel

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150 Design and Field Programmable Gate Array Implementation of Radio Frequency Identification for Boosting up Tag Data Processing

Authors: G. Rajeshwari, V. D. M. Jabez Daniel


Radio Frequency Identification systems are used for automated identification in various applications such as automobiles, health care and security. It is also called as the automated data collection technology. RFID readers are placed in any area to scan large number of tags to cover a wide distance. The placement of the RFID elements may result in several types of collisions. A major challenge in RFID system is collision avoidance. In the previous works the collision was avoided by using algorithms such as ALOHA and tree algorithm. This work proposes collision reduction and increased throughput through reading enhancement method with tree algorithm. The reading enhancement is done by improving interrogation procedure and increasing the data handling capacity of RFID reader with parallel processing. The work is simulated using Xilinx ISE 14.5 verilog language. By implementing this in the RFID system, we can able to achieve high throughput and avoid collision in the reader at a same instant of time. The overall system efficiency will be increased by implementing this.

Keywords: antenna, anti-collision protocols, data management system, reader, reading enhancement, tag

Procedia PDF Downloads 217
149 Quick Response(QR) Code for Vehicle Registration and Identification

Authors: S. Malarvizhi, S. Sadiq Basha, M. Santhosh Kumar, K. Saravanan, R. Sasikumar, R. Satheesh


This is a web based application which provides authorization for the vehicle identification and registration. It also provides mutual authentication between the police and users in order to avoid misusage. The QR code generation in this application overcomes the difficulty in the manual registration of the vehicle documents. This generated QR code is placed in the number plates of the vehicles. The QR code is scanned using the QR Reader installed in the smart devices. The police officials can check the vehicle details and file cases on accidents, theft and traffic rules violations using QR code. In addition to vehicle insurance payments and renewals, the renewal alert is sent to the vehicle owner about payment deadline. The non-permitted vehicles can be blocked in the next check-post by sending the alert messages.

Keywords: QR code, QR reader, registration, authentication, idenfication

Procedia PDF Downloads 325
148 The Batteryless Wi-Fi Backscatter System and Method for Improving the Transmission Range

Authors: Young-Min Ko, Seung-Jun Yu, Seongjoo Lee, Hyoung-Kyu Song


The Internet of things (IoT) system has attracted attention. IoT is a technology to connect all the objects to the internet as well as computer. IoT makes it possible for providing more data interoperability methods for an application purpose. Among the IoT technology, the research of devices so that they can communicate without power supply has been actively conducted. Batteryless system permits us to communicate without power supply devices. In this paper, batteryless backscatter system is used as a tag. And mobile devices which are embedded wireless fidelity (Wi-Fi) chipset are used as a reader. The backscatter tag can be obtained Internet connectivity from the reader. Conventional Wi-Fi backscatter system has limitation in the transmission range. In this paper, the proposed algorithm can be obtained improved reliability as well as overcoming the limitation about transmission range.

Keywords: Ambient RF, Backscatter, Batteryless communication, Energy-harvesting, IoT, RFID, Tag, Wi-Fi

Procedia PDF Downloads 305
147 Translation as a Cultural Medium: Understanding the Mauritian Culture and History through an English Translation

Authors: Pooja Booluck


This project seeks to translate a chapter in Le Silence des Chagos by Shenaz Patel a Mauritian author whose work has never been translated before. The chapter discusses the attempt of the protagonist to return to her home country Diego Garcia after her deportation. The English translation will offer an historical account to the target audience of the deportation of Chagossians to Mauritius during the 1970s. The target audience comprises of English-speaking translation scholars translation students and African literature scholars. In light of making the cultural elements of Mauritian culture accessible the translation will maintain the cultural items such as food and oral discourses in Creole so as to preserve the authenticity of the source culture. In order to better comprehend the cultural elements mentioned the target reader will be provided with detailed footnotes explaining the cultural and historical references. This translation will also address the importance of folkloric songs in Mauritius and its intergenerational function in Mauritian communities which will also remain in Creole. While such an approach will help to preserve the meaning of the source text the borrowing technique and the foreignizing method will be employed which will in turn help the reader in becoming more familiar with the Mauritian community. Translating a text from French to English while maintaining certain words or discourses in a minority language such as Creole bears certain challenges: How does the translator ensure the comprehensibility of the reader? Are there any translation losses? What are the choices of the translator?

