Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 37

Search results for: Preeti Aghalayam

37 Microkinetic Modelling of NO Reduction on Pt Catalysts

Authors: Vishnu S. Prasad, Preeti Aghalayam

Abstract:

The major harmful automobile exhausts are nitric oxide (NO) and unburned hydrocarbon (HC). Reduction of NO using unburned fuel HC as a reductant is the technique used in hydrocarbon-selective catalytic reduction (HC-SCR). In this work, we study the microkinetic modelling of NO reduction using propene as a reductant on Pt catalysts. The selectivity of NO reduction to N2O is detected in some ranges of operating conditions, whereas the effect of inlet O2% causes a number of changes in the feasible regimes of operation.

Keywords: microkinetic modelling, NOx, platinum on alumina catalysts, selective catalytic reduction

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36 Modelling of Cavity Growth in Underground Coal Gasification

Authors: Preeti Aghalayam, Jay Shah

Abstract:

Underground coal gasification (UCG) is the in-situ gasification of unmineable coals to produce syngas. In UCG, gasifying agents are injected into the coal seam, and a reactive cavity is formed due to coal consumption. The cavity formed is typically hemispherical, and this report consists of the MATLAB model of the UCG cavity to predict the composition of the output gases. There are seven radial and two time-variant ODEs. A MATLAB solver (ode15s) is used to solve the radial ODEs from the above equations. Two for-loops are implemented in the model, i.e., one for time variations and another for radial variation. In the time loop, the radial odes are solved using the MATLAB solver. The radial loop is nested inside the time loop, and the density odes are numerically solved using the Euler method. The model is validated by comparing it with the literature results of laboratory-scale experiments. The model predicts the radial and time variation of the product gases inside the cavity.

Keywords: gasification agent, MATLAB model, syngas, underground coal gasification (UCG)

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35 Approximation by Generalized Lupaş-Durrmeyer Operators with Two Parameter α and β

Authors: Preeti Sharma

Abstract:

This paper deals with the Stancu type generalization of Lupaş-Durrmeyer operators. We establish some direct results in the polynomial weighted space of continuous functions defined on the interval [0, 1]. Also, Voronovskaja type theorem is studied.

Keywords: Lupas-Durrmeyer operators, polya distribution, weighted approximation, rate of convergence, modulus of continuity

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34 Copywriting and the Creative Edge

Authors: Dandeswar Bisoyi, Preeti Yadav, Utpal Barua

Abstract:

This study address particular way that verbal information can affect the processing of positive and interesting qualities which help in making the brand attractive to the consumer. Also, it address the development of a communication strategy which is a very important part of the marketing plan we have to take into account many factors. Out of all the product strengths, the strategy has to outline one marked differential which will drive our brand. This is the fundamental base on which the entire creative strategy will be big idea-based.

Keywords: copy writing, advertisement, marketing, branding, recall

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33 Biomedical Waste Management an Unsung Hero

Authors: Preeti Madan, Shalini Malhotra, Nirmaljit Kaur, Charoo Hans, VK Sabarwal

Abstract:

Hospital is one of the most diverse and complex institutions frequented by people from every walk of life without any distinction between age, sex, gender, religion or intellect. This is over and above the normal inhabitant of hospital i.e. doctors, patients, and paramedical staff. The hospital waste generated 85% is non hazardous, 10% infectious and around 5% are non-infectious but hazardous waste. The management of biomedical waste is still in its infancy. There is a lot of confusion with the problems among the generators, operators, decision makers, and general community about the safe management of biomedical waste prompt action initiated to seek new scientific, safe, and cost-effective management of waste.

Keywords: biomedical waste, nosocomial infection, waste management, hospitals

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32 Anthropomorphic Brand Mascot Serve as the Vehicle: To Quickly Remind Customers Who You Are and What You Stand for in Indian Cultural Context

Authors: Preeti Yadav, Dandeswar Bisoyi, Debkumar Chakrabati

Abstract:

For many years organization have been exercising a creative technique of applying brand mascots, which results in making a visual ‘ambassador’ of a brand. The goal of mascot’s is just not confined to strengthening the brand identity, improving customer perception, but also acting as a vehicle of anthropomorphic translation towards the consumer. Such that it helps in embracing the power of recognition and processing the experiences happening in our daily lives. The study examines the relationship between the specific mascot features and brand attitude. It eliminates that mascot trust is an important mediator of the mascot features on brand attitude. Anthropomorphic characters turn out to be the key players despite the application of brand mascots in today’s marketing.

