Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 477

Search results for: anti-collision protocols

477 Structuring Taiwanese Elementary School English Teachers' Professional Dialogue about Teaching and Learning through Protocols

Authors: Chin-Wen Chien

Abstract:

Protocols are tools that help teachers inquire into the teaching and professional learning during the professional dialogue. This study focused on the integration of protocols into elementary school English teachers’ professional dialogue and discussed the influence of protocols on teachers’ teaching and learning. Based on the analysis of documents, observations, and interviews, this study concluded that with the introduction of protocols to elementary school English teachers, three major protocols were used during their professional dialogue. These protocols led the teachers to gain professional learning in content knowledge and pedagogical content knowledge. However, the facilitators’ lack of experience in using protocols led to interruptions during the professional dialogue. Suggestions for effective protocol-based professional dialogue are provided.

Keywords: protocols, professional learning, professional dialogue, classroom practice

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
476 Comparative Study of Ad Hoc Routing Protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks for Smart City

Authors: Khadija Raissi, Bechir Ben Gouissem

Abstract:

In this paper, we perform the investigation of some routing protocols in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Network (VANET) context. Indeed, we study the efficiency of protocols like Dynamic Source Routing (DSR), Ad hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing (AODV), Destination Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Optimized Link State Routing convention (OLSR) and Vehicular Multi-hop algorithm for Stable Clustering (VMASC) in terms of packet delivery ratio (PDR) and throughput. The performance evaluation and comparison between the studied protocols shows that the VMASC is the best protocols regarding fast data transmission and link stability in VANETs. The validation of all results is done by the NS3 simulator.

Keywords: VANET, smart city, AODV, OLSR, DSR, OLSR, VMASC, routing protocols, NS3

Procedia PDF Downloads 214
475 Mechanism for Network Security via Routing Protocols Estimated with Network Simulator 2 (NS-2)

Authors: Rashid Mahmood, Muhammad Sufyan, Nasir Ahmed

Abstract:

The MANETs have lessened transportation and decentralized network. There are numerous basis of routing protocols. We derived the MANETs protocol into three major categories like Reactive, Proactive and hybrid. In these protocols, we discussed only some protocols like Distance Sequenced Distance Vector (DSDV), Ad hoc on Demand Distance Vector (AODV) and Dynamic Source Routing (DSR). The AODV and DSR are both reactive type of protocols. On the other hand, DSDV is proactive type protocol here. We compare these routing protocols for network security estimated by network simulator (NS-2). In this dissertation some parameters discussed such as simulation time, packet size, number of node, packet delivery fraction, push time and speed etc. We will construct all these parameters on routing protocols under suitable conditions for network security measures.

Keywords: DSDV, AODV, DSR NS-2, PDF, push time

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
474 Routing Metrics and Protocols for Wireless Mesh Networks

Authors: Samira Kalantary, Zohre Saatzade

Abstract:

Wireless Mesh Networks (WMNs) are low-cost access networks built on cooperative routing over a backbone composed of stationary wireless routers. WMNs must deal with the highly unstable wireless medium. Thus, routing metrics and protocols are evolving by designing algorithms that consider link quality to choose the best routes. In this work, we analyse the state of the art in WMN metrics and propose taxonomy for WMN routing protocols. Performance measurements of a wireless mesh network deployed using various routing metrics are presented and corroborate our analysis.

Keywords: wireless mesh networks, routing protocols, routing metrics, bioinformatics

Procedia PDF Downloads 347
473 Performance Comparison of Reactive, Proactive and Hybrid Routing Protocols in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: Kumar Manoj, Ramesh Kumar, Kumari Arti, Kumar Prashant

Abstract:

Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyses these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show that how pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, data traffic sent, throughput, retransmission attempts.

Keywords: MANET, AODV, DSDV, DSR, ZRP

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
472 Performance Analysis and Energy Consumption of Routing Protocol in Manet Using Grid Topology

Authors: Vivek Kumar Singh, Tripti Singh

Abstract:

An ad hoc wireless network consists of mobile networks which creates an underlying architecture for communication without the help of traditional fixed-position routers. Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector (AODV) is a routing protocol used for Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET). Nevertheless, the architecture must maintain communication routes although the hosts are mobile and they have limited transmission range. There are different protocols for handling the routing in the mobile environment. Routing protocols used in fixed infrastructure networks cannot be efficiently used for mobile ad-hoc networks, so that MANET requires different protocols. This paper presents the performance analysis of the routing protocols used various parameter-patterns with Two-ray model.

