Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Search results for: labyrinth

16 Estimation of Coefficient of Discharge of Side Trapezoidal Labyrinth Weir Using Group Method of Data Handling Technique

Authors: M. A. Ansari, A. Hussain, A. Uddin


A side weir is a flow diversion structure provided in the side wall of a channel to divert water from the main channel to a branch channel. The trapezoidal labyrinth weir is a special type of weir in which crest length of the weir is increased to pass higher discharge. Experimental and numerical studies related to the coefficient of discharge of trapezoidal labyrinth weir in an open channel have been presented in the present study. Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) with the transfer function of quadratic polynomial has been used to predict the coefficient of discharge for the side trapezoidal labyrinth weir. A new model is developed for coefficient of discharge of labyrinth weir by regression method. Generalized models for predicting the coefficient of discharge for labyrinth weir using Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) network have also been developed. The prediction based on GMDH model is more satisfactory than those given by traditional regression equations.

Keywords: discharge coefficient, group method of data handling, open channel, side labyrinth weir

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15 Mathematical Modeling of Drip Emitter Discharge of Trapezoidal Labyrinth Channel

Authors: N. Philipova


The influence of the geometric parameters of trapezoidal labyrinth channel on the emitter discharge is investigated in this work. The impact of the dentate angle, the dentate spacing, and the dentate height are studied among the geometric parameters of the labyrinth channel. Numerical simulations of the water flow movement are performed according to central cubic composite design using Commercial codes GAMBIT and FLUENT. Inlet pressure of the dripper is set up to be 1 bar. The objective of this paper is to derive a mathematical model of the emitter discharge depending on the dentate angle, the dentate spacing, the dentate height of the labyrinth channel. As a result, the obtained mathematical model is a second-order polynomial reporting 2-way interactions among the geometric parameters. The dentate spacing has the most important and positive influence on the emitter discharge, followed by the simultaneous impact of the dentate spacing and the dentate height. The dentate angle in the observed interval has no significant effect on the emitter discharge. The obtained model can be used as a basis for a future emitter design.

Keywords: drip irrigation, labyrinth channel hydrodynamics, numerical simulations, Reynolds stress model.

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14 Mathematical Modeling Pressure Losses of Trapezoidal Labyrinth Channel and Bi-Objective Optimization of the Design Parameters

Authors: Nina Philipova


The influence of the geometric parameters of trapezoidal labyrinth channel on the pressure losses along the labyrinth length is investigated in this work. The impact of the dentate height is studied at fixed values of the dentate angle and the dentate spacing. The objective of the work presented in this paper is to derive a mathematical model of the pressure losses along the labyrinth length depending on the dentate height. The numerical simulations of the water flow movement are performed by using Commercial codes ANSYS GAMBIT and FLUENT. Dripper inlet pressure is set up to be 1 bar. As a result, the mathematical model of the pressure losses is determined as a second-order polynomial by means Commercial code STATISTIKA. Bi-objective optimization is performed by using the mean algebraic function of utility. The optimum value of the dentate height is defined at fixed values of the dentate angle and the dentate spacing. The derived model of the pressure losses and the optimum value of the dentate height are used as a basis for a more successful emitter design.

Keywords: drip irrigation, labyrinth channel hydrodynamics, numerical simulations, Reynolds stress model

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13 Performance Evaluation of a Piano Key Weir

Authors: M. Shaheer Ali, Talib Mansoor


The Piano Key Weir (PKW) is a particular shape of labyrinth weir, using up- and/or downstream overhangs. The horizontal rectangular labyrinth shape allows to multiply the crest length for a given weir width. With the increasing demand of power, it is becoming greatly essential to increase the storage capacity of existing dams without neglecting their safety. The present aims at comparing the performance of piano key weirs in respect to the normal sharp-crested weirs. The discharge v/s head data for the piano key weir and normal sharp-crested weir obtained from the experimental study were compared and analysed using regression analysis. Piano key weir was found to perform doubly w.r.t a normal weir. The flow profiles show the parabolic nature of flow and the nappe interference in the inlet keys.