Keywords: advertising, mascot, branding, recall

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31 Analysis of Caffeic Acid from Myrica nagi Leaves by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Preeti Panthari, Harsha Kharkwal

Abstract:

Myrica nagi belongs to Myricaceae family. It is known for its therapeutic use since ancient times. The leaves were extracted with methanol and further fractioned with different solvents with increasing polarity. The n-butanol fraction of methanol extract was passed through celite, on separation through silica gel column chromatography yielded ten fractions. For the first time we report isolation of Caffeic acid from n-butanol fraction of Myrica nagi leaves in Chloroform: methanol (70:30) fraction. The mobile phase used for analysis in HPLC was Methanol: water (60:40) at the flow rate of 1 ml/min at wavelength of 280 nm. The retention time was 2.66 mins.

Keywords: Myrica nagi, column chromatography, retention time, caffeic acid

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30 Use of Indian Food Mascot Design as an Advertising Tool in Maintaining and Growing the Brand Name

Authors: Preeti Yadav, Dandeswar Bisoyi, Debkumar Chakrabarti

Abstract:

Mascots provide memories to viewers, and numerous promotional campaigns with different appearances, continue to trigger viewers and capture their interest. This study investigates the effect of Indian food mascot designs and influence on enhancing communication; thereby, building long-term brand recognition by the consumers. This paper presents a descriptive approach to Indian food mascot design as an advertising tool, and its research adopts a quantitative methodology. The study confirms that mascots have an ability to communicate a message in an effective manner; all though they are simple in terms of design and fashion trend, they have the capability to build positive reactions.

Keywords: food mascot, brand recognitions, advertising, humour

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29 Image Steganography Using Least Significant Bit Technique

Authors: Preeti Kumari, Ridhi Kapoor

Abstract:

 In any communication, security is the most important issue in today’s world. In this paper, steganography is the process of hiding the important data into other data, such as text, audio, video, and image. The interest in this topic is to provide availability, confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of data. The steganographic technique that embeds hides content with unremarkable cover media so as not to provoke eavesdropper’s suspicion or third party and hackers. In which many applications of compression, encryption, decryption, and embedding methods are used for digital image steganography. Due to compression, the nose produces in the image. To sustain noise in the image, the LSB insertion technique is used. The performance of the proposed embedding system with respect to providing security to secret message and robustness is discussed. We also demonstrate the maximum steganography capacity and visual distortion.

Keywords: steganography, LSB, encoding, information hiding, color image

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28 Cadmium Separation from Aqueous Solutions by Natural Biosorbents

Authors: Z. V. P. Murthy, Preeti Arunachalam, Sangeeta Balram

Abstract:

Removal of metal ions from different wastewaters has become important due to their effects on living beings. Cadmium is one of the heavy metals found in different industrial wastewaters. There are many conventional methods available to remove heavy metals from wastewaters like adsorption, membrane separations, precipitation, electrolytic methods, etc. and all of them have their own advantages and disadvantages. The present work deals with the use of natural biosorbents (chitin and chitosan) to separate cadmium ions from aqueous solutions. The adsorption data were fitted with different isotherms and kinetics models. Amongst different adsorption isotherms used to fit the adsorption data, the Freundlich isotherm showed better fits for both the biosorbents. The kinetics data of adsorption of cadmium showed better fit with pseudo-second order model for both the biosorbents. Chitosan, the derivative from chitin, showed better performance than chitin. The separation results are encouraging.

Keywords: chitin, chitosan, cadmium, isotherm, kinetics

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27 Factors Impacting Shopping Behavior for Luxury Fashion Brands: A Case of National Capital Region in India

Authors: Manoj Kumar, Preeti Goel

Abstract:

National Capital Region of India is one of the most populous urban agglomerations in the world. This region has residents from all the parts of India, and their shopping behaviors are quite different. The region also has the substantial population of people from other countries. Due to high purchasing power of a large number of people, NCR is one the major markets for luxury fashion brands. Marketers of luxury fashion brands keep on adding innovative features to their products to attract the buyers. This research is an attempt to understand the major factors which impact the brand selection for these brands and other buying decisions like purchasing time and location. The research is based on primary data collected from potential buyers of luxury fashion brands and the people involved in the marketing of these brands in various roles. The research has tried to identify the relative strength of various factors on the shopping behavior for these brands.