Keywords: AODV, packet transmission rate, pause time, ZRP, QualNet 6.1

Procedia PDF Downloads 503
471 Antibiotic Guideline Adherence

Authors: I. A. Harris, J. M. Naylor

Abstract:

Antibiotic guidelines are published in order to reduce the risk of perioperative infection in orthopaedics. We surveyed 20 orthopaedic hospitals in Australia to determine their protocols for antibiotic prophylaxis around joint replacement surgery. We tested the protocols against Australian guidelines. We found that less than half of all protocols adhered to Australian guidelines. This indicates that current practice may lead to increased infection rates and increased antibiotic resistance.

Keywords: antibiotics, practice guidelines, orthopaedic surgery, joint replacement

Procedia PDF Downloads 304
470 Wireless Sensor Network Energy Efficient and QoS-Aware MAC Protocols: A Survey

Authors: Bashir Abdu Muzakkari, Mohamad Afendee Mohamad, Mohd Fadzil Abdul Kadir

Abstract:

Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) is an aggregation of several tiny, low-cost sensor nodes, spatially distributed to monitor physical or environmental status. WSN is constantly changing because of the rapid technological advancements in sensor elements such as radio, battery and operating systems. The Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols remain very vital in the WSN because of its role in coordinating communication amongst the sensors. Other than battery consumption, packet collision, network lifetime and latency are factors that largely depend on WSN MAC protocol and these factors have been widely treated in recent days. In this paper, we survey some latest proposed WSN Contention-based, Scheduling-based and Hybrid MAC protocols while presenting an examination, correlation of advantages and limitations of each protocol. Concentration is directed towards investigating the treatment of Quality of Service (QoS) performance metrics within these particular protocols. The result shows that majority of the protocols leaned towards energy conservation. We, therefore, believe that other performance metrics of guaranteed QoS such as latency, throughput, packet loss, network and bandwidth availability may play a critical role in the design of future MAC protocols for WSNs.

Keywords: WSN, QoS, energy consumption, MAC protocol

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
469 The Impact of Malicious Attacks on the Performance of Routing Protocols in Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks

Authors: Habib Gorine, Rabia Saleh

Abstract:

Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks are the special type of wireless networks which share common security requirements with other networks such as confidentiality, integrity, authentication, and availability, which need to be addressed in order to secure data transfer through the network. Their routing protocols are vulnerable to various malicious attacks which could have a devastating consequence on data security. In this paper, three types of attacks such as selfish, gray hole, and black hole attacks have been applied to the two most important routing protocols in MANET named dynamic source routing and ad-hoc on demand distance vector in order to analyse and compare the impact of these attacks on the Network performance in terms of throughput, average delay, packet loss, and consumption of energy using NS2 simulator.

Keywords: MANET, wireless networks, routing protocols, malicious attacks, wireless networks simulation

Procedia PDF Downloads 210
468 NFC Communications with Mutual Authentication Based on Limited-Use Session Keys

Authors: Chalee Thammarat

Abstract:

Mobile phones are equipped with increased short-range communication functionality called Near Field Communication (or NFC for short). NFC needs no pairing between devices but suitable for little amounts of data in a very restricted area. A number of researchers presented authentication techniques for NFC communications, however, they still lack necessary authentication, particularly mutual authentication and security qualifications. This paper suggests a new authentication protocol for NFC communication that gives mutual authentication between devices. The mutual authentication is a one of property, of security that protects replay and man-in-the-middle (MitM) attack. The proposed protocols deploy a limited-use offline session key generation and use of distribution technique to increase security and make our protocol lightweight. There are four sub-protocols: NFCAuthv1 is suitable for identification and access control and NFCAuthv2 is suitable for the NFC-enhanced phone by a POS terminal for digital and physical goods and services.

