Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 36

Search results for: parallelism

36 Grammatical Parallelism in the Qurʼān

Authors: Yehudit Dror


Parallelism¬, or as it is called in Arabic, al-muqābala, occupies a central position in the rhetorical discipline of ʻilm al-bayān. Parallelism is used as a figure of textual ornamentation or embellishment and can be divided into several types that are based on the semantics of parallelism and its formative structure. Parallelism in Arabic has received a considerable amount of attention from the Arab rhetorician, which enables understanding the essence of parallelism in Arabic – its types, structure and meaning. However, there are some lacunae in their descriptions concerning the function and thematic restrictions of parallelism in the Qur’ān. In my presentation, which focuses on grammatical parallelism where the two stichos of the parallelism are the same with respect to syntax and morphology, I will show that parallelism has some important roles in the textual arrangement; it may, for example, conclude a thematic section, indicate a turning point in the text or to clarify what has been said previously. In addition, it will be shown that parallelism is not used randomly in the Qurʼān but rather is restricted to repeated themes which carry the most important messages of the Qurʼān, such as God's Might or behavioral patterns of the believers and the non-believers; or it can be used as a stylistic device.

Keywords: grammatical parallelism, half-line, symmetry, Koran

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35 A Study on the Influence of Planet Pin Parallelism Error to Load Sharing Factor

Authors: Kyung Min Kang, Peng Mou, Dong Xiang, Yong Yang, Gang Shen


In this paper, planet pin parallelism error, which is one of manufacturing error of planet carrier, is employed as a main variable to influence planet load sharing factor. This error is categorize two group: (i) pin parallelism error with rotation on the axis perpendicular to the tangent of base circle of gear(x axis rotation in this paper) (ii) pin parallelism error with rotation on the tangent axis of base circle of gear(y axis rotation in this paper). For this study, the planetary gear system in 1.5MW wind turbine is applied and pure torsional rigid body model of this planetary gear is built using Solidworks and MSC.ADAMS. Based on quantified parallelism error and simulation model, dynamics simulation of planetary gear is carried out to obtain dynamic mesh load results with each type of error and load sharing factor is calculated with mesh load results. Load sharing factor formula and the suggestion for planetary reliability design is proposed with the conclusion of this study.

Keywords: planetary gears, planet load sharing, MSC. ADAMS, parallelism error

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34 Collision Detection Algorithm Based on Data Parallelism

Authors: Zhen Peng, Baifeng Wu


Modern computing technology enters the era of parallel computing with the trend of sustainable and scalable parallelism. Single Instruction Multiple Data (SIMD) is an important way to go along with the trend. It is able to gather more and more computing ability by increasing the number of processor cores without the need of modifying the program. Meanwhile, in the field of scientific computing and engineering design, many computation intensive applications are facing the challenge of increasingly large amount of data. Data parallel computing will be an important way to further improve the performance of these applications. In this paper, we take the accurate collision detection in building information modeling as an example. We demonstrate a model for constructing a data parallel algorithm. According to the model, a complex object is decomposed into the sets of simple objects; collision detection among complex objects is converted into those among simple objects. The resulting algorithm is a typical SIMD algorithm, and its advantages in parallelism and scalability is unparalleled in respect to the traditional algorithms.

Keywords: data parallelism, collision detection, single instruction multiple data, building information modeling, continuous scalability

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33 Quantifying Parallelism of Vectors Is the Quantification of Distributed N-Party Entanglement

Authors: Shreya Banerjee, Prasanta K. Panigrahi


The three-way distributive entanglement is shown to be related to the parallelism of vectors. Using a measurement-based approach a set of 2−dimensional vectors is formed, representing the post-measurement states of one of the parties. These vectors originate at the same point and have an angular distance between them. The area spanned by a pair of such vectors is a measure of the entanglement of formation. This leads to a geometrical manifestation of the 3−tangle in 2−dimensions, from inequality in the area which generalizes for n− qubits to reveal that the n− tangle also has a planar structure. Quantifying the genuine n−party entanglement in every 1|(n − 1) bi-partition it is shown that the genuine n−way entanglement does not manifest in n− tangle. A new quantity geometrically similar to 3−tangle is then introduced that represents the genuine n− way entanglement. Extending the formalism to 3− qutrits, the nonlocality without entanglement can be seen to arise from a condition under which the post-measurement state vectors of a separable state show parallelism. A connection to nontrivial sum uncertainty relation analogous to Maccone and Pati uncertainty relation is then presented using decomposition of post-measurement state vectors along parallel and perpendicular direction of the pre-measurement state vectors. This study opens a novel way to understand multiparty entanglement in qubit and qudit systems.