Keywords: crest length, flow profile, labyrinth weir, normal weir, nappe interference, overhangs, piano key weir

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12 The Novel of 'the Adventure of the Secrets': Character in Postmodern Labyrinth, the Problem of Time and Subject

Authors: Nargiz Ismayilova


In Kamal Abdulla's "The Adventure of Mysteries", the plot develops on two parallel lines. While reading the work, the future looks hazy on the background of the present and the past. It is impossible to predict the end of the work in particular. This can be considered the success of the author. The novel has reflected the features of postmodernism. The novel is characterized by a richness of intertwined plots, themes, meta- submission, device (fiction) typical of postmodern prose technique. The introduction and progress of the work takes the reader to the place, which is an unrecognizable unknown for him but at the same time, its native for him very well. Parts of the novel, divided into chapter techniques, force the reader to distinguish mystical repetitions from the artistic circulation of reality. This makes people think directly. Intertextual communication and the variety of fiction, intelligence, and informativeness determine the perspective of the exemplary reader. As is well known, “postmodern novels, which often use intertextual communication and superstructure techniques, focus on expression rather than on the subject, and benefit from history by combining fiction with historical facts, are able to attract attention with their extraordinary foreign fiction.

Keywords: Kamal Abdulla, postmodernism, parallelism, labyrinth, comparison, novel

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11 Joule Self-Heating Effects and Controlling Oxygen Vacancy in La₀.₈Ba₀.₂MnO₃ Ultrathin Films with Nano-Sized Labyrinth Morphology

Authors: Guankai Lin, Wei Tong, Hong Zhu


The electric current induced Joule heating effects have been investigated in La₀.₈Ba₀.₂MnO₃ ultrathin films deposited on LaAlO₃(001) single crystal substrate with smaller lattice constant by using the sol-gel method. By applying moderate bias currents (~ 10 mA), it is found that Joule self-heating simply gives rise to a temperature deviation between the thermostat and the test sample, but the intrinsic ρ(T) relationship measured at a low current (0.1 mA) changes little. However, it is noteworthy that the low-temperature transport behavior degrades from metallic to insulating state after applying higher bias currents ( > 31 mA) in a vacuum. Furthermore, metallic transport can be recovered by placing the degraded film in air. The results clearly suggest that the oxygen vacancy in the La₀.₈Ba₀.₂MnO₃ films is controllable in different atmospheres, particularly with the aid of the Joule self-heating. According to the SEM images, we attribute the controlled oxygen vacancy to the nano-sized labyrinth pattern of the films, where the large surface-to-volume ratio plays a curial role.

Keywords: controlling oxygen vacancy, joule self-heating, manganite, sol-gel method

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10 Cooperation of Unmanned Vehicles for Accomplishing Missions

Authors: Ahmet Ozcan, Onder Alparslan, Anil Sezgin, Omer Cetin


The use of unmanned systems for different purposes has become very popular over the past decade. Expectations from these systems have also shown an incredible increase in this parallel. But meeting the demands of the tasks are often not possible with the usage of a single unmanned vehicle in a mission, so it is necessary to use multiple autonomous vehicles with different abilities together in coordination. Therefore the usage of the same type of vehicles together as a swarm is helped especially to satisfy the time constraints of the missions effectively. In other words, it allows sharing the workload by the various numbers of homogenous platforms together. Besides, it is possible to say there are many kinds of problems that require the usage of the different capabilities of the heterogeneous platforms together cooperatively to achieve successful results. In this case, cooperative working brings additional problems beyond the homogeneous clusters. In the scenario presented as an example problem, it is expected that an autonomous ground vehicle, which is lack of its position information, manage to perform point-to-point navigation without losing its way in a previously unknown labyrinth. Furthermore, the ground vehicle is equipped with very limited sensors such as ultrasonic sensors that can detect obstacles. It is very hard to plan or complete the mission for the ground vehicle by self without lost its way in the unknown labyrinth. Thus, in order to assist the ground vehicle, the autonomous air drone is also used to solve the problem cooperatively. The autonomous drone also has limited sensors like downward looking camera and IMU, and it also lacks computing its global position. In this context, it is aimed to solve the problem effectively without taking additional support or input from the outside, just benefiting capabilities of two autonomous vehicles. To manage the point-to-point navigation in a previously unknown labyrinth, the platforms have to work together coordinated. In this paper, cooperative work of heterogeneous unmanned systems is handled in an applied sample scenario, and it is mentioned that how to work together with an autonomous ground vehicle and the autonomous flying platform together in a harmony to take advantage of different platform-specific capabilities. The difficulties of using heterogeneous multiple autonomous platforms in a mission are put forward, and the successful solutions are defined and implemented against the problems like spatially distributed tasks planning, simultaneous coordinated motion, effective communication, and sensor fusion.