Keywords: Chagos archipelagos in Exile, English translation, Le Silence des Chagos, Mauritian culture and history

Procedia PDF Downloads 252
146 News Publication on Facebook: Emotional Analysis of Hooks

Authors: Gemma Garcia Lopez


The goal of this study is to perform an emotional analysis of the hooks used in Facebook by three of the most important daily newspapers in the USA. These hook texts are used to get the user's attention and invite him to read the news and linked contents. Thanks to the emotional analysis in text, made with the tool of IBM, Tone Analyzer, we discovered that more than 30% of the hooks can be classified emotionally as joy, sadness, anger or fear. This study gathered the publications made by The New York Times, USA Today and The Washington Post during a random day. The results show that the choice of words by the journalist, can expose the reader to different emotions before clicking on the content. In the three cases analyzed, the absence of emotions in some cases, and the presence of emotions in text in others, appear in very similar percentages. Therefore, beyond the objectivity and veracity of the content, a new factor could come into play: the emotional influence on the reader as a mediatic manipulation tool.

Keywords: emotional analysis of newspapers hooks, emotions on Facebook, newspaper hooks on Facebook, news publication on Facebook

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145 RFID Based Student Attendance System

Authors: Aniket Tiwari, Ameya London


Web-based student attendance management system is required to assist the faculty and the lecturer for the time-consuming process. For this purpose, GSM/GPRS (Global System for Mobile Communication/General Packet Radio Service) based student’s attendance management system using RFID (Radio Frequency Identification) is a much convenient method to take the attendance. Student is provided with the RFID tags. When student comes near to the reader, it will sense the respective student and update attendance. The whole process is controlled using the microcontroller. The main advantage of this system is that it reduced the complexity comparison to student attendance system using RF technology. This system requires only one microcontroller for the operation, it is real time process. This paper reviews some of these monitoring systems and proposes a GPRS based student attendance system. The system can be easily accessed by the lecturers via the web and most importantly, the reports can be generated in real-time processing, thus, provides valuable information about the students’ commitments in attending the classes.

Keywords: RFID reader, RFID tags, student, attendance

Procedia PDF Downloads 408
144 Overview of the Public Service Executive Training System in Hungary

Authors: Csilla Paksi-Petró


The Hungarian national public administration training system providing continuous, lifelong further training to some ten thousand executives in public administration was launched in 2014, adding skills and competency development to the previous training solutions, which had a mainly legal and professional approach. The executive training system is being continuously developed since tackling the existing qualitative, and quantitative challenges calls for the introduction of novel, innovative solutions. With a gap-filling character, this study presents, in brief, the last eight years of system of executive training in public administration, supported by the outcomes of the author's empirical research, makes suggestions for the possible directions of its further development. Through this article, the reader may obtain an overview of the current Hungarian civil service further training system, its institution system, the method of its application, its target groups, its results, and its development prospects. By reading the article, the reader will get acquainted with the good practices of the Hungarian civil service further training system.

Keywords: coaching, e-learning, executive development, further-training

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143 Critical Discourse Analysis of President Mamnoon Hussain Speech in the Joint Session of Parliament.

Authors: Saeed Qaisrani


This article briefly reviews the rise of Critical Discourse Analysis about the Pakistani President Mamnoon Hussain speech which delivered in the joint session of Parliament and teases out a detailed analysis of the various critiques that have been levelled at CDA and its practitioners over the last twenty years, both by scholars working within the “critical” paradigm and by other critics. A range of criticisms are discussed which target the underlying premises, the analytical methodology and the disputed areas of reader response and the integration of contextual factors. Controversial issues such as the predominantly negative focus of much CDA scholarship, and the status of CDA as an emergent “intellectual orthodoxy”, are also reviewed. The conclusions offer a summary of the principal criticisms that emerge from this overview, and suggest some ways in which these problems could be attenuated. It also focused on the different views about president speech and how it is presented in the Pakistani print and electronic media.

Keywords: Critical Discourse Analysis, Analytical methodology, Corpus linguistics, Reader response theory, Critical paradigm, Contextualization.

