Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Search results for: TCM classics

14 Research on the Rewriting and Adaptation in the English Translation of the Analects

Authors: Jun Xu, Haiyan Xiao


The Analects (Lunyu) is one of the most recognized Confucian classics and one of the earliest Chinese classics that have been translated into English and known to the West. Research on the translation of The Analects has witnessed a transfer from the comparison of the text and language to a wider description of social and cultural contexts. Mainly on the basis of Legge and Waley’s translations of The Analects, this paper integrates Lefevere’s theory of rewriting and Verschueren’s theory of adaptation and explores the influence of ideology and poetics on the translation. It analyses how translators make adaptive decisions in the manipulation of ideology and poetics. It is proved that the English translation of The Analects is the translators’ initiative rewriting of the original work, which is a selective and adaptive process in the multi-layered contexts of the target language. The research on the translation of classics should include both the manipulative factors and translator’s initiative as well.

Keywords: The Analects, ideology, poetics, rewriting, adaptation

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13 Corpus-Based Analysis on the Translatability of Conceptual Vagueness in Traditional Chinese Medicine Classics Huang Di Nei Jing

Authors: Yan Yue


Huang Di Nei Jing (HDNJ) is one of the significant traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) classics which lays the foundation of TCM theory and practice. It is an important work for the world to study the ancient civilizations and medical history of China. Language in HDNJ is highly concise and vague, and notably challenging to translate. This paper investigates the translatability of one particular vagueness in HDNJ: the conceptual vagueness which carries the Chinese philosophical and cultural connotations. The corpora tool Sketch Engine is used to provide potential online contexts and word behaviors. Selected two English translations of HDNJ by TCM practitioner and non-practitioner are used to examine frequency and distribution of linguistic features of the translation. It was found the hypothesis about the universals of translated language (explicitation, normalisation) is true in one translation, but it is on the sacrifice of some original contextual connotations. Transliteration is purposefully used in the second translation to retain the original flavor, which is argued as a violation of the principle of relevance in communication because it yields little contextual effects and demands more processing effort of the reader. The translatability of conceptual vagueness in HDNJ is constrained by source language context and the reader’s cognitive environment.

Keywords: corpus-based translation, translatability, TCM classics, vague language

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12 Discussing Classicalness: Online Reviews of Plato’s Allegory of the Cave and the Discourses around the “Classic”

Authors: Damianos Tzoupis


In the context of the canon debate, assumptions regarding the place, value, and impact of classical texts have come under increased scrutiny. Factors like the distance of time, the depreciation of tradition, or the increased cultural omnivorousness and eclecticism have allegedly played a part in destabilizing classics’ authority. However, despite all these developments, classics’ position and influence is strong both in contemporary institutions and among readers’ preferences. Within this background of conflicted narratives, the study maps the varied discourses, value grammars, and justifications that lay cultural consumers employ to discuss those texts which have come to be the most consecrated and valuable cultural objects. The study centers on reviews posted on Goodreads. These online reviews offer unique access to unsolicited reception data produced by lay readers themselves, thus providing a clearer picture of lay cultural consumption and lay theories about classics. Moreover, the approach taken relies on the micro-practices of evaluation: the study investigates the evaluation of a specific cultural object, namely Plato’s allegory of the Cave, and treats it as an exemplary case to identify interpretive repertoires and valuation grammars about classical texts in general. The analysis uncovers a wide range of discourses used to construct the concept of the “classical text”. At first sight, lay reviewers seem to adopt interpretive repertoires that highlight qualities such as universality, timelessness, canonicity, cultural impact, and difficulty. These repertoires seem in principle to follow generalized and institutionalized discourses about classical texts, as these are established and circulated by institutions and cultural brokers like schools, academics, critics, etc. However, the study also uncovers important variations of these discourses. Lay readers tend to (re)negotiate the meanings/connotations of the above qualities and also structure their discourses by “modalities” such as necessity or surprise. These variations in interpretive repertoires are important in cultural sociology’s attempt to better grasp the principles informing the grammars of valuation that lay cultural consumers employ and to understand the kinds of impact that consecrated cultural objects have on people’s lives.