Keywords: unmanned systems, heterogeneous autonomous vehicles, coordination, task planning

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9 Diagnosis of Intermittent High Vibration Peaks in Industrial Gas Turbine Using Advanced Vibrations Analysis

Authors: Abubakar Rashid, Muhammad Saad, Faheem Ahmed


This paper provides a comprehensive study pertaining to diagnosis of intermittent high vibrations on an industrial gas turbine using detailed vibrations analysis, followed by its rectification. Engro Polymer & Chemicals Limited, a Chlor-Vinyl complex located in Pakistan has a captive combined cycle power plant having two 28 MW gas turbines (make Hitachi) & one 15 MW steam turbine. In 2018, the organization faced an issue of high vibrations on one of the gas turbines. These high vibration peaks appeared intermittently on both compressor’s drive end (DE) & turbine’s non-drive end (NDE) bearing. The amplitude of high vibration peaks was between 150-170% on the DE bearing & 200-300% on the NDE bearing from baseline values. In one of these episodes, the gas turbine got tripped on “High Vibrations Trip” logic actuated at 155µm. Limited instrumentation is available on the machine, which is monitored with GE Bently Nevada 3300 system having two proximity probes installed at Turbine NDE, Compressor DE &at Generator DE & NDE bearings. Machine’s transient ramp-up & steady state data was collected using ADRE SXP & DSPI 408. Since only 01 key phasor is installed at Turbine high speed shaft, a derived drive key phasor was configured in ADRE to obtain low speed shaft rpm required for data analysis. By analyzing the Bode plots, Shaft center line plot, Polar plot & orbit plots; rubbing was evident on Turbine’s NDE along with increased bearing clearance of Turbine’s NDE radial bearing. The subject bearing was then inspected & heavy deposition of carbonized coke was found on the labyrinth seals of bearing housing with clear rubbing marks on shaft & housing covering at 20-25 degrees on the inner radius of labyrinth seals. The collected coke sample was tested in laboratory & found to be the residue of lube oil in the bearing housing. After detailed inspection & cleaning of shaft journal area & bearing housing, new radial bearing was installed. Before assembling the bearing housing, cleaning of bearing cooling & sealing air lines was also carried out as inadequate flow of cooling & sealing air can accelerate coke formation in bearing housing. The machine was then taken back online & data was collected again using ADRE SXP & DSPI 408 for health analysis. The vibrations were found in acceptable zone as per ISO standard 7919-3 while all other parameters were also within vendor defined range. As a learning from subject case, revised operating & maintenance regime has also been proposed to enhance machine’s reliability.

Keywords: ADRE, bearing, gas turbine, GE Bently Nevada, Hitachi, vibration

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8 Rotary Machine Sealing Oscillation Frequencies and Phase Shift Analysis