Procedia PDF Downloads 405
142 Cost Effective Real-Time Image Processing Based Optical Mark Reader

Authors: Amit Kumar, Himanshu Singal, Arnav Bhavsar


In this modern era of automation, most of the academic exams and competitive exams are Multiple Choice Questions (MCQ). The responses of these MCQ based exams are recorded in the Optical Mark Reader (OMR) sheet. Evaluation of the OMR sheet requires separate specialized machines for scanning and marking. The sheets used by these machines are special and costs more than a normal sheet. Available process is non-economical and dependent on paper thickness, scanning quality, paper orientation, special hardware and customized software. This study tries to tackle the problem of evaluating the OMR sheet without any special hardware and making the whole process economical. We propose an image processing based algorithm which can be used to read and evaluate the scanned OMR sheets with no special hardware required. It will eliminate the use of special OMR sheet. Responses recorded in normal sheet is enough for evaluation. The proposed system takes care of color, brightness, rotation, little imperfections in the OMR sheet images.

Keywords: OMR, image processing, hough circle trans-form, interpolation, detection, binary thresholding

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141 An Exploratory Study into the Suggestive Impact of Alaa Al-Aswany's Political Essays

Authors: Valerii Dudin


With the continuous increase in quantity and importance of the information surrounding our daily lives, it has become crucial to understand what makes information stand out and affect our point of view, regardless of the accuracy of the facts involved. Alaa Al-Aswany’s numerous works have been an inspiration for millions of his readers in Egypt and all across the Arab World. While highly factual, the author’s political essays are both lexically and stylistically rich; they also implement descriptive allusions and proverbs to support the presented opinions. We have undertaken an effort to explore the impact on the individual perception through these political works of the author. In this study, we have overviewed previously made research on similar subjects and through contextual, intertextual, linguistic and corpus analyses we have come to realize the presence of suggestive themes in these works, capable of shaping the reader’s perception regarding a certain topic, specifically targeting the reader’s emotional bias. The findings presented in the study will reveal an overview of such examples of suggestive elements used in the author’s works, as well as various new insights on what can be considered suggestive in the context of modern Arabic printed press.

Keywords: Alaa al-Aswany, cognitive linguistics, political essays, suggestion

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140 Integrated Models of Reading Comprehension: Understanding to Impact Teaching—The Teacher’s Central Role

Authors: Sally A. Brown


Reading comprehension is critical when working to teach students to become proficient readers. In the field of literacy research, comprehension is a complex term to define. It is not a single process that happens within a reader’s mind, but it encapsulates many different components, all of which are important for a reader to make sense of a text. Readers who decode the words on the page are not “reading” until comprehension is attained. Comprehension ultimately happens when a reader automatically constructs meaning while reading a text. Over the last 30 years, researchers have developed models or frameworks to provide a more structured understanding of the reading comprehension process. Cognitive information processing models and social cognitive theories both provide frameworks to inform reading comprehension instruction. The purpose of this paper is to (a) provide an overview of the historical development of reading comprehension theory, (b) review the literature framed by cognitive information processing, social cognitive, and integrated reading comprehension theories, and (c) demonstrate how these frameworks inform instruction. As integrated models of reading can guide the interpretation of various factors related to student learning, an integrated framework designed by the researcher will be presented. Results indicated that features of cognitive processing and social cognitivism theory—represented in the integrated framework—highlighted the importance of the role of the teacher. This model can aide teachers in not only improving reading comprehension instruction but in identifying areas of challenge for students. Teacher instructional behaviors will be shared and an example of an explicit main idea and summarization instructional routine will be provided. [Note: This paper is part of a larger dissertation study titled, The Effects of Explicit Main Idea and Summarization Instruction on Reading Comprehension of Expository Text for Alternative High School Students, 2018]

Keywords: explicit instruction, integrated models of reading comprehension, reading comprehension, teacher’s role

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139 Radio Frequency Identification System and Its Effect on Retailing Sector

Authors: Ayşe Çoban, Orhan Çoban, Murat Birekul


In this study, the effects of radio frequency identification system on the retailing sector were theoretically analysed. The technology of Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) is a method enabling to identify the objects individually and automatically, using radio frequency. RFID generally consists of a tag and reader. RFID tags can be programmed to receive, store, and send the information of object such as Electronic Product Code (EPC). Having read the tags placed on product by the reader, the information associated with the management of supply chain can be automatically recorded and replaced. Recently, RFID technology used in many areas has particularly important effects on the businesses that are active in the retailing sector. The most important disadvantage of this technology is that the cost of installation and operation is higher compared to its alternatives. However, it provides important advantages to the business enterprises in the application process. At present, it is especially adopted by the large sized enterprises and with chain stores in the international areas. The application results point out that RFID technology provides business enterprises with the important competitive advantage.