Keywords: classics, interpretive repertoires around classicalness, institutionalized discourses, lay readers, online reviews/criticism

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11 Ancient Latin Language and Haiku Poetry: A Case Study between Teaching and Translation Studies

Authors: Arianna Sacerdoti


The translation of Haiku Poetry into Latin is fundamentally experimental in nature. One of the first seminal books containing such translations, alongside translations into different modern languages, 'A Piedi Scalzi', was written by Tartamella in 2016. The results of a text-oriented study of this book will be commented upon and analyzed. The author Arianna Sacerdoti made similar translations with high school student. Such an experiment garners interest across a diverse range of disciplines such as teaching, translation studies, and classics reception studies. The methodology employed is text-oriented as the Haiku poem translations will be commented on by considering their relationship with the original. The results of this investigation, conducted within the field of experimental teaching, are expected to confirm the usefulness of this approach to the teaching of Latin and its potential to actively involve students in identifying the diachronic differences between the world of classical antiquity and the contemporary one.

Keywords: ancient latin, Haiku, translation studies, reception of classics

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10 Influence of the Popular Literature on Consciousness of the Person

Authors: Alua Temirbolat, Sergei Kibalnik, Zhuldyz Essimova


The article is devoted to research of influence of the modern literature on the consciousness of the person. Tendencies and features of the progress of the historical-cultural and artistic process at the end of XX–the beginning of XXI centuries are considered. The object of the analysis is the popular literature which has found last decades greater popularity among readers of different generations. In the article, such genres, as melodramas, female, espionage, criminal, pink, costume-historical novels, thrillers, elements, a fantasy are considered. During research, specific features of the popular literature, its difference from works of classics is revealed. On specific examples, its negative and positive influence on consciousness, psychology of the reader is shown, its role and value in a modern society are defined.

Keywords: the popular literature, the person, consciousness, a genre, psychology

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9 Russia's War Memory: How Tolstoy Uses Homeric Epic to Reconstruct History

Authors: Svetlana Yefimenko


Situated within the fields of Russian literature, Russian history, and classics, this paper investigates the early writing of Leo Tolstoy in terms of his reception and appropriation of Homeric epic for the purposes of reconstructing early 19th-century Russian history. The epic mode, specifically its Homeric variation, was deployed in Tolstoy’s writing on his military experience in the Crimean War to legitimize a version of historical events which positioned Russian soldiers as the inheritors of ancient Greek heroism. With reference to Tolstoy’s oft-neglected Sevastopol’ Sketches, and the short stories The Raid, The Wood-Felling, and Two Hussars, this paper examines how such narratives pass from communicative memory into collective memory both in the Homeric epics and in Tolstoy’s reworking of them, particularly on the literary effects produced when the distance between communicative and collective memory collapses. Within a song culture, epic song functions as memory, and this paper shows how, by modeling his early work on epic, Tolstoy produced texts which act as memory itself, thereby becoming the authoritative version of Russia’s past in the Crimea, often contradicting historical facts.

Keywords: classical reception, collective memory, Russian history, Russian literature

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8 Assisting Dating of Greek Papyri Images with Deep Learning

Authors: Asimina Paparrigopoulou, John Pavlopoulos, Maria Konstantinidou


Dating papyri accurately is crucial not only to editing their texts but also for our understanding of palaeography and the history of writing, ancient scholarship, material culture, networks in antiquity, etc. Most ancient manuscripts offer little evidence regarding the time of their production, forcing papyrologists to date them on palaeographical grounds, a method often criticized for its subjectivity. By experimenting with data obtained from the Collaborative Database of Dateable Greek Bookhands(, Baylor University) and the PapPal(, University of Heidelberg) online collections of objectively dated Greek papyri, this study shows that deep learning dating models, pre-trained on generic images and fine-tuned on a training subset of the data, can achieve accurate chronological estimates for a test subset (67,97% accuracy for bookhands and 55,25% for documents). To compare the estimates of our models with those of humans, experts were asked to complete a questionnaire with samples of literary and documentary hands, which had to be sorted chronologically by century. The same samples were dated by the models in question. This paper presents and analyses the results.