Authors: Liliia N. Butymova, Vladimir Ya Modorskii


To ensure the gas transmittal GCU's efficient operation, leakages through the labyrinth packings (LP) should be minimized. Leakages can be minimized by decreasing the LP gap, which in turn depends on thermal processes and possible rotor vibrations and is designed to ensure absence of mechanical contact. Vibration mitigation allows to minimize the LP gap. It is advantageous to research influence of processes in the dynamic gas-structure system on LP vibrations. This paper considers influence of rotor vibrations on LP gas dynamics and influence of the latter on the rotor structure within the FSI unidirectional dynamical coupled problem. Dependences of nonstationary parameters of gas-dynamic process in LP on rotor vibrations under various gas speeds and pressures, shaft rotation speeds and vibration amplitudes, and working medium features were studied. The programmed multi-processor ANSYS CFX was chosen as a numerical computation tool. The problem was solved using PNRPU high-capacity computer complex. Deformed shaft vibrations are replaced with an unyielding profile that moves in the fixed annulus "up-and-down" according to set harmonic rule. This solves a nonstationary gas-dynamic problem and determines time dependence of total gas-dynamic force value influencing the shaft. Pressure increase from 0.1 to 10 MPa causes growth of gas-dynamic force oscillation amplitude and frequency. The phase shift angle between gas-dynamic force oscillations and those of shaft displacement decreases from 3π/4 to π/2. Damping constant has maximum value under 1 MPa pressure in the gap. Increase of shaft oscillation frequency from 50 to 150 Hz under P=10 MPa causes growth of gas-dynamic force oscillation amplitude. Damping constant has maximum value at 50 Hz equaling 1.012. Increase of shaft vibration amplitude from 20 to 80 µm under P=10 MPa causes the rise of gas-dynamic force amplitude up to 20 times. Damping constant increases from 0.092 to 0.251. Calculations for various working substances (methane, perfect gas, air at 25 ˚С) prove the minimum gas-dynamic force persistent oscillating amplitude under P=0.1 MPa being observed in methane, and maximum in the air. Frequency remains almost unchanged and the phase shift in the air changes from 3π/4 to π/2. Calculations for various working substances (methane, perfect gas, air at 25 ˚С) prove the maximum gas-dynamic force oscillating amplitude under P=10 MPa being observed in methane, and minimum in the air. Air demonstrates surging. Increase of leakage speed from 0 to 20 m/s through LP under P=0.1 MPa causes the gas-dynamic force oscillating amplitude to decrease by 3 orders and oscillation frequency and the phase shift to increase 2 times and stabilize. Increase of leakage speed from 0 to 20 m/s in LP under P=1 MPa causes gas-dynamic force oscillating amplitude to decrease by almost 4 orders. The phase shift angle increases from π/72 to π/2. Oscillations become persistent. Flow rate proved to influence greatly on pressure oscillations amplitude and a phase shift angle. Work medium influence depends on operation conditions. At pressure growth, vibrations are mostly affected in methane (of working substances list considered), and at pressure decrease, in the air at 25 ˚С.

Keywords: aeroelasticity, labyrinth packings, oscillation phase shift, vibration

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7 Intelligent Adaptive Learning in a Changing Environment

Authors: G. Valentis, Q. Berthelot


Nowadays the trend to develop ever more intelligent and autonomous systems often takes its inspiration in the living beings on Earth. Some simple isolated systems are able, once brought together, to form a strong and reliable system. When trying to adapt the idea to man-made systems it is not possible to include in their program everything the system may encounter during its life cycle. It is, thus, necessary to make the system able to take decisions based on other criteria such as its past experience, i.e. to make the system learn on its own. However, at some point the acquired knowledge depends also on environment. So the question is: if system environment is modified, how could the system respond to it quickly and appropriately enough? Here, starting from reinforcement learning to rate its decisions, and using adaptive learning algorithms for gain and loss reward, the system is made able to respond to changing environment and to adapt its knowledge as time passes. Application is made to a robot finding an exit in a labyrinth.

Keywords: reinforcement learning, neural network, autonomous systems, adaptive learning, changing environment

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6 Spatial Transformation of Heritage Area as The Impact of Tourism Activity (Case Study: Kauman Village, Surakarta City, Central Java, Indonesia