Keywords: luxury brands, fashion, shopping, National Capital Region (NCR)

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26 Synthesis of Nanosized Amorphous Alumina Particles and Their Use in Electroless Ni-P Coatings

Authors: Preeti Makkar, R. C. Agarwala, Vijaya Agarwala

Abstract:

The present study focuses on the preparation of Al2O3 nanoparticles by top down approach i.e. mechanical milling using high energy planetary ball mill at 250 rpm for 40h. The milled Al2O3 nanoparticles are then used as the second phase to develop electroless (EL) Ni-P- Al2O3 nanocomposite coatings on mild steel substrate. An alkaline bath was used with a suspension of Al2O3 particles (4 g/L) for the synthesis of Ni-P-Al2O3 nanocomposite coating. The surface morphology, size range and phase analysis of as-prepared Al2O3 particles and the coatings were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The coatings were heat treated at 400°C for 1h in argon atmosphere and the hardness of the nanocomposite coatings was investigated with respect to Ni-P before and after heat treatment. The results showed that as milled Al2O3 nanoparticles exhibit irregular shaped and size ranges around 40-45 nm. The Al2O3 particles are uniformly distributed in Ni-P matrix. The microhardness of the coatings is found to be significantly improved after heat treatment (1126 VHN).

Keywords: Electroless (EL), Ni-P-Al2O3, nanocomposite, mechanical milling, microhardness

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25 Career Decisiveness among Indian College Going Students: A Psychosocial Study

Authors: Preeti Nakhat, Neeta Sinha

Abstract:

Career plays an indispensable role in shaping one’s outlook on life. Choosing right career adds 'feathers to the life' whereas wrong career decision 'takes a toll 'in one’s life. It is pivotal for the students to know the career opportunities related to their field where they can escalate and excel. With the aim to comprehend certainty and indecisiveness in career decision among college students, a study will be conducted. The study focuses to gain insight on decisiveness and indecisiveness of career among the students. The hypotheses for the study are (1) There is no relation between the medium of education (vernacular/English medium) and career decisiveness among the college students. (2) There is no relation between the faculty(science, commerce, arts)chosen and career decisiveness. (3)There is no relation between father’s qualification and career decisiveness. To test the aforementioned hypotheses, a survey questionnaire will be used. The questionnaire is 'Career decision scale' by Samuel H. Osipow. This study will include 200 college going students. The data will be collected from first, second, third, and fourth year students. Statistical analysis of the data collected with be done through SPSS/Excel calculation and then the hypotheses will be tested.

Keywords: career decisiveness, career indecisiveness, college students, career

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24 Plant Leaf Recognition Using Deep Learning

Authors: Aadhya Kaul, Gautam Manocha, Preeti Nagrath

Abstract:

Our environment comprises of a wide variety of plants that are similar to each other and sometimes the similarity between the plants makes the identification process tedious thus increasing the workload of the botanist all over the world. Now all the botanists cannot be accessible all the time for such laborious plant identification; therefore, there is an urge for a quick classification model. Also, along with the identification of the plants, it is also necessary to classify the plant as healthy or not as for a good lifestyle, humans require good food and this food comes from healthy plants. A large number of techniques have been applied to classify the plants as healthy or diseased in order to provide the solution. This paper proposes one such method known as anomaly detection using autoencoders using a set of collections of leaves. In this method, an autoencoder model is built using Keras and then the reconstruction of the original images of the leaves is done and the threshold loss is found in order to classify the plant leaves as healthy or diseased. A dataset of plant leaves is considered to judge the reconstructed performance by convolutional autoencoders and the average accuracy obtained is 71.55% for the purpose.