Keywords: dating papyri images, deep neural image models, handwritten text image classification, transfer learning

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7 The Concepts of Ibn Taymiyyah in Halal and Haram and Their Relevance to Contemporary Issues

Authors: Muhammad Fakhrul Arrazi


Ibn Taymiyyah is a great figure in Islam. His works have become the reference for many Muslims in implementing the fiqh of Ibadah and Muamalat. This article reviews the concepts that Ibn Taymiyyah has initiated in Halal and Haram, long before the books on Halal and Haram are written by contemporary scholars. There are at least four concepts of Halal and Haram ever spawned by Ibn Taymiyyah. First, the belief of a jurist (Faqih) in a matter that is Haram does not necessarily make the matter Haram. Haram arises from the Quran, Sunnah, Ijma’ and Qiyas as the tarjih. Due to the different opinions among the ulama, we should revisit this concept. Second, if a Muslim involves in a transaction (Muamalat), believes it permissible and gets money from such transaction, then it is legal for other Muslims to transact with the property of this Muslim brother, even if he does not believe that the transactions made by his Muslims brother are permissible. Third, Haram is divided into two; first is Haram because of the nature of an object, such as carrion, blood, and pork. If it is mixed with water or food and alters their taste, color, and smell, the food and water become Haram. Second is Haram because of the way it is obtained such as a stolen item and a broken aqad. If it is mixed with the halal property, the property does not automatically become Haram. Fourth, a treasure whose owners cannot be traced back then it is used for the benefit of the ummah. This study used the secondary data from the classics books by Ibn Taymiyyah, particularly those entailing his views on Halal and Haram. The data were then analyzed by using thematic and comparative approach. It is found that most of the concepts proposed by Ibn Taymiyyah in Halal and Haram correspond the majority’s views in the schools. However, some of his concepts are also in contrary to other scholars. His concepts will benefit the ummah, should it be applied to the contemporary issues.

Keywords: fiqh Muamalat, halal, haram, Ibn Taymiyyah

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6 Study of Irritant and Anti-inflammatory Activity of Snuhi/Zaqqum (Euphorbia nerifolia) with Special Reference to Holy Quran and Ayurveda

Authors: Mohammed Khalil Ur Rahman, Pradnya Chigle, Bushra Farhen


Indian mythology believes that Vedas are eternal treatises. Vedas are categorized into four divisions viz., Rigveda, Yajurveda, Samveda, Atharveda. All these spiritual classics not only deal with rituals and customs but also consist of inclusion of many references related to health. Out of these four, Atharveda deals with maximum principles pertaining to health sciences. Therefore, it is said that the science and the art of Ayurveda has developed from Atharveda. Ayurveda deals with many medicinal plants either as a single therapeutic use or in combination. One such medicinal plant is Snuhi (Euphorbia neriifolia Linn.) which finds its extensive importance along with Haridra and Apamargakshar, in the preparation of Ksharsutra which in turn is used for the treatment of Fistula in Ano. It is interesting to note that this plant Snuhi is also referred in Holy Quran as the Tree of Zaqqum advocated as the food for the sinners as a part of torment. The reference in Surat Ad-Dukhan is as follows: - 44:43-46. “Verily, the tree of Zaqqum will be the food of the sinners, Like boiling oil, it will boil in the bellies, like the boiling of scalding water.” The above verse implies that plant Snuhi/Zaqqum due to irritant property acts as a drastic purgative but at the same time it also possesses anti inflammatory properties in order to relieve the irritation. These properties of Zaqqum has been unfolded in the modern research which states that, Diterpene polycyclic esters are responsible for its toxic and irritant nature whereas; triterpenes are responsible for its anti inflammatory property. Present work will be an effort to review the concept of Quran about latex of the Tree of Zaqqum in terms of its phytochemistry and its therapeutic use in Ksharsutra pertaining to irritant and anti inflammatory property.