Authors: Nafiah Solikhah Thoha


One area that has spatial character as Heritage area is Kauman Villages. Kauman village in The City of Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia was formed in 1757 by Paku Buwono III as the King of Kasunanan kingdom (Mataram Kingdom) for Kasunanan kingdom courtiers and scholars of Madrasa. Spatial character of Kauman village influenced by Islamic planning and socio-cultural rules of Kasunanan Kingdom. As traditional settlements influenced by Islamic planning, the Grand Mosque is a binding part of the whole area. Circulation pattern forming network (labyrinth) with narrow streets that ended at the Grand Mosque. The outdoor space can be used for circulation. Social activity is dominated by step movement from one place to a different place. Stalemate (the fina/cul de sac) generally only passable on foot, bicycles, and motorcycles. While the pass (main and branch) can be traversed by motor, vehicles. Kauman village has an area that can not be used as a public road that penetrates and serves as a liaison between the outside world to the other. Hierarchy of hall in Kauman village shows that the existence of a space is getting into more important. Firstly, woman in Kauman make the handmade batik for themself. In 2005 many people improving batik tradisional into commercial, and developed program named "Batik Tourism village of Kauman". That program affects the spatial transformations. This study aimed to explore the influence of tourism program towards spatial transformations. The factors that studied are the organization of space, circulation patterns, hierarchical space, and orientation through the descriptive-evaluation approach methods. Based on the study, tourism activity engenders transformations on the spatial scale (macro), residential block (mezo), homes (micro). First, the Grand Mosque and madrasa (religious school) as a binding zoning; tangle of roads as forming the structure of the area developed as a liaison with outside Kauman; organization of space in the residential of batik entrepreneurs firstly just a residential, then develop into residential, factory of batik including showroom. Second, the circulation pattern forming network (labyrinth) and ends at the Grand Mosque. Third, the hierarchy in the form of public space (the shari), semi-public, and private (the fina/culdesac) is no longer to provide protection to women, only as hierarchy of circulation path. Fourth, cluster building orientation does not follow the kiblat direction or axis oriented to cosmos, but influence by the new function as the showroom. It was need the direction of the main road. Kauman grow as an appropriate area for the community. During its development, the settlement function changes according to community activities, especially economic activities. The new function areas as tourism area affect spatial pattern of Kauman village. Spatial existence and activity as a local wisdom that has been done for generations have meaning of holistic, encompassing socio-cultural sustainability, economics, and the heritage area. By reviewing the local wisdom and the way of life of that society, we can learn how to apply the culture as education for sustainable of heritage area.

Keywords: impact of tourism, Kauman village, spatial transformation, sustainable of heritage area

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5 Diagnosis and Resolution of Intermittent High Vibration Spikes at Exhaust Bearing of Mitsubishi H-25 Gas Turbine using Shaft Vibration Analysis and Detailed Root Cause Analysis

Authors: Fahad Qureshi


This paper provides detailed study on the diagnosis of intermittent high vibration spikes at exhaust bearing (Non-Drive End) of Mitsubishi H-25 gas turbine installed in a petrochemical plant in Pakistan. The diagnosis is followed by successful root cause analysis of the issue and recommendations for improving the reliability of machine. Engro Polymer and Chemicals (EPCL), a Chlor Vinyl complex, has a captive power plant consisting of one combined cycle power plant (CCPP), having two gas turbines each having 25 MW capacity (make: Hitachi) and one extraction condensing steam turbine having 15 MW capacity (make: HTC). Besides, one 6.75 MW SGT-200 1S gas turbine (make: Alstom) is also available. In 2018, the organization faced an issue of intermittent high vibration at exhaust bearing of one of H-25 units having tag GT-2101 A, which eventually led to tripping of machine at configured securities. Since the machine had surpassed 64,000 running hours and major inspection was also due, so bearings inspection was performed. Inspection revealed excessive coke deposition at labyrinth where evidence of rotor rub was also present. Bearing clearance was also at upper limit, and slight babbitt (soft metal) chip off was observed at one of its pads so it was preventively replaced. The unit was restated successfully and exhibited no abnormality until October 2020, when these spikes reoccurred, leading to machine trip. Recurrence of the issue within two years indicated that root cause was not properly addressed, so this paper furthers the discussion on in-depth analysis of findings and establishes successful root cause analysis, which captured significant learnings both in terms of machine design deficiencies and gaps in operation & maintenance (O & M) regime. Lastly, revised O& M regime along with set of recommendations are proposed to avoid recurrence.

Keywords: exhaust side bearing, Gas turbine, rubbing, vibration

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4 Towards a Deconstructive Text: Beyond Language and the Politics of Absences in Samuel Beckett’s Waiting for Godot