Keywords: cryptographic protocols, NFC, near field communications, security protocols, mutual authentication, network security

Procedia PDF Downloads 343
467 Reactive Analysis of Different Protocol in Mobile Ad Hoc Network

Authors: Manoj Kumar

Abstract:

Routing protocols have a central role in any mobile ad hoc network (MANET). There are many routing protocols that exhibit different performance levels in different scenarios. In this paper, we compare AODV, DSDV, DSR, and ZRP routing protocol in mobile ad hoc networks to determine the best operational conditions for each protocol. We analyze these routing protocols by extensive simulations in OPNET simulator and show how to pause time and the number of nodes affect their performance. In this study, performance is measured in terms of control traffic received, control traffic sent, data traffic received, sent data traffic, throughput, retransmission attempts.

Keywords: AODV, DSDV, DSR, ZRP

Procedia PDF Downloads 392
466 Routing Protocol in Ship Dynamic Positioning Based on WSN Clustering Data Fusion System

Authors: Zhou Mo, Dennis Chow

Abstract:

In the dynamic positioning system (DPS) for vessels, the reliable information transmission between each note basically relies on the wireless protocols. From the perspective of cluster-based routing protocols for wireless sensor networks, the data fusion technology based on the sleep scheduling mechanism and remaining energy in network layer is proposed, which applies the sleep scheduling mechanism to the routing protocols, considering the remaining energy of node and location information when selecting cluster-head. The problem of uneven distribution of nodes in each cluster is solved by the Equilibrium. At the same time, Classified Forwarding Mechanism as well as Redelivery Policy strategy is adopted to avoid congestion in the transmission of huge amount of data, reduce the delay in data delivery and enhance the real-time response. In this paper, a simulation test is conducted to improve the routing protocols, which turn out to reduce the energy consumption of nodes and increase the efficiency of data delivery.

Keywords: DPS for vessel, wireless sensor network, data fusion, routing protocols

Procedia PDF Downloads 454
465 A Review of Test Protocols for Assessing Coating Performance of Water Ballast Tank Coatings

Authors: Emmanuel A. Oriaifo, Noel Perera, Alan Guy, Pak. S. Leung, Kian T. Tan

Abstract:

Concerns on corrosion and effective coating protection of double hull tankers and bulk carriers in service have been raised especially in water ballast tanks (WBTs). Test protocols/methodologies specifically that which is incorporated in the International Maritime Organisation (IMO), Performance Standard for Protective Coatings for Dedicated Sea Water ballast tanks (PSPC) are being used to assess and evaluate the performance of the coatings for type approval prior to their application in WBTs. However, some of the type approved coatings may be applied as very thick films to less than ideally prepared steel substrates in the WBT. As such films experience hygrothermal cycling from operating and environmental conditions, they become embrittled which may ultimately result in cracking. This embrittlement of the coatings is identified as an undesirable feature in the PSPC but is not mentioned in the test protocols within it. There is therefore renewed industrial research aimed at understanding this issue in order to eliminate cracking and achieve the intended coating lifespan of 15 years in good condition. This paper will critically review test protocols currently used for assessing and evaluating coating performance, particularly the IMO PSPC.

Keywords: corrosion test, hygrothermal cycling, coating test protocols, water ballast tanks

Procedia PDF Downloads 355
464 Performance Analysis of Ad-Hoc Network Routing Protocols

Authors: I. Baddari, A. Riahla, M. Mezghich

Abstract:

Today in the literature, we discover a lot of routing algorithms which some have been the subject of normalization. Two great classes Routing algorithms are defined, the first is the class reactive algorithms and the second that of algorithms proactive. The aim of this work is to make a comparative study between some routing algorithms. Two comparisons are considered. The first will focus on the protocols of the same class and second class on algorithms of different classes (one reactive and the other proactive). Since they are not based on analytical models, the exact evaluation of some aspects of these protocols is challenging. Simulations have to be done in order to study their performances. Our simulation is performed in NS2 (Network Simulator 2). It identified a classification of the different routing algorithms studied in a metrics such as loss of message, the time transmission, mobility, etc.

Keywords: ad-hoc network routing protocol, simulation, NS2, delay, packet loss, wideband, mobility

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
463 Performance Evaluation of DSR and OLSR Routing Protocols in MANET Using Varying Pause Time

Authors: Yassine Meraihi, Dalila Acheli, Rabah Meraihi

Abstract:

MANET for Mobile Ad hoc NETwork is a collection of wireless mobile nodes that communicates with each other without using any existing infrastructure, access point or centralized administration, due to the higher mobility and limited radio transmission range, routing is an important issue in ad hoc network, so in order to ensure reliable and efficient route between to communicating nodes quickly, an appropriate routing protocol is needed. In this paper, we present the performance analysis of two mobile ad hoc network routing protocols namely DSR and OLSR using NS2.34, the performance is determined on the basis of packet delivery ratio, throughput, average jitter and end to end delay with varying pause time.