Keywords: Geometry of quantum entanglement, Multipartite and distributive entanglement, Parallelism of vectors , Tangle

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32 Exploring SSD Suitable Allocation Schemes Incompliance with Workload Patterns

Authors: Jae Young Park, Hwansu Jung, Jong Tae Kim


Whether the data has been well parallelized is an important factor in the Solid-State-Drive (SSD) performance. SSD parallelization is affected by allocation scheme and it is directly connected to SSD performance. There are dynamic allocation and static allocation in representative allocation schemes. Dynamic allocation is more adaptive in exploiting write operation parallelism, while static allocation is better in read operation parallelism. Therefore, it is hard to select the appropriate allocation scheme when the workload is mixed read and write operations. We simulated conditions on a few mixed data patterns and analyzed the results to help the right choice for better performance. As the results, if data arrival interval is long enough prior operations to be finished and continuous read intensive data environment static allocation is more suitable. Dynamic allocation performs the best on write performance and random data patterns.

Keywords: dynamic allocation, NAND flash based SSD, SSD parallelism, static allocation

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31 Relevance of the Variation in the Angulation of Palatal Throat Form to the Orientation of the Occlusal Plane- A Cephalometric Study

Authors: Sanath Kumar Shetty, Sanya Sinha, K. Kamalakanth Shenoy


The posterior reference for the ala tragal line is a cause of confusion, with different authors suggesting different locations as to the superior, middle or inferior part of the tragus. This study was conducted on 200 subjects to evaluate if any correlation exists between the variation of angulation of palatal throat form and the relative parallelism of occlusal plane to ala-tragal line at different tragal levels. A Custom made Occlusal Plane Analyzer was used to check the parallelism between the ala-tragal line and occlusal plane. A lateral cephalogram was shot for each subject to measure the angulation of the palatal throat form. Fisher’s exact test was used to evaluate the correlation between the angulation of the palatal throat form and the relative parallelism of occlusal plane to the ala tragal line. Also, a classification was formulated for the palatal throat form, based on confidence interval. From the results of the study, the inferior part, middle part and superior part of the tragus were seen as the reference points in 49.5%, 32% and 18.5% of the subjects respectively. Class I palatal throat form (41degree-50 degree), Class II palatal throat form (below 41 degree) and Class III palatal throat form (above 50 degree) were seen in 42%, 43% and 15% of the subjects respectively. It was also concluded that there is no significant correlation between the variation in the angulations of the palatal throat form and the relative parallelism of occlusal plane to the ala-tragal line.

Keywords: Ala-Tragal line, occlusal plane, palatal throat form, cephalometry

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30 Tetrad field and torsion vectors in Schwarzschild solution

Authors: M.A.Bakry1, *, Aryn T. Shafeek1, +


In this article, absolute Parallelism geometry is used to study the torsional gravitational field. And discovered the tetrad fields, torsion vector, and torsion scalar of Schwarzschild space. The new solution of the torsional gravitational field is a generalization of Schwarzschild in the context of general relativity. The results are applied to the planetary orbits.

Keywords: absolute parallelism geometry, tetrad fields, torsion vectors, torsion scalar

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29 Parallel Version of Reinhard’s Color Transfer Algorithm

Authors: Abhishek Bhardwaj, Manish Kumar Bajpai


An image with its content and schema of colors presents an effective mode of information sharing and processing. By changing its color schema different visions and prospect are discovered by the users. This phenomenon of color transfer is being used by Social media and other channel of entertainment. Reinhard et al’s algorithm was the first one to solve this problem of color transfer. In this paper, we make this algorithm efficient by introducing domain parallelism among different processors. We also comment on the factors that affect the speedup of this problem. In the end by analyzing the experimental data we claim to propose a novel and efficient parallel Reinhard’s algorithm.

Keywords: Reinhard et al’s algorithm, color transferring, parallelism, speedup

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28 Detecting the Edge of Multiple Images in Parallel

Authors: Prakash K. Aithal, U. Dinesh Acharya, Rajesh Gopakumar


Edge is variation of brightness in an image. Edge detection is useful in many application areas such as finding forests, rivers from a satellite image, detecting broken bone in a medical image etc. The paper discusses about finding edge of multiple aerial images in parallel .The proposed work tested on 38 images 37 colored and one monochrome image. The time taken to process N images in parallel is equivalent to time taken to process 1 image in sequential. The proposed method achieves pixel level parallelism as well as image level parallelism.