Keywords: convolutional autoencoder, anomaly detection, web application, FLASK

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23 Allura Red, Sunset Yellow and Amaranth Azo Dyes for Corrosion Inhibition of Mild Steel in 0.5 H₂SO₄ Solutions

Authors: Ashish Kumar Singh, Preeti Tiwari, Shubham Srivastava, Rajiv Prakash, Herman Terryn, Gopal Ji

Abstract:

Corrosion inhibition potential of azo dyes namely Allura red (AR), Sunset Yellow (SY) and Amaranth (AN) have been investigated in 0.5 M H2SO4 solutions by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), Tafel polarization curves, linear polarization curves, open circuit potential (ocp) curves, UV-Visible spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. Amaranth dye is found to provide highest corrosion inhibition (90 %) against mild steel corrosion in sulfuric acid solutions among all the tested dyes; while SY and AR dye shows 80% and 78% corrosion inhibition efficiency respectively. The electrochemical measurements and surface morphology analysis reveal that molecular adsorption of dyes at metal acid interface is accountable for inhibition of mild steel corrosion in H2SO4 solutions. The adsorption behavior of dyes has been investigated by various isotherms models, which verifies that it is in accordance with Langmuir isotherm.

Keywords: mild steel, Azo dye, EIS, Langmuir isotherm

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22 Quality Evaluation of Bread Enriched with Red Sweet Pepper Powder (Capsicum annuum)

Authors: Ramandeep Kaur, Kamaljit Kaur, Preeti Ahluwalia, Poonam A. Sachdev

Abstract:

Bread is an ideal vehicle to impart bioactive compounds to the consumers in a convenient manner. This study evaluated bread enriched with red sweet pepper powder (RSP) at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10% and compared to control bread (without RSP). The bread crumbs were assayed for bioactive, physical, nutritional, textural, color, and sensory properties. Bread supplemented with RSP improved its color, nutritional, and bioactive properties. The low moisture content and increased hardness were observed at higher levels of RSP. Color intensity (expressed as L*, a*, b* values) of bread with 2 and 4% RSP were lower than those of high levels, and the same trend was observed for protein, fibre and ash content of bread. Significant (p < 0.05) increases were recorded for bioactive compounds such as total phenols (0.145 to 235 mg GAE/g), antioxidant activity (56% to 78%) and flavonoids (0.112 to 0.379 mg/g) as the level of powder increased. Bread enriched with 8% RSP showed improved sensory profile as compared to control, whereas a further increase in RSP decreased the sensory and textural properties. Thus, RSP act as a natural colorant and functional food that enhanced the functional and nutritional properties of bread and can be used to customize bread for specific health needs.

Keywords: breads, bioactive compounds, red sweet pepper powder, sensory scores

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21 Development and Characterization of Hydroxyapatite Based Nanocomposites for Local Drug Delivery to Periodontal Pockets

Authors: Indu Lata Kanwar, Preeti K. Suresh

Abstract:

The aim of this study is to fabricate hydroxyapatite based nanocomposites for local drug delivery in periodontal pockets. Hydroxyapatite is chemically similar to the mineral component of bones and hard tissues in mammals. Synthetic biocompatibility and bioactivity with human teeth and bone, making it very attractive for biomedical applications. Nanocomposite is a multiphase solid material where one of the phases has one, two or three dimensions of less than 100 nanometres (nm), or structures having nano­scale repeat distances between the different phases that make up the material. Nanostructured calcium phosphate materials play an important role in the formation of hard tissues in nature. It is reported that calcium phosphates materials in nano-size can mimic the dimensions of constituent components of calcified tissues. Nano-sized materials offer improved performances compared with conventional materials due to their large surface-to-volume ratios. The specific biological properties of the nanocomposites, as well as their interaction with cells, include the use of bioactive molecules. The approach of periodontal tissue engineering is considered promising to restore bone defect through the use of engineered materials with the aim that they will prohibit the invasion of fibrous connective tissue and help repair the function during bone regeneration.