Keywords: DSR, OLSR, quality of service, routing protocols, MANET

Procedia PDF Downloads 444
462 The Internet of Things Ecosystem: Survey of the Current Landscape, Identity Relationship Management, Multifactor Authentication Mechanisms, and Underlying Protocols

Authors: Nazli W. Hardy

Abstract:

A critical component in the Internet of Things (IoT) ecosystem is the need for secure and appropriate transmission, processing, and storage of the data. Our current forms of authentication, and identity and access management do not suffice because they are not designed to service cohesive, integrated, interconnected devices, and service applications. The seemingly endless opportunities of IoT are in fact circumscribed on multiple levels by concerns such as trust, privacy, security, loss of control, and related issues. This paper considers multi-factor authentication (MFA) mechanisms and cohesive identity relationship management (IRM) standards. It also surveys messaging protocols that are appropriate for the IoT ecosystem.

Keywords: identity relation management, multifactor authentication, protocols, survey of internet of things ecosystem

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
461 A Review of Routing Protocols for Mobile Ad-Hoc NETworks (MANET)

Authors: Hafiza Khaddija Saman, Muhammad Sufyan

Abstract:

The increase in availability and popularity of mobile wireless devices has led researchers to develop a wide variety of Mobile Ad-hoc Networking (MANET) protocols to exploit the unique communication opportunities presented by these devices. Devices are able to communicate directly using the wireless spectrum in a peer-to-peer fashion, and route messages through intermediate nodes, however, the nature of wireless shared communication and mobile devices result in many routing and security challenges which must be addressed before deploying a MANET. In this paper, we investigate the range of MANET routing protocols available and discuss the functionalities of several ranging from early protocols such as DSDV to more advanced such as MAODV, our protocol study focuses upon works by Perkins in developing and improving MANET routing. A range of literature relating to the field of MANET routing was identified and reviewed, we also reviewed literature on the topic of securing AODV based MANETs as this may be the most popular MANET protocol. The literature review identified a number of trends within research papers such as exclusive use of the random waypoint mobility model, excluding key metrics from simulation results and not comparing protocol performance against available alternatives.

Keywords: protocol, MANET, ad-Hoc, communication

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
460 Research on Routing Protocol in Ship Dynamic Positioning Based on WSN Clustering Data Fusion System

Authors: Zhou Mo, Dennis Chow

Abstract:

In the dynamic positioning system (DPS) for vessels, the reliable information transmission between each note basically relies on the wireless protocols. From the perspective of cluster-based routing pro-tocols for wireless sensor networks, the data fusion technology based on the sleep scheduling mechanism and remaining energy in network layer is proposed, which applies the sleep scheduling mechanism to the routing protocols, considering the remaining energy of node and location information when selecting cluster-head. The problem of uneven distribution of nodes in each cluster is solved by the Equilibrium. At the same time, Classified Forwarding Mechanism as well as Redelivery Policy strategy is adopted to avoid congestion in the transmission of huge amount of data, reduce the delay in data delivery and enhance the real-time response. In this paper, a simulation test is conducted to improve the routing protocols, which turns out to reduce the energy consumption of nodes and increase the efficiency of data delivery.

Keywords: DPS for vessel, wireless sensor network, data fusion, routing protocols

Procedia PDF Downloads 366
459 A Taxonomy of Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networks

Authors: A. Kardi, R. Zagrouba, M. Alqahtani

Abstract:

The Internet of Everything (IoE) presents today a very attractive and motivating field of research. It is basically based on Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) in which the routing task is the major analysis topic. In fact, it directly affects the effectiveness and the lifetime of the network. This paper, developed from recent works and based on extensive researches, proposes a taxonomy of routing protocols in WSNs. Our main contribution is that we propose a classification model based on nine classes namely application type, delivery mode, initiator of communication, network architecture, path establishment (route discovery), network topology (structure), protocol operation, next hop selection and latency-awareness and energy-efficient routing protocols. In order to provide a total classification pattern to serve as reference for network designers, each class is subdivided into possible subclasses, presented, and discussed using different parameters such as purposes and characteristics.