Keywords: RFID, retailing sector, RFID technologies, electronic product code

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
138 Text as Reader Device Improving Subjectivity on the Role of Attestation between Interpretative Semiotics and Discursive Linguistics

Authors: Marco Castagna


Proposed paper is aimed to inquire about the relation between text and reader, focusing on the concept of ‘attestation’. Indeed, despite being widely accepted in semiotic research, even today the concept of text remains uncertainly defined. So, it seems to be undeniable that what is called ‘text’ offers an image of internal cohesion and coherence, that makes it possible to analyze it as an object. Nevertheless, this same object remains problematic when it is pragmatically activated by the act of reading. In fact, as for the T.A.R:D.I.S., that is the unique space-temporal vehicle used by the well-known BBC character Doctor Who in his adventures, every text appears to its own readers not only “bigger inside than outside”, but also offering spaces that change according to the different traveller standing in it. In a few words, as everyone knows, this singular condition raises the questions about the gnosiological relation between text and reader. How can a text be considered the ‘same’, even if it can be read in different ways by different subjects? How can readers can be previously provided with knowledge required for ‘understanding’ a text, but at the same time learning something more from it? In order to explain this singular condition it seems useful to start thinking about text as a device more than an object. In other words, this unique status is more clearly understandable when ‘text’ ceases to be considered as a box designed to move meaning from a sender to a recipient (marking the semiotic priority of the “code”) and it starts to be recognized as performative meaning hypothesis, that is discursively configured by one or more forms and empirically perceivable by means of one or more substances. Thus, a text appears as a “semantic hanger”, potentially offered to the “unending deferral of interpretant", and from time to time fixed as “instance of Discourse”. In this perspective, every reading can be considered as an answer to the continuous request for confirming or denying the meaning configuration (the meaning hypothesis) expressed by text. Finally, ‘attestation’ is exactly what regulates this dynamic of request and answer, through which the reader is able to confirm his previous hypothesis on reality or maybe acquire some new ones.Proposed paper is aimed to inquire about the relation between text and reader, focusing on the concept of ‘attestation’. Indeed, despite being widely accepted in semiotic research, even today the concept of text remains uncertainly defined. So, it seems to be undeniable that what is called ‘text’ offers an image of internal cohesion and coherence, that makes it possible to analyze it as an object. Nevertheless, this same object remains problematic when it is pragmatically activated by the act of reading. In fact, as for the T.A.R:D.I.S., that is the unique space-temporal vehicle used by the well-known BBC character Doctor Who in his adventures, every text appears to its own readers not only “bigger inside than outside”, but also offering spaces that change according to the different traveller standing in it. In a few words, as everyone knows, this singular condition raises the questions about the gnosiological relation between text and reader. How can a text be considered the ‘same’, even if it can be read in different ways by different subjects? How can readers can be previously provided with knowledge required for ‘understanding’ a text, but at the same time learning something more from it? In order to explain this singular condition it seems useful to start thinking about text as a device more than an object. In other words, this unique status is more clearly understandable when ‘text’ ceases to be considered as a box designed to move meaning from a sender to a recipient (marking the semiotic priority of the “code”) and it starts to be recognized as performative meaning hypothesis, that is discursively configured by one or more forms and empirically perceivable by means of one or more substances. Thus, a text appears as a “semantic hanger”, potentially offered to the “unending deferral of interpretant", and from time to time fixed as “instance of Discourse”. In this perspective, every reading can be considered as an answer to the continuous request for confirming or denying the meaning configuration (the meaning hypothesis) expressed by text. Finally, ‘attestation’ is exactly what regulates this dynamic of request and answer, through which the reader is able to confirm his previous hypothesis on reality or maybe acquire some new ones.

Keywords: attestation, meaning, reader, text

Procedia PDF Downloads 172
137 Corpus-Based Analysis on the Translatability of Conceptual Vagueness in Traditional Chinese Medicine Classics Huang Di Nei Jing

Authors: Yan Yue


Huang Di Nei Jing (HDNJ) is one of the significant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) classics which lays the foundation of TCM theory and practice. It is an important work for the world to study the ancient civilizations and medical history of China. Language in HDNJ is highly concise and vague, and notably challenging to translate. This paper investigates the translatability of one particular vagueness in HDNJ: the conceptual vagueness which carries the Chinese philosophical and cultural connotations. The corpora tool Sketch Engine is used to provide potential online contexts and word behaviors. Selected two English translations of HDNJ by TCM practitioner and non-practitioner are used to examine frequency and distribution of linguistic features of the translation. It was found the hypothesis about the universals of translated language (explicitation, normalisation) is true in one translation, but it is on the sacrifice of some original contextual connotations. Transliteration is purposefully used in the second translation to retain the original flavor, which is argued as a violation of the principle of relevance in communication because it yields little contextual effects and demands more processing effort of the reader. The translatability of conceptual vagueness in HDNJ is constrained by source language context and the reader’s cognitive environment.