Keywords: edge detection, multicore, gpu, opencl, mpi

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27 A Sub-Scalar Approach to the MIPS Architecture

Authors: Kumar Sambhav Pandey, Anamika Singh


The continuous researches in the field of computer architecture basically aims at accelerating the computational speed and to gain enhanced performance. In this era, the superscalar, sub-scalar concept has not gained enough attention for improving the computation performance. In this paper, we have presented a sub-scalar approach to utilize the parallelism present with in the data while processing. The main idea is to split the data into individual smaller entities and these entities are processed with a defined known set of instructions. This sub-scalar approach to the MIPS architecture can bring out significant improvement in the computational speedup. MIPS-I is the basic design taken in consideration for the development of sub-scalar MIPS64 for increasing the instruction level parallelism (ILP) and resource utilization.

Keywords: dataword, MIPS, processor, sub-scalar

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26 Software Transactional Memory in a Dynamic Programming Language at Virtual Machine Level

Authors: Szu-Kai Hsu, Po-Ching Lin


As more and more multi-core processors emerge, traditional sequential programming paradigm no longer suffice. Yet only few modern dynamic programming languages can leverage such advantage. Ruby, for example, despite its wide adoption, only includes threads as a simple parallel primitive. The global virtual machine lock of official Ruby runtime makes it impossible to exploit full parallelism. Though various alternative Ruby implementations do eliminate the global virtual machine lock, they only provide developers dated locking mechanism for data synchronization. However, traditional locking mechanism error-prone by nature. Software Transactional Memory is one of the promising alternatives among others. This paper introduces a new virtual machine: GobiesVM to provide a native software transactional memory based solution for dynamic programming languages to exploit parallelism. We also proposed a simplified variation of Transactional Locking II algorithm. The empirical results of our experiments show that support of STM at virtual machine level enables developers to write straightforward code without compromising parallelism or sacrificing thread safety. Existing source code only requires minimal or even none modi cation, which allows developers to easily switch their legacy codebase to a parallel environment. The performance evaluations of GobiesVM also indicate the difference between sequential and parallel execution is significant.

Keywords: global interpreter lock, ruby, software transactional memory, virtual machine

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25 Automatic Tuning for a Systemic Model of Banking Originated Losses (SYMBOL) Tool on Multicore

Authors: Ronal Muresano, Andrea Pagano


Nowadays, the mathematical/statistical applications are developed with more complexity and accuracy. However, these precisions and complexities have brought as result that applications need more computational power in order to be executed faster. In this sense, the multicore environments are playing an important role to improve and to optimize the execution time of these applications. These environments allow us the inclusion of more parallelism inside the node. However, to take advantage of this parallelism is not an easy task, because we have to deal with some problems such as: cores communications, data locality, memory sizes (cache and RAM), synchronizations, data dependencies on the model, etc. These issues are becoming more important when we wish to improve the application’s performance and scalability. Hence, this paper describes an optimization method developed for Systemic Model of Banking Originated Losses (SYMBOL) tool developed by the European Commission, which is based on analyzing the application's weakness in order to exploit the advantages of the multicore. All these improvements are done in an automatic and transparent manner with the aim of improving the performance metrics of our tool. Finally, experimental evaluations show the effectiveness of our new optimized version, in which we have achieved a considerable improvement on the execution time. The time has been reduced around 96% for the best case tested, between the original serial version and the automatic parallel version.

Keywords: algorithm optimization, bank failures, OpenMP, parallel techniques, statistical tool

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24 Rapid Algorithm for GPS Signal Acquisition

Authors: Fabricio Costa Silva, Samuel Xavier de Souza


A Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver is responsible to determine position, velocity and timing information by using satellite information. To get this information are necessary to combine an incoming and a locally generated signal. The procedure called acquisition need to found two information, the frequency and phase of the incoming signal. This is very time consuming, so there are several techniques to reduces the computational complexity, but each of then put projects issues in conflict. I this papers we present a method that can reduce the computational complexity by reducing the search space and paralleling the search.