Keywords: routing, sensor, survey, wireless sensor networks, WSNs

Procedia PDF Downloads 90
458 Impact of Node Density and Transmission Range on the Performance of OLSR and DSDV Routing Protocols in VANET City Scenarios

Authors: Yassine Meraihi, Dalila Acheli, Rabah Meraihi

Abstract:

Vehicular Ad hoc Network (VANET) is a special case of Mobile Ad hoc Network (MANET) used to establish communications and exchange information among nearby vehicles and between vehicles and nearby fixed infrastructure. VANET is seen as a promising technology used to provide safety, efficiency, assistance and comfort to the road users. Routing is an important issue in Vehicular Ad Hoc Network to find and maintain communication between vehicles due to the highly dynamic topology, frequently disconnected network and mobility constraints. This paper evaluates the performance of two most popular proactive routing protocols OLSR and DSDV in real city traffic scenario on the basis of three metrics namely Packet delivery ratio, throughput and average end to end delay by varying vehicles density and transmission range.

Keywords: DSDV, OLSR, quality of service, routing protocols, VANET

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
457 Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Mobile Adhoc Networks

Authors: Anu Malhotra

Abstract:

An Ad-hoc network is one that is an autonomous, self configuring network made up of mobile nodes connected via wireless links. Ad-hoc networks often consist of nodes, mobile hosts (MH) or mobile stations (MS, also serving as routers) connected by wireless links. Different routing protocols are used for data transmission in between the nodes in an adhoc network. In this paper two protocols (OLSR and AODV) are analyzed on the basis of two parameters i.e. time delay and throughput with different data rates. On the basis of these analysis, we observed that with same data rate, AODV protocol is having more time delay than the OLSR protocol whereas throughput for the OLSR protocol is less compared to the AODV protocol.

Keywords: routing adhoc, mobile hosts, mobile stations, OLSR protocol, AODV protocol

Procedia PDF Downloads 387
456 VANETs Geographic Routing Protocols: A survey

Authors: Ramin Karimi

Abstract:

One of common highly mobile wireless ad hoc networks is Vehicular Ad Hoc Networks. Hence routing in vehicular ad hoc network (VANET) has attracted much attention during the last few years. VANET is characterized by its high mobility of nodes and specific topology patterns. Moreover these networks encounter a significant loss rate and a very short duration of communication. In vehicular ad hoc networks, one of challenging is routing of data due to high speed mobility and changing topology of vehicles. Geographic routing protocols are becoming popular due to advancement and availability of GPS devices. Delay Tolerant Networks (DTNs) are a class of networks that enable communication where connectivity issues like sparse connectivity, intermittent connectivity; high latency, long delay, high error rates, asymmetric data rate, and even no end-to-end connectivity exist. In this paper, we review the existing Geographic Routing Protocols for VANETs and also provide a qualitative comparison of them.

Keywords: vehicular ad hoc networks, mobility, geographic routing, delay tolerant networks

Procedia PDF Downloads 415
455 Proposal of Optimality Evaluation for Quantum Secure Communication Protocols by Taking the Average of the Main Protocol Parameters: Efficiency, Security and Practicality

Authors: Georgi Bebrov, Rozalina Dimova

Abstract:

In the field of quantum secure communication, there is no evaluation that characterizes quantum secure communication (QSC) protocols in a complete, general manner. The current paper addresses the problem concerning the lack of such an evaluation for QSC protocols by introducing an optimality evaluation, which is expressed as the average over the three main parameters of QSC protocols: efficiency, security, and practicality. For the efficiency evaluation, the common expression of this parameter is used, which incorporates all the classical and quantum resources (bits and qubits) utilized for transferring a certain amount of information (bits) in a secure manner. By using criteria approach whether or not certain criteria are met, an expression for the practicality evaluation is presented, which accounts for the complexity of the QSC practical realization. Based on the error rates that the common quantum attacks (Measurement and resend, Intercept and resend, probe attack, and entanglement swapping attack) induce, the security evaluation for a QSC protocol is proposed as the minimum function taken over the error rates of the mentioned quantum attacks. For the sake of clarity, an example is presented in order to show how the optimality is calculated.