Keywords: corpus-based translation, translatability, TCM classics, vague language

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
136 A Sociolinguistic Approach to the Translation of Children’s Literature: Exploring Identity Issues in the American English Translation of Manolito Gafotas

Authors: Owen Harrington-Fernandez, Pilar Alderete-Diez


Up until recently, translation studies treated children’s literature as something of a marginal preoccupation, but the recent attention that this text type has attracted suggests that it may be fertile ground for research. This paper contributes to this new research avenue by applying a sociolinguistic theoretical framework to explore issues around the intersubjective co-construction of identity in the American English translation of the Spanish children’s story, Manolito Gafotas. The application of Bucholtz and Hall’s framework achieves two objectives: (1) it identifies shifts in the translation of the main character’s behaviour as culturally and morally motivated manipulations, and (2) it demonstrates how the context of translation becomes the very censorship machine that delegitimises the identity of the main character, and, concomitantly, the identity of the implied reader(s). If we take identity to be an intersubjective phenomenon, then it logicall follows that expurgating the identity of the main character necessarily shifts the identity of the implied reader(s) also. It is a double censorship of identity carried out under the auspices of an intellectual colonisation of a Spanish text. After reporting on the results of the analysis, the paper ends by raising the question of censorship in translation, and, more specifically, in children’s literature, in order to promote debate around this topic.

Keywords: censorship, identity, sociolinguistics, translation

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135 First-Year Undergraduate Students' Dilemma with Kinematics Graphs

Authors: Itumeleng Phage


Students’ comprehension of graphs may be affected by the characteristics of the discipline in which the graph is used, the type of the task as well as the background of the students who are the readers or interpreters of the graph. This research study investigated these aspects of the graph comprehension of 152 first-year undergraduate physics students by comparing their responses to corresponding tasks in the mathematics and physics disciplines. The discipline characteristics were analysed for four task-related constructs namely coordinates, representations, area and slope. Students’ responses to corresponding visual decoding and judgement tasks set in mathematics and kinematics contexts were statistically compared. The effects of the participants’ gender, year of school completion and study course were determined as reader characteristics. The results of the empirical study indicated that participants generally transferred their mathematics knowledge on coordinates and representation of straight line graphs to the physics contexts, but not in the cases of parabolic and hyperbolic functions or area under graphs. Insufficient understanding of the slope concept contributed to weak performances on this construct in both mathematics and physics contexts. Discipline characteristics seem to play a vital role in students’ understanding, while reader characteristics had insignificant to medium effects on their responses.

Keywords: kinematics graph, discipline characteristics, constructs, coordinates, representations, area and slope

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134 A Culture-Contrastive Analysis Of The Communication Between Discourse Participants In European Editorials

Authors: Melanie Kerschner


Language is our main means of social interaction. News journalism, especially opinion discourse, holds a powerful position in this context. Editorials can be regarded as encounters of different, partially contradictory relationships between discourse participants constructed through the editorial voice. Their primary goal is to shape public opinion by commenting on events already addressed by other journalistic genres in the given newspaper. In doing so, the author tries to establish a consensus over the negotiated matter (i.e. the news event) with the reader. At the same time, he/she claims authority over the “correct” description and evaluation of an event. Yet, how can the relationship and the interaction between the discourse participants, i.e. the journalist, the reader and the news actors represented in the editorial, be best visualized and studied from a cross-cultural perspective? The present research project attempts to give insights into the role of (media) culture in British, Italian and German editorials. For this purpose the presenter will propose a basic framework: the so called “pyramid of discourse participants”, comprising the author, the reader, two types of news actors and the semantic macro-structure (as meta-level of analysis). Based on this framework, the following questions will be addressed: • Which strategies does the author employ to persuade the reader and to prompt him to give his opinion (in the comment section)? • In which ways (and with which linguistic tools) is editorial opinion expressed? • Does the author use adjectives, adverbials and modal verbs to evaluate news actors, their actions and the current state of affairs or does he/she prefer nominal labels? • Which influence do language choice and the related media culture have on the representation of news events in editorials? • In how far does the social context of a given media culture influence the amount of criticism and the way it is mediated so that it is still culturally-acceptable? The following culture-contrastive study shall examine 45 editorials (i.e. 15 per media culture) from six national quality papers that are similar in distribution, importance and the kind of envisaged readership to make valuable conclusions about culturally-motivated similarities and differences in the coverage and assessment of news events. The thematic orientation of the editorials will be the NSA scandal and the reactions of various countries, as this topic was and still is relevant to each of the three media cultures. Starting out from the “pyramid of discourse participants” as underlying framework, eight different criteria will be assigned to the individual discourse participants in the micro-analysis of the editorials. For the purpose of illustration, a single criterion, referring to the salience of authorial opinion, will be selected to demonstrate how the pyramid of discourse participants can be applied as a basis for empirical analysis. Extracts from the corpus shall furthermore enhance the understanding.