Keywords: GPS, acquisition, complexity, parallelism

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23 Rapid Parallel Algorithm for GPS Signal Acquisition

Authors: Fabricio Costa Silva, Samuel Xavier de Souza


A Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver is responsible to determine position, velocity and timing information by using satellite information. To get this information's are necessary to combine an incoming and a locally generated signal. The procedure called acquisition need to found two information, the frequency and phase of the incoming signal. This is very time consuming, so there are several techniques to reduces the computational complexity, but each of then put projects issues in conflict. I this papers we present a method that can reduce the computational complexity by reducing the search space and paralleling the search.

Keywords: GPS, acquisition, low complexity, parallelism

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22 Modified Montgomery for RSA Cryptosystem

Authors: Rupali Verma, Maitreyee Dutta, Renu Vig


Encryption and decryption in RSA are done by modular exponentiation which is achieved by repeated modular multiplication. Hence, efficiency of modular multiplication directly determines the efficiency of RSA cryptosystem. This paper designs a Modified Montgomery Modular multiplication in which addition of operands is computed by 4:2 compressor. The basic logic operations in addition are partitioned over two iterations such that parallel computations are performed. This reduces the critical path delay of proposed Montgomery design. The proposed design and RSA are implemented on Virtex 2 and Virtex 5 FPGAs. The two factors partitioning and parallelism have improved the frequency and throughput of proposed design.

Keywords: RSA, montgomery modular multiplication, 4:2 compressor, FPGA

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21 A Study of Mandarin Ba Constructions from the Perspective of Event Structure

Authors: Changyin Zhou


Ba constructions are a special type of constructions in Chinese. Their syntactic behaviors are closely related to their event structural properties. The existing study which treats the semantic function of Ba as causative meets difficulty in treating the discrepancy between Ba constructions and their corresponding constructions without Ba in expressing causativity. This paper holds that Ba in Ba constructions is a functional category expressing affectedness. The affectedness expressed by Ba can be positive or negative. The functional category Ba expressing negative affectedness has the semantic property of being 'expected'. The precondition of Ba construction is the boundedness of the event concerned. This paper, holding the parallelism between motion events and change-of-state events, proposes a syntactic model based on the notions of boundedness and affectedness, discusses the transformations between Ba constructions and the related resultative constructions, and derivates the various Ba constructions concerned.

Keywords: affectedness, Ba constructions, boundedness, event structure, resultative constructions

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20 Core Number Optimization Based Scheduler to Order/Mapp Simulink Application

Authors: Asma Rebaya, Imen Amari, Kaouther Gasmi, Salem Hasnaoui


Over these last years, the number of cores witnessed a spectacular increase in digital signal and general use processors. Concurrently, significant researches are done to get benefit from the high degree of parallelism. Indeed, these researches are focused to provide an efficient scheduling from hardware/software systems to multicores architecture. The scheduling process consists on statically choose one core to execute one task and to specify an execution order for the application tasks. In this paper, we describe an efficient scheduler that calculates the optimal number of cores required to schedule an application, gives a heuristic scheduling solution and evaluates its cost. Our proposal results are evaluated and compared with Preesm scheduler results and we prove that ours allows better scheduling in terms of latency, computation time and number of cores.

Keywords: computation time, hardware/software system, latency, optimization, multi-cores platform, scheduling

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19 Quantitative Analysis of Multiprocessor Architectures for Radar Signal Processing

Authors: Deepak Kumar, Debasish Deb, Reena Mamgain


Radar signal processing requires high number crunching capability. Most often this is achieved using multiprocessor platform. Though multiprocessor platform provides the capability of meeting the real time computational challenges, the architecture of the same along with mapping of the algorithm on the architecture plays a vital role in efficiently using the platform. Towards this, along with standard performance metrics, few additional metrics are defined which helps in evaluating the multiprocessor platform along with the algorithm mapping. A generic multiprocessor architecture can not suit all the processing requirements. Depending on the system requirement and type of algorithms used, the most suitable architecture for the given problem is decided. In the paper, we study different architectures and quantify the different performance metrics which enables comparison of different architectures for their merit. We also carried out case study of different architectures and their efficiency depending on parallelism exploited on algorithm or data or both.