Authors: Afia Shahid


The writing of Samuel Beckett is associated with meaning in the meaninglessness and the production of what he calls ‘literature of unword’. The casual escape from the world of words in the form of silences and pauses, in his play Waiting for Godot, urges to ask question of their existence and ultimately leads to investigate the theory behind their use in the play. This paper proposes that these absences (silence and pause) in Beckett’s play force to think ‘beyond’ language. This paper asks how silence and pause in Beckett’s text speak for the emergence of poststructuralist text. It aims to identify the significant features of the philosophy of deconstruction in the play of Beckett to demystify the hostile complicity between literature and philosophy. With the interpretive paradigm of poststructuralism this research focuses on the text as a research data. It attempts to delineate the relationship between poststructuralist theoretical concerns and text of Beckett. Keeping in view the theoretical concerns of Poststructuralist theorist Jacques Derrida, the main concern of the discussion is directed towards the notion of ‘beyond’ language into the absences that are aimed at silencing the existing discourse with the ‘radical irony’ of this anti-formal art that contains its own denial and thus represents the idea of ceaseless questioning and radical contradiction in art and any text. This article asks how text of Beckett vibrates with loud silence and has disrupted language to demonstrate the emptiness of words and thus exploring the limitless void of absences. Beckett’s text resonates with silence and pause that is neither negation nor affirmation rather a poststructuralist’s suspension of reality that is ever changing with the undecidablity of all meanings. Within the theoretical notion of Derrida’s Différance this study interprets silence and pause in Beckett’s art. The silence and pause behave like Derrida’s Différance and have questioned their own existence in the text to deconstruct any definiteness and finality of reality to extend an undecidable threshold of poststructuralists that aims to evade the ‘labyrinth of language’.

Keywords: Différance, language, pause, poststructuralism, silence, text

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3 Leadership Lessons from Female Executives in the South African Oil Industry

Authors: Anthea Carol Nefdt


In this article, observations are drawn from a number of interviews conducted with female executives in the South African Oil Industry in 2017. Globally, the oil industry represents one of the most male-dominated organisational structures as well as cultures in the business world. Some of the remarkable women, who hold upper management positions, have not only emerged from the science and finance spheres (equally gendered organisations) but also navigated their way through an aggressive, patriarchal atmosphere of rivalry and competition. We examine various mythology associated with the industry, such as the cowboy myth, the frontier ideology and the queen bee syndrome directed at female executives. One of the themes to emerge from my interviews was the almost unanimous rejection of the ‘glass ceiling’ metaphor favoured by some Feminists. The women of the oil industry rather affirmed a picture of their rise to leadership positions through a strategic labyrinth of challenges and obstacles both in terms of gender and race. This article aims to share the insights of women leaders in a complex industry through both their reflections and a theoretical Feminist lens. The study is located within the South African context and given our historical legacy, it was optimal to use an intersectional approach which would allow issues of race, gender, ethnicity and language to emerge. A qualitative research methodological approach was employed as well as a thematic interpretative analysis to analyse and interpret the data. This research methodology was used precisely because it encourages and acknowledged the experiences women have and places these experiences at the centre of the research. Multiple methods of recruitment of the research participants was utilised. The initial method of recruitment was snowballing sampling, the second method used was purposive sampling. In addition to this, semi-structured interviews gave the participants an opportunity to ask questions, add information and have discussions on issues or aspects of the research area which was of interest to them. One of the key objectives of the study was to investigate if there was a difference in the leadership styles of men and women. Findings show that despite the wealth of literature on the topic, to the contrary some women do not perceive a significant difference in men and women’s leadership style. However other respondents felt that there were some important differences in the experiences of men and women superiors although they hesitated to generalise from these experiences Further findings suggest that although the oil industry provides unique challenges to women as a gendered organization, it also incorporates various progressive initiatives for their advancement.

Keywords: petroleum industry, gender, feminism, leadership

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2 The Significance of Urban Space in Death Trilogy of Alejandro González Iñárritu