Keywords: ayurveda, Quran, zaqqum, ksharsutra, latex piles, inflammation

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5 Total Plaque Area in Chronic Renal Failure

Authors: Hernán A. Perez, Luis J. Armando, Néstor H. García


Background and aims Cardiovascular disease rates are very high in patients with renal failure (CRF), but the underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors do not explain the increased risk, and observational studies have observed paradoxical or absent associations between classical risk factors and mortality in dialysis patients. A large randomized controlled trial, the 4D Study, the AURORA and the ALERT study found that statin therapy in CRF do not reduce cardiovascular events. These results may be the results of ‘accelerated atherosclerosis’ observed on these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate if carotid total plaque area (TPA), a measure of carotid plaque burden growth is increased at progressively lower creatinine clearance in patients with CRF. We studied a cohort of patients with CRF not on dialysis, reasoning that risk factor associations might be more easily discerned before end stage renal disease. Methods: The Blossom DMO Argentina ethics committee approved the study and informed consent from each participant was obtained. We performed a cohort study in 412 patients with Stage 1, 2 and 3 CRF. Clinical and laboratory data were obtained. TPA was determined using bilateral carotid ultrasonography. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease estimation formula was used to determine renal function. ANOVA was used when appropriate. Results: Stage 1 CRF group (n= 16, 43±2yo) had a blood pressure of 123±2/78±2 mmHg, BMI 30±1, LDL col 145±10 mg/dl, HbA1c 5.8±0.4% and had the lowest TPA 25.8±6.9 mm2. Stage 2 CRF (n=231, 50±1 yo) had a blood pressure of 132±1/81±1 mmHg, LDL col 125±2 mg/dl, HbA1c 6±0.1% and TPA 48±10mm2 ( p< 0.05 vs CRF stage 1) while Stage 3 CRF (n=165, 59±1 yo) had a blood pressure of 134±1/81±1, LDL col 125±3 mg/dl, HbA1c 6±0.1% and TPA 71±6mm2 (p < 0.05 vs CRF stage 1 and 2). Conclusion: Our data indicate that TPA increases along the renal function deterioration, and it is not related with the LDL cholesterol and triglycerides levels. We suggest that mechanisms other than the classics are responsible for the observed excess of cardiovascular disease in CKD patients and finally, determination of total plaque area should be used to measure effects of antiatherosclerotic therapy.

Keywords: hypertension, chronic renal failure, atherosclerosis, cholesterol

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4 Integration and Translation: The Comparison of Religious Rituals of Caodaism in Vietnam and Yi-Kuan-Tao