Keywords: radar signal processing, multiprocessor architecture, efficiency, load imbalance, buffer requirement, pipeline, parallel, hybrid, cluster of processors (COPs)

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18 The Language Use of Middle Eastern Freedom Activists' Speeches: A Gender Perspective

Authors: Sulistyaningtyas


Examining the role of Middle Eastern freedom activists’ speech based on gender perspective is considered noteworthy because the society in the Middle East is patriarchal. This research aims to examine the language use of the Middle Eastern freedom activists’ speeches through gender perspective. The data sources are from male and female Middle Eastern freedom activists’ speech videos. In analyzing the data, the theories employed are about Language Style from Gender Perspective and The Language for Speech. The result reveals that there are sets of spoken language differences between male and female speakers. In using the language for speech, both male and female speakers produce metaphor, euphemism, the ‘rule of three’, parallelism, and pronouns in random frequency of production, which cannot be separated by genders. Moreover, it cannot be concluded that one gender is more potential than the other to influence the audience in delivering speech. There are other factors, particularly non-verbal factors, existing to give impacts on how a speech can influence the audience.

Keywords: gender perspective, language use, Middle Eastern freedom activists, speech

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17 DNA PLA: A Nano-Biotechnological Programmable Device

Authors: Hafiz Md. HasanBabu, Khandaker Mohammad Mohi Uddin, Md. IstiakJaman Ami, Rahat Hossain Faisal


Computing in biomolecular programming performs through the different types of reactions. Proteins and nucleic acids are used to store the information generated by biomolecular programming. DNA (Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid) can be used to build a molecular computing system and operating system for its predictable molecular behavior property. The DNA device has clear advantages over conventional devices when applied to problems that can be divided into separate, non-sequential tasks. The reason is that DNA strands can hold so much data in memory and conduct multiple operations at once, thus solving decomposable problems much faster. Programmable Logic Array, abbreviated as PLA is a programmable device having programmable AND operations and OR operations. In this paper, a DNA PLA is designed by different molecular operations using DNA molecules with the proposed algorithms. The molecular PLA could take advantage of DNA's physical properties to store information and perform calculations. These include extremely dense information storage, enormous parallelism, and extraordinary energy efficiency.

Keywords: biological systems, DNA computing, parallel computing, programmable logic array, PLA, DNA

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16 The Novel of 'the Adventure of the Secrets': Character in Postmodern Labyrinth, the Problem of Time and Subject

Authors: Nargiz Ismayilova


In Kamal Abdulla's "The Adventure of Mysteries", the plot develops on two parallel lines. While reading the work, the future looks hazy on the background of the present and the past. It is impossible to predict the end of the work in particular. This can be considered the success of the author. The novel has reflected the features of postmodernism. The novel is characterized by a richness of intertwined plots, themes, meta- submission, device (fiction) typical of postmodern prose technique. The introduction and progress of the work takes the reader to the place, which is an unrecognizable unknown for him but at the same time, its native for him very well. Parts of the novel, divided into chapter techniques, force the reader to distinguish mystical repetitions from the artistic circulation of reality. This makes people think directly. Intertextual communication and the variety of fiction, intelligence, and informativeness determine the perspective of the exemplary reader. As is well known, “postmodern novels, which often use intertextual communication and superstructure techniques, focus on expression rather than on the subject, and benefit from history by combining fiction with historical facts, are able to attract attention with their extraordinary foreign fiction.

Keywords: Kamal Abdulla, postmodernism, parallelism, labyrinth, comparison, novel

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15 Modified Bat Algorithm for Economic Load Dispatch Problem

Authors: Daljinder Singh, J.S.Dhillon, Balraj Singh


According to no free lunch theorem, a single search technique cannot perform best in all conditions. Optimization method can be attractive choice to solve optimization problem that may have exclusive advantages like robust and reliable performance, global search capability, little information requirement, ease of implementation, parallelism, no requirement of differentiable and continuous objective function. In order to synergize between exploration and exploitation and to further enhance the performance of Bat algorithm, the paper proposed a modified bat algorithm that adds additional search procedure based on bat’s previous experience. The proposed algorithm is used for solving the economic load dispatch (ELD) problem. The practical constraint such valve-point loading along with power balance constraints and generator limit are undertaken. To take care of power demand constraint variable elimination method is exploited. The proposed algorithm is tested on various ELD problems. The results obtained show that the proposed algorithm is capable of performing better in majority of ELD problems considered and is at par with existing algorithms for some of problems.