Keywords: bioactive, hydroxyapatite, nanocomposities, periondontal

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20 Development and in vitro Characterization of Loteprednol Etabonate-Loaded Polymeric Nanoparticles for Ocular Delivery

Authors: Abhishek Kumar Sah, Preeti K. Suresh

Abstract:

Effective drug delivery to the eye is a massive challenge, due to complicated physiological ocular barriers, rapid washout by tear and nasolachrymal drainage. Thus, most of the conventional ophthalmic formulations face the problem of low ocular bioavailability. Ophthalmic drug therapy can be improved by enhancing the precorneal drug retention along with improved drug penetration. The aim of the present investigation was to develop and evaluate a biodegradable polymer poly (D, L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) coated nanoparticulate carrier of loteprednol etabonate. PLGA nanoparticles were prepared by modified emulsification/solvent diffusion method using high-speed homogenizer followed by sonication. The nanoparticles were characterized for various parameters such as particle size, zeta potential, polydispersity index, X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in vitro drug release profile and stability. The prepared nanocarriers displayed mean particle size in the range of 271.7 to 424.4 nm, with zeta potential less than –10 mV. In vitro release in simulated tear fluid (STF) nanocarrier showed an extended release profile of loteprednol etabonate. TEM confirmed the spherical morphology and smooth surface of the particles. All the prepared formulations were found to be stable at varying temperatures.

Keywords: drug delivery, ocular delivery, polymeric nanoparticles, loteprednol etabonate

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19 QSAR, Docking and E-pharmacophore Approach on Novel Series of HDAC Inhibitors with Thiophene Linker as Anticancer Agents

Authors: Harish Rajak, Preeti Patel

Abstract:

HDAC inhibitors can reactivate gene expression and inhibit the growth and survival of cancer cells. The 3D-QSAR and Pharmacophore modeling studies were performed to identify important pharmacophoric features and correlate 3D-chemical structure with biological activity. The pharmacophore hypotheses were developed using e-pharmacophore script and phase module. Pharmacophore hypothesis represents the 3D arrangement of molecular features necessary for activity. A series of 55 compounds with well-assigned HDAC inhibitory activity was used for 3D-QSAR model development. Best 3D-QSAR model, which is a five PLS factor model with good statistics and predictive ability, acquired Q2 (0.7293), R2 (0.9811) and standard deviation (0.0952). Molecular docking were performed using Histone Deacetylase protein (PDB ID: 1t69) and prepared series of hydroxamic acid based HDAC inhibitors. Docking study of compound 43 show significant binding interactions Ser 276 and oxygen atom of dioxine cap region, Gly 151 and amino group and Asp 267 with carboxyl group of CONHOH, which are essential for anticancer activity. On docking, most of the compounds exhibited better glide score values between -8 to -10.5. We have established structure activity correlation using docking, energetic based pharmacophore modelling, pharmacophore and atom based 3D QSAR model. The results of these studies were further used for the design and testing of new HDAC analogs.

Keywords: Docking, e-pharmacophore, HDACIs, QSAR, Suberoylanilidehydroxamic acid.

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18 Thermochemical and Biological Pretreatment Study for Efficient Sugar Release from Lignocellulosic Biomass (Deodar and Sal Wood Residues)

Authors: Neelu Raina, Parvez Singh Slathia, Deepali Bhagat, Preeti Sharma

Abstract:

Pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass for generating suitable substrates (starch/ sugars) for conversion to bioethanol is the most crucial step. In present study waste from furniture industry i.e sawdust from softwood Cedrus deodara (deodar) and hardwood Shorea robusta (sal) was used as lignocellulosic biomass. Thermochemical pretreatment was given by autoclaving at 121°C temperature and 15 psi pressure. Acids (H2SO4,HCl,HNO3,H3PO4), alkali (NaOH,NH4OH,KOH,Ca(OH)2) and organic acids (C6H8O7,C2H2O4,C4H4O4) were used at 0.1%, 0.5% and 1% concentration without giving any residence time. 1% HCl gave maximum sugar yield of 3.6587g/L in deodar and 6.1539 g/L in sal. For biological pretreatment a fungi isolated from decaying wood was used , sawdust from deodar tree species was used as a lignocellulosic substrate and before thermochemical pretreatment sawdust was treated with fungal culture at 37°C under submerged conditions with a residence time of one week followed by a thermochemical pretreatment methodology. Higher sugar yields were obtained with sal tree species followed by deodar tree species, i.e., 6.0334g/L in deodar and 8.3605g/L in sal was obtained by a combined biological and thermochemical pretreatment. Use of acids along with biological pretreatment is a favourable factor for breaking the lignin seal and thus increasing the sugar yield. Sugar estimation was done using Dinitrosalicyclic assay method. Result validation is being done by statistical analysis.