Keywords: Micro-analysis of editorials, culture-contrastive research, media culture, interaction between discourse participants, evaluation

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133 Expression of Stance in Lower- and Upper- Level Students’ Writing in Business Administration at English-Medium University in Burundi

Authors: Clement Ndoricimpa


The expression of stance is highly expected in writing at tertiary level. Through a selection of linguistic and rhetorical elements, writers express commitment, critical distance and build a critically discerning reader in texts. Despite many studies on patterns of stance in students’ academic writing, little may not be known about how English as a Foreign Language students learns to build a critically discerning reader in their texts. Therefore, this study examines patterns of stance in essays written by students majoring in business administration at English-medium University in Burundi as part of classroom assignments. It draws on systemic functional linguistics to analyze qualitatively and quantitatively the data. The quantitative analysis is used to identify the differences in frequency of stance patterns in the essays. The results show a significant difference in the use of boosters by lower- and upper-level students. Lower-level students’ writing contains more boosters and many idiosyncratic sentence structures than do upper-level students’ writing, and upper-level students’ essays contain more hedging and few grammatical mistakes than do lower-level students’ essays. No significant difference in the use of attitude markers and concessive and contrastive expressions. Students in lower- and upper-level do not use attitude markers and disclaimer markers appropriately and accurately. These findings suggest that students should be taught the use of stance patterns in academic writing.

Keywords: academic writing, metadiscourse, stance, student corpora

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132 A Fine String between Weaving the Text and Patching It: Reading beyond the Hidden Symbols and Antithetical Relationships in the Classical and Modern Arabic Poetry

Authors: Rima Abu Jaber-Bransi, Rawya Jarjoura Burbara


This study reveals the extension and continuity between the classical Arabic poetry and modern Arabic poetry through investigation of its ambiguity, symbolism, and antithetical relationships. The significance of this study lies in its exploration and discovering of a new method of reading classical and modern Arabic poetry. The study deals with the Fatimid poetry and discovers a new method to read it. It also deals with the relationship between the apparent and the hidden meanings of words through focusing on how the paradoxical antithetical relationships change the meaning of the whole poem and give it a different dimension through the use of Oxymorons. In our unprecedented research on Oxymoron, we found out that the words in modern Arabic poetry are used in unusual combinations that convey apparent and hidden meanings. In some cases, the poet introduces an image with a symbol of a certain thing, but the reader soon discovers that the symbol includes its opposite, too. The question is: How does the reader find that hidden harmony in that apparent disharmony? The first and most important conclusion of this study is that the Fatimid poetry was written for two types of readers: religious readers who know the religious symbols and the hidden secret meanings behind the words, and ordinary readers who understand the apparent literal meaning of the words. Consequently, the interpretation of the poem is subject to the type of reading. In Fatimid poetry we found out that the hunting-journey is a journey of hidden esoteric knowledge; the Horse is al-Naqib, a religious rank of the investigator and missionary; the Lion is Ali Ibn Abi Talib. The words black and white, day and night, bird, death and murder have different meanings and indications. Our study points out the importance of reading certain poems in certain periods in two different ways: the first depends on a doctrinal interpretation that transforms the external apparent (ẓāher) meanings into internal inner hidden esoteric (bāṭen) ones; the second depends on the interpretation of antithetical relationships between the words in order to reveal meanings that the poet hid for a reader who participates in the processes of creativity. The second conclusion is that the classical poem employed symbols, oxymora and antonymous and antithetical forms to create two poetic texts in one mold and form. We can conclude that this study is pioneering in showing the constant paradoxical relationship between the apparent and the hidden meanings in classical and modern Arabic poetry.