Keywords: bat algorithm, economic load dispatch, penalty method, variable elimination method

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14 Portmanteauing Features for Scene Text Recognition

Authors: Yew Lee Tan, Ernest Yu Kai Chew, Adams Wai-Kin Kong, Jung-Jae Kim, Joo Hwee Lim


Scene text images have different shapes and are subjected to various distortions, e.g. perspective distortions. To handle these challenges, the state-of-the-art methods rely on a rectification network, which is connected to the text recognition network. They form a linear pipeline which uses text rectification on all input images, even for images that can be recognized without it. Undoubtedly, the rectification network improves the overall text recognition performance. However, in some cases, the rectification network generates unnecessary distortions on images, resulting in incorrect predictions in images that would have otherwise been correct without it. In order to alleviate the unnecessary distortions, the portmanteauing of features is proposed. The portmanteau feature, inspired by the portmanteau word, is a feature containing information from both the original text image and the rectified image. To generate the portmanteau feature, a non-linear input pipeline with a block matrix initialization is presented. In this work, the transformer is chosen as the recognition network due to its utilization of attention and inherent parallelism, which can effectively handle the portmanteau feature. The proposed method is examined on 6 benchmarks and compared with 13 state-of-the-art methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method outperforms the state-of-the-art methods on various of the benchmarks.

Keywords: scene text recognition, transformer, spatial transformer network, rectification network

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13 A Pragma-Rhetorical Study of Christian Religious Pentecostal Sermons in Nigeria

Authors: Samuel Alaba Akinwotu


Effectiveness in communication requires the deployment of pragmatic and rhetorical strategies in religious sermons. In spite of high volume of works in religious discourse, scholars have not adequately accounted for the persuasive and argumentation strategies employed in Christian religious Pentecostal sermons. This study examines communicative intentions and the pragma-rhetorical strategies deployed to maintain balance and effectiveness in selected sermons of Pastor E. A. Adeboye, Bishop D. Oyedepo and Pastor W. F. Kumuyi. Fifteen sermons, delivered orally and transcribed into the written mode, were selected and analysed using Jacob Mey’s theory of pragmeme, Aristotle’s rhetoric and the theory of argumentation by van Eemeren and Grootendorst. Speakers pract stating, encouraging, assuring, warning, condemning, directing, praising, thanking, etc. through rhetorical question, repetition, direct address, direct command and structural parallelism. They assume divine role by speaking authoritatively and they tactically and logically select words to legitimise their ideology. They also categorise and portray individuals and/or issues either as good or bad, sinner/sin or righteous/righteousness, etc. The study provides clearer insight into the pragmatic import and the communicative effectiveness of Christian Pentecostal sermons. Further research can juxtapose the pragma-rhetorical and argumentation strategies of preachers of two clearly differentiated movements within the Christian religion.

Keywords: argumentation, communicative intentions, pentecostal sermons, pragmeme, rhetoric

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12 Beyond Baudrillard: A Critical Intersection between Semiotics and Materialism

Authors: Francesco Piluso


Nowadays, to restore the deconstructive power of semiotics implies a critical analysis of neoliberal ideology, and, even more critically, a confrontation with materialist perspective. The theoretical path of Jean Baudrillard is crucial to understand the ambivalence of this intersection. A semiotic critique of Baudrillard’s work, through tools of both structuralism and interpretative semiotics, has the aim to give materialism a new consistent semiotic approach and vice-versa. According to Baudrillard, the commodity form is characterized by the same abstract and systemic logic of the sign-form, in which the production of the signified (use-value) is a mere ideological mean for the reproduction of the signifiers-chain (exchange-value). Nevertheless, this parallelism is broken by the author himself: if the use-value is deconstructed in its relative logic, the signified and the referent, both as discrete and positive elements, are collapsed on the same plane at the shadows of the signified forms. These divergent considerations lead Baudrillard to the same crucial point: the dismissal of the material world, replaced by the hyperreality as reproduction of a semiotic (genetic) Code. The stress on the concept of form, as an epistemological and semiotic tool to analyse the construction of values in the consumer society, has led to the Code as its ontological drift. In other words, Baudrillard seems to enclose consumer society (and reality) in this immanent and self-fetishized world of signs–an ideological perspective that mystifies the gravity of the material relationships between Northern-Western World and Third World. The notion of Encyclopaedia by Umberto Eco is the key to overturn the relationship of immanence/transcendence between the Code and the economic political of the sign, by understanding the former as an ideological plane within the encyclopedia itself. Therefore, rather than building semiotic (hyper)realities, semiotics has to deal with materialism in terms of material relationships of power which are mystified and reproduced through such ideological ontologies of signs.