Keywords: lignocellulosic biomass, bioethanol, pretreatment, sawdust

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17 Potentiality of Biohythane Process for the Gaseous Energy Recovery from Organic Wastes

Authors: Debabrata Das, Preeti Mishra

Abstract:

A two-phase anaerobic process combining biohydrogen followed by biomethane (biohythane technology) serves as an environment-friendly and economically sustainable approach for the improved valorization of organic wastes. Suitability of the pure cultures like Klebsiela pneumonia, C. freundii, B. coagulan, etc. and mixed acidogenic cultures for the biohydrogen production was already studied. The characteristics of organic wastes play a critical role in biohydrogen production. The choice of an appropriate combination of complementary organic wastes can vastly improve the bioenergy generation besides achieving the significant cost reduction. Suitability and economic viability of using the groundnut deoiled cake (GDOC), mustard deoiled cake (MDOC), distillers’ dried grain with soluble (DDGS) and algal biomass (AB) as a co-substrate were studied for a biohythane production. Results show that maximum gaseous energy of 20.7, 9.3, 16.7 and 15.6 % was recovered using GDOC, MDOC, DDGS and AB in the two stage biohythane production, respectively. Both GDOC and DDGS were found to be better co-substrates as compared to MDOC and AB in terms of hythane production, respectively. The maximum cumulative hydrogen and methane production of 150 and 64 mmol/L were achieved using GDOC. Further, 98 % reduction in substrate input cost (SIC) was achieved using the co-supplementation procedure.

Keywords: Biohythane, algal biomass, distillers’ dried grain with soluble (DDGS), groundnut deoiled cake (GDOC), mustard deoiled cake (MDOC)

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16 Docking, Pharmacophore Modeling and 3d QSAR Studies on Some Novel HDAC Inhibitors with Heterocyclic Linker

Authors: Harish Rajak, Preeti Patel

Abstract:

The application of histone deacetylase inhibitors is a well-known strategy in prevention of cancer which shows acceptable preclinical antitumor activity due to its ability of growth inhibition and apoptosis induction of cancer cell. Molecular docking were performed using Histone Deacetylase protein (PDB ID:1t69) and prepared series of hydroxamic acid based HDACIs. On the basis of docking study, it was predicted that compound 1 has significant binding interaction with HDAC protein and three hydrogen bond interactions takes place, which are essential for antitumor activity. On docking, most of the compounds exhibited better glide score values between -8 to -10 which is close to the glide score value of suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid. The pharmacophore hypotheses were developed using e-pharmacophore script and phase module. The 3D-QSAR models provided a good correlation between predicted and actual anticancer activity. Best QSAR model showed Q2 (0.7974), R2 (0.9200) and standard deviation (0.2308). QSAR visualization maps suggest that hydrogen bond acceptor groups at carbonyl group of cap region and hydrophobic groups at ortho, meta, para position of R9 were favorable for HDAC inhibitory activity. We established structure activity correlation using docking, pharmacophore modeling and atom based 3D QSAR model for hydroxamic acid based HDACIs.

Keywords: HDACIs, QSAR, e-pharmacophore, docking, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid

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15 A Case of Ujjain on Religious Tourism: Challenges for Sustainability

Authors: Harsimran Kaur Chadha, Preeti Onkar

Abstract:

Tourism has grown into one of the world’s largest industries in the last two decades all over the world. It is an important sector of Indian economy as it contributes substantially to the foreign exchange earnings of the country. The tourism policies of India aim to position tourism as a major engine of economic growth. These policies work towards utilizing tourism’s direct and multiplier effect on employment and poverty eradication in a sustainable manner. India is blessed with a great ancient and living civilization that gave rise to four of the world’s great religions and philosophies. Diverse religions, castes, languages, culture of India build a tremendous potential for religious tourism in India. Religious Tourism facilitates development of basic infrastructural facilities, generates income for the local community as well as the government, balances regional development, and fosters peace and socio-cultural harmony. However, tourism development needs to be regulated to prevent the negative impacts. The main challenge towards Sustainable Tourism development is to balance limits and usage of natural resources. The uncontrollable growth of tourism should not lead to resource degradation. Since tourism growth is inevitable, the challenge is to manage it sustainably within environmental, social and economic constraints. This paper tries to explore both the benefits and costs of Religious Tourism Development, using the example of Simhasth Kumbh Mahaparv at Ujjain. Finally it concludes by putting forth the notion that heavy investments for temporary infrastructure development incurred during these large spiritual gatherings need to be sustainable in the long run.