Keywords: quantum cryptography, quantum secure communcation, quantum secure direct communcation security, quantum secure direct communcation efficiency, quantum secure direct communcation practicality

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
454 A Relational Data Base for Radiation Therapy

Authors: Raffaele Danilo Esposito, Domingo Planes Meseguer, Maria Del Pilar Dorado Rodriguez

Abstract:

As far as we know, it is still unavailable a commercial solution which would allow to manage, openly and configurable up to user needs, the huge amount of data generated in a modern Radiation Oncology Department. Currently, available information management systems are mainly focused on Record & Verify and clinical data, and only to a small extent on physical data. Thus, results in a partial and limited use of the actually available information. In the present work we describe the implementation at our department of a centralized information management system based on a web server. Our system manages both information generated during patient planning and treatment, and information of general interest for the whole department (i.e. treatment protocols, quality assurance protocols etc.). Our objective it to be able to analyze in a simple and efficient way all the available data and thus to obtain quantitative evaluations of our treatments. This would allow us to improve our work flow and protocols. To this end we have implemented a relational data base which would allow us to use in a practical and efficient way all the available information. As always we only use license free software.

Keywords: information management system, radiation oncology, medical physics, free software

Procedia PDF Downloads 150
453 Study of Energy Efficient and Quality of Service Based Routing Protocols in Wireless Sensor Networking

Authors: Sachin Sharma

Abstract:

A wireless sensor network (WSN) consists of a large number of sensor nodes which are deployed over an area to perform local computations based on information gathered from the surroundings. With the increasing demand for real-time applications in WSN, real-time critical events anticipate an efficient quality-of-service (QoS) based routing for data delivery from the network infrastructure. Hence, maximizing the lifetime of the network through minimizing the energy is an important challenge in WSN; sensors cannot be easily replaced or recharged due to their ad-hoc deployment in a hazardous environment. Considerable research has been focused on developing robust energy efficient QoS based routing protocols. The main focus of this article is primarily on periodical cycling schemes which represent the most compatible technique for energy saving and we also focus on the data-driven approaches that can be used to improve the energy efficiency. Finally, we will make a review on some communication protocols proposed for sensor networks.

Keywords: energy efficient, quality of service, wireless sensor networks, MAC

Procedia PDF Downloads 269
452 Performance Analysis of Routing Protocols for WLAN Based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs)

Authors: Noman Shabbir, Roheel Nawaz, Muhammad N. Iqbal, Junaid Zafar

Abstract:

This paper focuses on the performance evaluation of routing protocols in WLAN based Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). A comparative analysis of routing protocols such as Ad-hoc On-demand Distance Vector Routing System (AODV), Dynamic Source Routing (DSR) and Optimized Link State Routing (OLSR) is been made against different network parameters like network load, end to end delay and throughput in small, medium and large-scale sensor network scenarios to identify the best performing protocol. Simulation results indicate that OLSR gives minimum network load in all three scenarios while AODV gives the best throughput in small scale network but in medium and large scale networks, DSR is better. In terms of delay, OLSR is more efficient in small and medium scale network while AODV is slightly better in large networks.

Keywords: WLAN, WSN, AODV, DSR, OLSR

Procedia PDF Downloads 332
451 Thread Lift: Classification, Technique, and How to Approach to the Patient

Authors: Panprapa Yongtrakul, Punyaphat Sirithanabadeekul, Pakjira Siriphan

Abstract:

Background: The thread lift technique has become popular because it is less invasive, requires a shorter operation, less downtime, and results in fewer postoperative complications. The advantage of the technique is that the thread can be inserted under the skin without the need for long incisions. Currently, there are a lot of thread lift techniques with respect to the specific types of thread used on specific areas, such as the mid-face, lower face, or neck area. Objective: To review the thread lift technique for specific areas according to type of thread, patient selection, and how to match the most appropriate to the patient. Materials and Methods: A literature review technique was conducted by searching PubMed and MEDLINE, then compiled and summarized. Result: We have divided our protocols into two sections: Protocols for short suture, and protocols for long suture techniques. We also created 3D pictures for each technique to enhance understanding and application in a clinical setting. Conclusion: There are advantages and disadvantages to short suture and long suture techniques. The best outcome for each patient depends on appropriate patient selection and determining the most suitable technique for the defect and area of patient concern.