Keywords: Baudrillard, Code, Eco, Encyclopaedia, epistemology vs. ontology, semiotics vs. materialism

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11 Use Cloud-Based Watson Deep Learning Platform to Train Models Faster and More Accurate

Authors: Susan Diamond


Machine Learning workloads have traditionally been run in high-performance computing (HPC) environments, where users log in to dedicated machines and utilize the attached GPUs to run training jobs on huge datasets. Training of large neural network models is very resource intensive, and even after exploiting parallelism and accelerators such as GPUs, a single training job can still take days. Consequently, the cost of hardware is a barrier to entry. Even when upfront cost is not a concern, the lead time to set up such an HPC environment takes months from acquiring hardware to set up the hardware with the right set of firmware, software installed and configured. Furthermore, scalability is hard to achieve in a rigid traditional lab environment. Therefore, it is slow to react to the dynamic change in the artificial intelligent industry. Watson Deep Learning as a service, a cloud-based deep learning platform that mitigates the long lead time and high upfront investment in hardware. It enables robust and scalable sharing of resources among the teams in an organization. It is designed for on-demand cloud environments. Providing a similar user experience in a multi-tenant cloud environment comes with its own unique challenges regarding fault tolerance, performance, and security. Watson Deep Learning as a service tackles these challenges and present a deep learning stack for the cloud environments in a secure, scalable and fault-tolerant manner. It supports a wide range of deep-learning frameworks such as Tensorflow, PyTorch, Caffe, Torch, Theano, and MXNet etc. These frameworks reduce the effort and skillset required to design, train, and use deep learning models. Deep Learning as a service is used at IBM by AI researchers in areas including machine translation, computer vision, and healthcare. 

Keywords: deep learning, machine learning, cognitive computing, model training

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10 Wireless FPGA-Based Motion Controller Design by Implementing 3-Axis Linear Trajectory

Authors: Kiana Zeighami, Morteza Ozlati Moghadam


Designing a high accuracy and high precision motion controller is one of the important issues in today’s industry. There are effective solutions available in the industry but the real-time performance, smoothness and accuracy of the movement can be further improved. This paper discusses a complete solution to carry out the movement of three stepper motors in three dimensions. The objective is to provide a method to design a fully integrated System-on-Chip (SOC)-based motion controller to reduce the cost and complexity of production by incorporating Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) into the design. In the proposed method the FPGA receives its commands from a host computer via wireless internet communication and calculates the motion trajectory for three axes. A profile generator module is designed to realize the interpolation algorithm by translating the position data to the real-time pulses. This paper discusses an approach to implement the linear interpolation algorithm, since it is one of the fundamentals of robots’ movements and it is highly applicable in motion control industries. Along with full profile trajectory, the triangular drive is implemented to eliminate the existence of error at small distances. To integrate the parallelism and real-time performance of FPGA with the power of Central Processing Unit (CPU) in executing complex and sequential algorithms, the NIOS II soft-core processor was added into the design. This paper presents different operating modes such as absolute, relative positioning, reset and velocity modes to fulfill the user requirements. The proposed approach was evaluated by designing a custom-made FPGA board along with a mechanical structure. As a result, a precise and smooth movement of stepper motors was observed which proved the effectiveness of this approach.

Keywords: 3-axis linear interpolation, FPGA, motion controller, micro-stepping

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9 A Parallel Computation Based on GPU Programming for a 3D Compressible Fluid Flow Simulation

Authors: Sugeng Rianto, P.W. Arinto Yudi, Soemarno Muhammad Nurhuda


A computation of a 3D compressible fluid flow for virtual environment with haptic interaction can be a non-trivial issue. This is especially how to reach good performances and balancing between visualization, tactile feedback interaction, and computations. In this paper, we describe our approach of computation methods based on parallel programming on a GPU. The 3D fluid flow solvers have been developed for smoke dispersion simulation by using combinations of the cubic interpolated propagation (CIP) based fluid flow solvers and the advantages of the parallelism and programmability of the GPU. The fluid flow solver is generated in the GPU-CPU message passing scheme to get rapid development of haptic feedback modes for fluid dynamic data. A rapid solution in fluid flow solvers is developed by applying cubic interpolated propagation (CIP) fluid flow solvers. From this scheme, multiphase fluid flow equations can be solved simultaneously. To get more acceleration in the computation, the Navier-Stoke Equations (NSEs) is packed into channels of texel, where computation models are performed on pixels that can be considered to be a grid of cells. Therefore, despite of the complexity of the obstacle geometry, processing on multiple vertices and pixels can be done simultaneously in parallel. The data are also shared in global memory for CPU to control the haptic in providing kinaesthetic interaction and felling. The results show that GPU based parallel computation approaches provide effective simulation of compressible fluid flow model for real-time interaction in 3D computer graphic for PC platform. This report has shown the feasibility of a new approach of solving the compressible fluid flow equations on the GPU. The experimental tests proved that the compressible fluid flowing on various obstacles with haptic interactions on the few model obstacles can be effectively and efficiently simulated on the reasonable frame rate with a realistic visualization. These results confirm that good performances and balancing between visualization, tactile feedback interaction, and computations can be applied successfully.