Keywords: apparent, symbol, hidden, antithetical, oxymoron, Sophism, Fatimid poetry

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131 Subject, Language, and Representation: Snyder's Poetics of Emptiness

Authors: Son Hyesook


This project explores the possibility of poetics of emptiness in the poetry of Gary Snyder, one of the most experimental American poets, interpreting his works as an expression of his Buddhist concept, emptiness. This philosophical term demonstrates the lack of intrinsic nature in all phenomena and the absence of an independent, perduring self. Snyder’s poetics of emptiness locates the extralinguistic reality, emptiness, within the contingent nexus of language itself instead of transcending or discarding it. Language, therefore, plays an important role in his poetry, a medium intentionally applied to the carrying out of this Buddhist telos. Snyder’s poetry is characterized by strangeness and disruptiveness of language as is often the case with Asian Zen discourses. The elision of a lyric ‘I’ and transitive verbs, for example, is his grammatic attempt to represent the illusory nature of the self. He replaces the solitary speaker with sparely modified, concrete but generic images to prevent any anthropocentric understanding of the world and to demonstrate human enactment into a harmonious interplay with other elements of life as a part of a vast web of interconnections, where everything is interrelated to every other thing. In many of his poems, Snyder employs grammatical and structural ellipses and paratactical construction to avoid a facile discursive relation and to help the reader illogically imagine the inexpressible, the void. Through various uses of typographical and semantical space, his poetry forces the reader to experience the ‘thought-pause’ and intuitively perceive things-as-they-are. Snyder enacts in his Poetics an alternative to postmodern perspectives on the subject, language, and representation, and revitalizes their skeptical look at any account of human agency and the possibility of language.

Keywords: subject, language, representation, poetics of emptiness

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130 From Vegetarian to Cannibal: A Literary Analysis of a Journey of Innocence in ‘Life of Pi’

Authors: Visvaganthie Moodley


Language use and aesthetic appreciation are integral to meaning-making in prose, as they are in poetry. However, in comparison to poetic analysis, a literary analysis of prose that focuses on linguistics and stylistics is somewhat scarce as it generally requires the study of lengthy texts. Nevertheless, the effect of linguistic and stylistic features in prose as conscious design by authors for creating specific effects and conveying preconceived messages is drawing increasing attention of linguists and literary experts. A close examination of language use in prose can, among a host of literary purposes, convey emotive and cognitive values and contribute to making interpretations about how fictional characters are represented to the imaginative reader. This paper provides a literary analysis of Yann Martel’s narrative of a 14-year-old Indian boy, Pi, who had survived the wreck of a Japanese cargo ship, by focusing on his 227-day journey of tribulations, along with a Bengal tiger, on a lifeboat. The study favours a pluralistic approach blending literary criticism, linguistic analysis and stylistic description. It adopts Leech and Short’s (2007) broad framework of linguistic and stylistic categories (lexical categories, grammatical categories, figures of speech etc. [sic] and context and cohesion) as well as a range of other relevant linguistic phenomena to show how the narrator, Pi, and the author influence the reader’s interpretations of Pi’s character. Such interpretations are made using the lens of Freud’s psychoanalytical theory (which focuses on the interplay of the instinctual id, the ego and the moralistic superego) and Blake’s philosophy of innocence and experience (the two contrary states of the human soul). The paper traces Pi’s transformation from animal-loving, God-fearing vegetarian to brutal animal slayer and cannibal in his journey of survival. By a close examination of the linguistic and stylistic features of the narrative, it argues that, despite evidence of butchery and cannibalism, Pi’s gruesome behaviour is motivated by extreme physiological and psychological duress and not intentional malice. Finally, the paper concludes that the voice of the narrator, Pi, and that of the author, Martel, act as powerful persuasive agents in influencing the reader to respond with a sincere flow of sympathy for Pi and judge him as having retained his innocence in his instinctual need for survival.