Authors: Marta Kaprzyk


The cinema of Alejandro González Iñárritu hasn’t been subjected to a lot of detailed analysis yet, what makes it an exceptionally interesting research material. The purpose of this presentation is to discuss the significance of urban space in three films of this Mexican director, that forms Death Trilogy: ‘Amores Perros’ (2000), ‘21 Grams’ (2003) and ‘Babel’ (2006). The fact that in the aforementioned movies the urban space itself becomes an additional protagonist with its own identity, psychology and the ability to transform and affect other characters, in itself warrants for independent research and analysis. Independently, such mode of presenting urban space has another function; it enables the director to complement the rest of characters. The basis for methodology of this description of cinematographic space is to treat its visual layer as a point of departure for a detailed analysis. At the same time, the analysis itself will be supported by recognised academic theories concerning special issues, which are transformed here into essential tools necessary to describe the world (mise-en-scène) created by González Iñárritu. In ‘Amores perros’ the Mexico City serves as a scenery – a place full of contradictions- in the movie depicted as a modern conglomerate and an urban jungle, as well as a labyrinth of poverty and violence. In this work stylistic tropes can be found in an intertextual dialogue of the director with photographies of Nan Goldin and Mary Ellen Mark. The story recounted in ‘21 Grams’, the most tragic piece in the trilogy, is characterised by almost hyperrealistic sadism. It takes place in Memphis, which on the screen turns into an impersonal formation full of heterotopias described by Michel Foucault and non-places, as defined by Marc Augé in his essay. By contrast, the main urban space in ‘Babel’ is Tokio, which seems to perfectly correspond with the image of places discussed by Juhani Pallasmaa in his works concerning the reception of the architecture by ‘pathological senses’ in the modern (or, even more adequately, postmodern) world. It’s portrayed as a city full of buildings that look so surreal, that they seem to be completely unsuitable for the humans to move between them. Ultimately, the aim of this paper is to demonstrate the coherence of the manner in which González Iñárritu designs urban spaces in his Death Trilogy. In particular, the author attempts to examine the imperative role of the cities that form three specific microcosms in which the protagonists of the Mexican director live their overwhelming tragedies.

Keywords: cinematographic space, Death Trilogy, film Studies, González Iñárritu Alejandro, urban space

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1 Crisis In/Out, Emergent, and Adaptive Urban Organisms

Authors: Alessandra Swiny, Michalis Georgiou, Yiorgos Hadjichristou


This paper focuses on the questions raised through the work of Unit 5: ‘In/Out of crisis, emergent and adaptive’; an architectural research-based studio at the University of Nicosia. It focusses on sustainable architectural and urban explorations tackling with the ever growing crises in its various types, phases and locations. ‘Great crisis situations’ are seen as ‘great chances’ that trigger investigations for further development and evolution of the built environment in an ultimate sustainable approach. The crisis is taken as an opportunity to rethink the urban and architectural directions as new forces for inventions leading to emergent and adaptive built environments. The Unit 5’s identity and environment facilitates the students to respond optimistically, alternatively and creatively towards the global current crisis. Mark Wigley’s notion that “crises are ultimately productive” and “They force invention” intrigued and defined the premises of the Unit. ‘Weather and nature are coauthors of the built environment’ Jonathan Hill states in his ‘weather architecture’ discourse. The weather is constantly changing and new environments, the subnatures are created which derived from the human activities David Gissen explains. The above set of premises triggered innovative responses by the Unit’s students. They thoroughly investigated the various kinds of crisis and their causes in relation to their various types of Terrains. The tools used for the research and investigation were chosen in contradictive pairs to generate further crisis situations: The re-used/salvaged competed with the new, the handmade rivalling with the fabrication, the analogue juxtaposed with digital. Students were asked to delve into state of art technologies in order to propose sustainable emergent and adaptive architectures and Urbanities, having though always in mind that the human and the social aspects of the community should be the core of the investigation. The resulting unprecedented spatial conditions and atmospheres of the emergent new ways of living are deemed to be the ultimate aim of the investigation. Students explored a variety of sites and crisis conditions such as: The vague terrain of the Green Line in Nicosia, the lost footprints of the sinking Venice, the endangered Australian coral reefs, the earthquake torn town of Crevalcore, and the decaying concrete urbanscape of Athens. Among other projects, ‘the plume project’ proposes a cloud-like, floating and almost dream-like living environment with unprecedented spatial conditions to the inhabitants of the coal mine of Centralia, USA, not just to enable them to survive but even to prosper in this unbearable environment due to the process of the captured plumes of smoke and heat. Existing water wells inspire inversed vertical structures creating a new living underground network, protecting the nomads from catastrophic sand storms in the Araoune of Mali. “Inverted utopia: Lost things in the sand”, weaves a series of tea-houses and a library holding lost artifacts and transcripts into a complex underground labyrinth by the utilization of the sand solidification technology. Within this methodology, crisis is seen as a mechanism for allowing an emergence of new and fascinating ultimate sustainable future cultures and cities.

Keywords: adaptive built environments, crisis as opportunity, emergent urbanities, forces for inventions

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