Authors: Lim Pey Huan


In the second half of the 19th century, Vietnam has long been influenced by Han culture, so there are many similarities in religion and folk beliefs. Even after the acceptance process of the Catholic Church introduced from Europe is quite similar. Therefore, in the spiritual life of Vietnamese civil society, Confucianism, Buddhism, Taoism, Christianity, Islam, and folk beliefs can be said to be the main trend, but in the twentieth century, two indigenous new religions were born: Caodai and He Hao Jiao, both of which are produced and developed in the south, each of which has millions of believers and become important Vietnamese religions. Their political participation has a major impact on the development of the Republic of Vietnam, and their fate is also in the north and south. Significant changes have taken place after reunification. Caodai was later approved by the colonial authorities and became the third largest religion in Vietnam. The teachings of Caodai teach the ideas of the major religions of the world. The classics used in the teachings also contain important theories of various religions, with particular emphasis on the comprehensiveness of the three sects of Confucianism, Buddhism, and Taoism. The obvious manifestation lies in the interpretation of the important proposition of 'opening the three religions and returning to the five branches.' The full name of Caodaism is 'Da Dao San Qi Pu Du Gao Tai Jiao'. This name coincides with the 'Longhua Club' and the 'San Qi Mo Jie' idea and the consistent central idea. The emerging road of Caodai advocates to lead the sentient beings back to their original missions; the sentient beings will be centered on people, and the nature of the talks is nothing more than the original mission and standard. There are many opinions about the introduction of Caodaism into southern Vietnam. Caodai believers believe that Caodaism is an emerging new religion in Vietnam. If we further explore the teachings and religious rituals of Caodai, it is not difficult to find that many Chinese sects have been introduced to Vietnam. Some of the colors can be discussed from the spread and influence of Congenital Road in Vietnam. This article will present the author's analysis of the actual process of tutoring in Vietnam's Caodai, and then compare it with the consistent religious experience, trying to explore the Yi-Kuan-Tao and consistent Yi-Kuan-Tao rituals, religious organization, religious teachings, religious life care, and Funeral rituals and other comparative studies.

Keywords: Vietnam, Caodaism, Yi-Kuan-Tao, religious rituals

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3 Multilingualism in Medieval Romance: A French Case Study

Authors: Brindusa Grigoriu


Inscribing itself in the field of the history of multilingual communities with a focus on the evolution of language didactics, our paper aims at providing a pragmatic-interactional approach on a corpus proposing to scholars of the international scientific community a relevant text of early modern European literature: the first romance in French, The Conte of Flore and Blanchefleur by Robert d’Orbigny (1150). The multicultural context described by the romance is one in which an Arab-speaking prince, Floire, and his Francophone protégée, Blanchefleur, learn Latin together at the court of Spain and become fluent enough to turn it into the language of their love. This learning process is made up of interactional patterns of affective relevance, in which the proficiency of the protagonists in the domain of emotive acts becomes a matter of linguistic and pragmatic emulation. From five to ten years old, the pupils are efficiently stimulated by their teacher of Latin, Gaidon – a Moorish scholar of the royal entourage – to cultivate their competencies of oral expression and reading comprehension (of Antiquity classics), while enjoying an ever greater freedom of written expression, including the composition of love poems in this second language of culture and emotional education. Another relevant parameter of the educational process at court is that Latin shares its prominent role as a language of culture with French, whose exemplary learner is the (Moorish) queen herself. Indeed, the adult 'First lady' strives to become a pupil benefitting from lifelong learning provided by a fortuitous slave-teacher with little training, her anonymous chambermaid and Blanchefleur’s mother, who, despite her status of a war trophy, enjoys her Majesty’s confidence as a cultural agent of change in linguistic and theological fields. Thus, the two foreign languages taught at Spains’s court, Latin and French – as opposed to Arabic -, suggest a spiritual authority allowing the mutual enrichment of intercultural pioneers of cross-linguistic communication, in the aftermath of religious wars. Durably, and significantly – if not everlastingly – the language of physical violence rooted in intra-cultural solipsism is replaced by two Romance languages which seem to embody, together and yet distinctly, the parlance of peace-making.

Keywords: multilingualism, history of European language learning, French and Latin learners, multicultural context of medieval romance

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2 Dimensionality Reduction in Modal Analysis for Structural Health Monitoring