Keywords: foregrounding, innocence and experience, lexis, literary analysis, psychoanalytical lens, style

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129 Gender, Language and Body: Literary Representations in Popular Culture Narratives

Authors: Eirini Arvanitaki


Romance has incrementally grown in popularity over the last century. The first Mills & Boon romance novel was published in 1909 and since then romance has not only survived but it has become a long standing genre. There are several reasons behind its durability and success. First, its ability to please and appeal to a mass audience. Romance novels are products of commercial success situated in large scale production, especially if one takes into account the high volume of romance novels published, translated and distributed all around the world every month. Second, what has also contributed to keeping the romance genre alive is the content of the books and their effect on the reader. These are stories of two heterosexual individuals who meet, fall in love, face obstacles and successfully overcome them. Through the love plots, the books address anxieties, concerns and everyday troubles that the average reader can identify with. Additionally, the romance novel is a means of escapism from everyday life and responsibilities as well as a short-lived opportunity to enjoy personal time/space and focus on one’s self. Third, the genre’s ability to adapt to the periods and societies in which it is published has also assisted in prolonging its longevity. This paper discusses the ways in which popular romance authors write and engage with the body. Despite the claim that popular romance narratives adjust their contents in accordance with different time periods and social phenomena, the paper highlights the dissimilarities between writing the female and male body and suggests that women romance writers are yet to break free from phallogocentric law. The examination of the projections of the body and the language used to describe it indicates that these narratives are flexible enough to adjust to twenty-first century but only within the limits of their own conventionality.

Keywords: body, gender, language, literary representations, popular romance narratives, taboo

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128 Analyzing Apposition and the Typology of Specific Reference in Newspaper Discourse in Nigeria

Authors: Monday Agbonica Bello Eje


The language of the print media is characterized by the use of apposition. This linguistic element function strategically in journalistic discourse where it is communicatively necessary to name individuals and provide information about them. Linguistic studies on the language of the print media with bias for apposition have largely dwelt on other areas but the examination of the typology of appositive reference in newspaper discourse. Yet, it is capable of revealing ways writers communicate and provide information necessary for readers to follow and understand the message. The study, therefore, analyses the patterns of appositional occurrences and the typology of reference in newspaper articles. The data were obtained from The Punch and Daily Trust Newspapers. A total of six editions of these newspapers were collected randomly spread over three months. News and feature articles were used in the analysis. Guided by the referential theory of meaning in discourse, the appositions identified were subjected to analysis. The findings show that the semantic relation of coreference and speaker coreference have the highest percentage and frequency of occurrence in the data. This is because the subject matter of news reports and feature articles focuses on humans and the events around them; as a result, readers need to be provided with some form of detail and background information in order to identify as well as follow the discourse. Also, the non-referential relation of absolute synonymy and speaker synonymy no doubt have fewer occurrences and percentages in the analysis. This is tied to a major feature of the language of the media: simplicity. The paper concludes that appositions is mainly used for the purpose of providing the reader with much detail. In this way, the writer transmits information which helps him not only to give detailed yet concise descriptions but also in some way help the reader to follow the discourse.

Keywords: apposition, discourse, newspaper, Nigeria, reference

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127 Academic Literacy: Semantic-Discursive Resource and the Relationship with the Constitution of Genre for the Development of Writing

Authors: Lucia Rottava


The present study focuses on academic literacy and addresses the impact of semantic-discursive resources on the constitution of genres that are produced in such context. The research considers the development of writing in the academic context in Portuguese. Researches that address academic literacy and the characteristics of the texts produced in this context are rare, mainly with focus on the development of writing, considering three variables: the constitution of the writer, the perception of the reader/interlocutor and the organization of the informational text flow. The research aims to map the semantic-discursive resources of the written register in texts of several genres and produced by students in the first semester of the undergraduate course in letters. The hypothesis raised is that writing in the academic environment is not a recurrent literacy practice for these learners and can be explained by the ontogenetic and phylogenetic nature of language development. Qualitative in nature, the present research has as empirical data texts produced in a half-yearly course of Reading and Textual Production; these data result from the proposition of four different writing proposals, in a total of 600 texts. The corpus is analyzed based on semantic-discursive resources, seeking to contemplate relevant aspects of language (grammar, discourse and social context) that reveal the choices made in the reader/writer interrelationship and the organizational flow of the text. Among the semantic-discursive resources, the analysis includes three resources, including (a) appraisal and negotiation to understand the attitudes negotiated (roles of the participants of the discourse and their relationship with the other); (b) ideation to explain the construction of the experience (activities performed and participants); and (c) periodicity to outline the flow of information in the organization of the text according to the genre it instantiates. The results indicate the organizational difficulties of the flow of the text information. Cartography contributes to the understanding of the way writers use language in an effort to present themselves, evaluate someone else’s work, and communicate with readers.

Keywords: academic writing, portuguese mother tongue, semantic-discursive resources, sistemic funcional linguistic

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