Keywords: thread lift, thread lift method, thread lift technique, thread lift procedure, threading

Procedia PDF Downloads 149
450 Performance Evaluation of Routing Protocols in Vehicular Adhoc Networks

Authors: Salman Naseer, Usman Zafar, Iqra Zafar

Abstract:

This study explores the implication of Vehicular Adhoc Network (VANET) - in the rural and urban scenarios that is one domain of Mobile Adhoc Network (MANET). VANET provides wireless communication between vehicle to vehicle and also roadside units. The Federal Commission Committee of United States of American has been allocated 75 MHz of the spectrum band in the 5.9 GHz frequency range for dedicated short-range communications (DSRC) that are specifically designed to enhance any road safety applications and entertainment/information applications. There are several vehicular related projects viz; California path, car 2 car communication consortium, the ETSI, and IEEE 1609 working group that have already been conducted to improve the overall road safety or traffic management. After the critical literature review, the selection of routing protocols is determined, and its performance was well thought-out in the urban and rural scenarios. Numerous routing protocols for VANET are applied to carry out current research. Its evaluation was conceded with the help of selected protocols through simulation via performance metric i.e. throughput and packet drop. Excel and Google graph API tools are used for plotting the graphs after the simulation results in order to compare the selected routing protocols which result with each other. In addition, the sum of the output from each scenario was computed to undoubtedly present the divergence in results. The findings of the current study present that DSR gives enhanced performance for low packet drop and high throughput as compared to AODV and DSDV in an urban congested area and in rural environments. On the other hand, in low-density area, VANET AODV gives better results as compared to DSR. The worth of the current study may be judged as the information exchanged between vehicles is useful for comfort, safety, and entertainment. Furthermore, the communication system performance depends on the way routing is done in the network and moreover, the routing of the data based on protocols implement in the network. The above-presented results lead to policy implication and develop our understanding of the broader spectrum of VANET.

Keywords: AODV, DSDV, DSR, Adhoc network

Procedia PDF Downloads 205
449 Bandwidth Efficient Cluster Based Collision Avoidance Multicasting Protocol in VANETs

Authors: Navneet Kaur, Amarpreet Singh

Abstract:

In Vehicular Adhoc Networks, Data Dissemination is a challenging task. There are number of techniques, types and protocols available for disseminating the data but in order to preserve limited bandwidth and to disseminate maximum data over networks makes it more challenging. There are broadcasting, multicasting and geocasting based protocols. Multicasting based protocols are found to be best for conserving the bandwidth. One such protocol named BEAM exists that improves the performance of Vehicular Adhoc Networks by reducing the number of in-network message transactions and thereby efficiently utilizing the bandwidth during an emergency situation. But this protocol may result in multicar chain collision as there was no V2V communication. So, this paper proposes a new protocol named Enhanced Bandwidth Efficient Cluster Based Multicasting Protocol (EBECM) that will overcome the limitations of existing BEAM protocol. And Simulation results will show the improved performance of EBECM in terms of Routing overhead, throughput and PDR when compared with BEAM protocol.

Keywords: BEAM, data dissemination, emergency situation, vehicular adhoc network

Procedia PDF Downloads 272
448 Secure Distance Bounding Protocol on Ultra-WideBand Based Mapping Code

Authors: Jamel Miri, Bechir Nsiri, Ridha Bouallegue

Abstract:

Ultra WidBand-IR physical layer technology has seen a great development during the last decade which makes it a promising candidate for short range wireless communications, as they bring considerable benefits in terms of connectivity and mobility. However, like all wireless communication they suffer from vulnerabilities in terms of security because of the open nature of the radio channel. To face these attacks, distance bounding protocols are the most popular counter measures. In this paper, we presented a protocol based on distance bounding to thread the most popular attacks: Distance Fraud, Mafia Fraud and Terrorist fraud. In our work, we study the way to adapt the best secure distance bounding protocols to mapping code of ultra-wideband (TH-UWB) radios. Indeed, to ameliorate the performances of the protocol in terms of security communication in TH-UWB, we combine the modified protocol to ultra-wideband impulse radio technology (IR-UWB). The security and the different merits of the protocols are analyzed.

Keywords: distance bounding, mapping code ultrawideband, terrorist fraud, physical layer technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 205