Keywords: CIP, compressible fluid, GPU programming, parallel computation, real-time visualisation

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8 Influence of Strike-Slip Faulting in the Tectonic Evolution of North-Eastern Tunisia

Authors: Aymen Arfaoui, Abdelkader Soumaya, Ali Kadri, Noureddine Ben Ayed


The major contractional events characterized by strike-slip faulting, folding, and thrusting occurred in the Eocene, Late Miocene, and Quaternary along with the NE Tunisian domain between Bou Kornine-Ressas- Msella and Cap Bon Peninsula. During the Plio-Quaternary, the Grombalia and Mornag grabens show a maximum of collapse in parallelism with the NNW-SSE SHmax direction and developed as 3rd order extensive regions within a regional compressional regime. Using available tectonic and geophysical data supplemented by new fault-kinematic observations, we show that Cenozoic deformations are dominated by first order N-S faults reactivation, this sinistral wrench system is responsible for the formation of strike-slip duplexes, thrusts, folds, and grabens. Based on our new structural interpretation, the major faults of N-S Axis, Bou Kornine-Ressas-Messella (MRB), and Hammamet-Korbous (HK) form an N-S first order restraining stepover within a left-lateral strike-slip duplex. The N-S master MRB fault is dominated by contractional imbricate fans, while the parallel HK fault is characterized by a trailing of extensional imbricate fans. The Eocene and Miocene compression phases in the study area caused sinistral strike-slip reactivation of pre-existing N-S faults, reverse reactivation of NE-SW trending faults, and normal-oblique reactivation of NW-SE faults, creating a NE-SW to N-S trending system of east-verging folds and overlaps. Seismic tomography images reveal a key role for the lithospheric subvertical tear or STEP fault (Slab Transfer Edge Propagator) evidenced below this region on the development of the MRB and the HK relay zone. The presence of extensive syntectonic Pliocene sequences above this crustal scale fault may be the result of a recent lithospheric vertical motion of this STEP fault due to the rollback and lateral migration of the Calabrian slab eastward.

Keywords: Tunisia, strike-slip fault, contractional duplex, tectonic stress, restraining stepover, STEP fault

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7 Portable and Parallel Accelerated Development Method for Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)-Central Processing Unit (CPU)- Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) Heterogeneous Computing

Authors: Nan Hu, Chao Wang, Xi Li, Xuehai Zhou


The field-programmable gate array (FPGA) has been widely adopted in the high-performance computing domain. In recent years, the embedded system-on-a-chip (SoC) contains coarse granularity multi-core CPU (central processing unit) and mobile GPU (graphics processing unit) that can be used as general-purpose accelerators. The motivation is that algorithms of various parallel characteristics can be efficiently mapped to the heterogeneous architecture coupled with these three processors. The CPU and GPU offload partial computationally intensive tasks from the FPGA to reduce the resource consumption and lower the overall cost of the system. However, in present common scenarios, the applications always utilize only one type of accelerator because the development approach supporting the collaboration of the heterogeneous processors faces challenges. Therefore, a systematic approach takes advantage of write-once-run-anywhere portability, high execution performance of the modules mapped to various architectures and facilitates the exploration of design space. In this paper, A servant-execution-flow model is proposed for the abstraction of the cooperation of the heterogeneous processors, which supports task partition, communication and synchronization. At its first run, the intermediate language represented by the data flow diagram can generate the executable code of the target processor or can be converted into high-level programming languages. The instantiation parameters efficiently control the relationship between the modules and computational units, including two hierarchical processing units mapping and adjustment of data-level parallelism. An embedded system of a three-dimensional waveform oscilloscope is selected as a case study. The performance of algorithms such as contrast stretching, etc., are analyzed with implementations on various combinations of these processors. The experimental results show that the heterogeneous computing system with less than 35% resources achieves similar performance to the pure FPGA and approximate energy efficiency.

Keywords: FPGA-CPU-GPU collaboration, design space exploration, heterogeneous computing, intermediate language, parameterized instantiation

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