Keywords: challenges, religious, sustainable, tourism

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14 Behavior, Temperament and Food Intake of Urban Indian Adolescents

Authors: Preeti Khanna, Bani T. Aeri

Abstract:

Background: Recent studies have indicated challenges that hamper health and wellbeing of a vast majority of adolescents in developing countries. Many modifiable factors like behavior and temperament related to food intake among adolescents have not been adequately explored. The aim of the proposed research is to study the impact of behavior and temperament on food intake and diet quality of adolescents. Objectives: In the present study data on dietary behavior and anthropometry of adolescent boys & girls (aged 13-16 years) studying in public schools of Delhi will be gathered to ascertain the quality of diet among adolescent boys and girls and to study the effect of behavior and temperament on diet quality of adolescents. Methods: In total, 400 adolescents will participate in this cross-sectional study. Weight and height of adolescents will be measured and BMI will be calculated. Information will be obtained on their socio-demographic profile and various factors influencing their Food Choices and diet quality such as body image perception, Behavior, temperament, locus of control and parental influence. Expected results: Several direct effects of adolescent traits and behavior on food intake will be observed. Maturational patterns and gender differences in behavior traits will be assessed. By profiling of the behavior and temperament traits, we will have a better understanding of impact of these factors on weight and eating behaviors in overweight/obese or even underweight adolescents. Conclusions: The proposed study will highlight the association of behavioral factors with nutritional status of adolescents. It will also serve as a strategic approach for the obesity prevention and health management policies designed for adolescents.

Keywords: behaviour, temperament, food intake, adolescents

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13 Surfactant-Modified Chitosan Beads: An Efficient and Cost Effective Material for Adsorptive Removal of Lead from Aqueous Solutions

Authors: Preeti Pal, Anjali Pal

Abstract:

Chitosan is an effective sorbent for removal of contaminants from wastewater. However, the ability of pure chitosan is specific because of its cationic charge. It causes repulsion in the removal process of various cationic charged molecules. The present study has been carried out for the successful removal of Pb²⁺ ions from aqueous solution by modified chitosan beads. Surface modification of chitosan (CS) beads was performed by using the anionic surfactant (AS), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). Micelle aggregation property of SDS has been utilized for the formation of bilayer over the CS beads to produce surfactant modified chitosan (SMCS) beads. Prepared adsorbents were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in order to find out their composition and surface morphology. SMCS beads, when compared to the pure CS beads, showed three times higher adsorption. This higher adsorption is believed to be due to the adsolubilization of Pb²⁺ ions on SDS bilayer. This bilayer provides more adsorption sites for quick and effective removal of Pb²⁺ ions from the aqueous phase. Moreover, the kinetic and adsorption isotherm models were employed to the obtained data for the description of the lead adsorption processes. It was found that the removal kinetics follows pseudo-second order model. Adsorption isotherm data fits well to the Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity obtained is 100 mg/g at the dosage of 0.675 g/L for 50 mg/L of Pb²⁺. The adsorption capacity is subject to increase with increasing the Pb²⁺ ions concentration in the solution. The results indicated that the prepared hydrogel beads are efficient adsorbent for removal of Pb²⁺ ions from the aqueous medium.