Authors: Elia Favarelli, Enrico Testi, Andrea Giorgetti


Autonomous structural health monitoring (SHM) of many structures and bridges became a topic of paramount importance for maintenance purposes and safety reasons. This paper proposes a set of machine learning (ML) tools to perform automatic feature selection and detection of anomalies in a bridge from vibrational data and compare different feature extraction schemes to increase the accuracy and reduce the amount of data collected. As a case study, the Z-24 bridge is considered because of the extensive database of accelerometric data in both standard and damaged conditions. The proposed framework starts from the first four fundamental frequencies extracted through operational modal analysis (OMA) and clustering, followed by density-based time-domain filtering (tracking). The fundamental frequencies extracted are then fed to a dimensionality reduction block implemented through two different approaches: feature selection (intelligent multiplexer) that tries to estimate the most reliable frequencies based on the evaluation of some statistical features (i.e., mean value, variance, kurtosis), and feature extraction (auto-associative neural network (ANN)) that combine the fundamental frequencies to extract new damage sensitive features in a low dimensional feature space. Finally, one class classifier (OCC) algorithms perform anomaly detection, trained with standard condition points, and tested with normal and anomaly ones. In particular, a new anomaly detector strategy is proposed, namely one class classifier neural network two (OCCNN2), which exploit the classification capability of standard classifiers in an anomaly detection problem, finding the standard class (the boundary of the features space in normal operating conditions) through a two-step approach: coarse and fine boundary estimation. The coarse estimation uses classics OCC techniques, while the fine estimation is performed through a feedforward neural network (NN) trained that exploits the boundaries estimated in the coarse step. The detection algorithms vare then compared with known methods based on principal component analysis (PCA), kernel principal component analysis (KPCA), and auto-associative neural network (ANN). In many cases, the proposed solution increases the performance with respect to the standard OCC algorithms in terms of F1 score and accuracy. In particular, by evaluating the correct features, the anomaly can be detected with accuracy and an F1 score greater than 96% with the proposed method.

Keywords: anomaly detection, frequencies selection, modal analysis, neural network, sensor network, structural health monitoring, vibration measurement

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1 Examining Kokugaku as a Pattern of Defining Identity in Global Comparison

Authors: Mária Ildikó Farkas


Kokugaku of the Edo period can be seen as a key factor of defining cultural (and national) identity in the 18th and early 19th century based on Japanese cultural heritage. Kokugaku focused on Japanese classics, on exploring, studying and reviving (or even inventing) ancient Japanese language, literature, myths, history and also political ideology. ‘Japanese culture’ as such was distinguished from Chinese (and all other) cultures, ‘Japanese identity’ was thus defined. Meiji scholars used kokugaku conceptions of Japan to construct a modern national identity based on the premodern and culturalist conceptions of community. The Japanese cultural movement of the 18-19th centuries (kokugaku) of defining cultural and national identity before modernization can be compared not to the development of Western Europe (where national identity strongly attached to modern nation states) or other parts of Asia (where these emerged after the Western colonization), but rather with the ‘national awakening’ movements of the peoples of East Central Europe, a comparison which have not been dealt with in the secondary literature yet. The role of a common language, culture, history and myths in the process of defining cultural identity – following mainly Miroslav Hroch’s comparative and interdisciplinary theory of national development – can be examined compared to the movements of defining identity of the peoples of East Central Europe (18th-19th c). In the shadow of a cultural and/or political ‘monolith’ (China for Japan and Germany for Central Europe), before modernity, ethnic groups or communities started to evolve their own identities with cultural movements focusing on their own language and culture, thus creating their cultural identity, and in the end, a new sense of community, the nation. Comparing actual texts (‘narratives’) of the kokugaku scholars and Central European writers of the nation building period (18th and early 19th centuries) can reveal the similarities of the discourses of deliberate searches for identity. Similar motives of argument can be identified in these narratives: ‘language’ as the primary bearer of collective identity, the role of language in culture, ‘culture’ as the main common attribute of the community; and similar aspirations to explore, search and develop native language, ‘genuine’ culture, ‘original’ traditions. This comparative research offering ‘development patterns’ for interpretation can help us understand processes that may be ambiguously considered ‘backward’ or even ‘deleterious’ (e.g. cultural nationalism) or just ‘unique’. ‘Cultural identity’ played a very important role in the formation of national identity during modernization especially in the case of non-Western communities, who had to face the danger of losing their identities in the course of ‘Westernization’ accompanying modernization.

Keywords: cultural identity, Japanese modernization, kokugaku, national awakening

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