Keywords: adsolubilisation, anionic surfactant, bilayer, chitosan, Pb²⁺

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12 Changing Dynamics of Women Entrepreneurship: A Literature Review of a Decade

Authors: Viral Nagori, Preeti Shroff, Prathana Dodia

Abstract:

The paper presents the study on women entrepreneurship over the last decade in Indian and Global Context. This research study has its basis primarily in the literature review. The research methodology classifies the literature review paper based on different parameters of women entrepreneurship. The literature review relies on research papers in journals, articles in periodicals, and books published on women entrepreneurship. To accomplish this, the criteria included finding the most relevant, recent, and cited studies on women entrepreneurship over the last decade. It aims to evaluate the issues and challenges faced by women entrepreneurs. The finding suggested that there are several common obstacles, which hinders the pathway to success towards being a successful woman entrepreneur. The paper also describes such common obstacles like the level of education, family responsibilities, lack of business information, religious and cultural constraints, limited mobility, exposure, lack of working capital, and more. The in-depth analysis of literature review indicates that despite the numerous barriers, the arrival of social media has played a crucial role in enabling women to start and scale up their enterprises. Further, technology innovation has given them access to have relevant market information, increase reach and network with the customers. It enabled them to achieve work life balance and pursuing entrepreneur in them. The paper also describes the Government and Nongovernmental initiatives for promotion of women entrepreneurship. At the end, the study provides insights into the changing dynamics of women entrepreneurship in the current scenario and future prospects.

Keywords: changing dynamics, government initiatives, literature review, social media, technology innovation, women entrepreneurship

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11 Significance of Life Values in Relationship: A Detailed Analysis of Teenage Population

Authors: Preeti Nakhat

Abstract:

Background: Values are essential part of one's life. They are inculcated since the early years of life and shape the personality of the individual. They play a tremendous role in decision making. Teenagers are seen perplexed about the values of their life. The challenge faced by majority of the teenage population in choosing between a positive and negative value is high. The values they adopt remain throughout their life and in every decision, hence it is a crucial topic of research. Research Methodology: This research aimed at finding out the value conflict of teenagers in relations. Hypothesis of the study are: H₀- There is no significant association between the life values and value conflict of higher secondary students; H₁– There is a significant association between the life values and value conflict of higher secondary students. For the same, the standardized tool, value conflict scale by R. L. Bhardwaj has been used. The tool consists 24 questions of different life situations with multiple choice options. Findings: There is 96% variation in value conflict due to evasion vs. fortitude, dependence vs. self-reliance, selfishness vs. probity, hate vs. love, fear vs. assertion and pragmatism vs. idealism life values. There is a positive association between all the life values and value conflict of higher secondary school students. Percentages of association are: 0.17% between value conflict and evasion vs. fortitude value, 0.16% between value conflict and dependence vs. self-reliance value, 0.17% between value conflict and selfishness vs. probity value, 0.16% between value conflict and hate vs. love value, 0.17% between value conflict and fear vs. assertion, 0.17% between value conflict and pragmatism vs. idealism value. Discussions: The dilemma faced by the students regarding value conflict is high. Bewilderment of being honest or lying, of loving or hating family and friends, being pragmatic or idealistic in life decision, being selfish or selfless is seen among the students. It is the challenge for the future. Teaching of values with a practical aspect should be added in the school curriculum.

Keywords: dilemma, conflict, school, values

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10 Evaluation of the Grammar Questions at the Undergraduate Level

Authors: Preeti Gacche

Abstract:

A considerable part of undergraduate level English Examination papers is devoted to grammar. Hence the grammar questions in the question papers are evaluated and the opinions of both students and teachers about them are obtained and analyzed. A grammar test of 100 marks is administered to 43 students to check their performance. The question papers have been evaluated by 10 different teachers and their scores compared. The analysis of 38 University question papers reveals that on an average 20 percent marks are allotted to grammar. Almost all the grammar topics are tested. Abundant use of grammatical terminology is observed in the questions. Decontextualization, repetition, possibility of multiple correct answers and grammatical errors in framing the questions have been observed. Opinions of teachers and students about grammar questions vary in many respects. The students responses are analyzed medium-wise and sex-wise. The Medium at the School level and the sex of the students are found to play no role as far as interest in the study of grammar is concerned. English medium students solve grammar questions intuitively whereas non-English medium students are required to recollect the rules of grammar. Prepositions, Verbs, Articles and Model auxiliaries are found to be easy topics for most students whereas the use of conjunctions is the most difficult topic. Out of context items of grammar are difficult to answer in comparison with contextualized items of grammar. Hence contextualized texts to test grammar items are desirable. No formal training in setting questions is imparted to teachers by the competent authorities like the University. They need to be trained in testing. Statistically there is no significant change of score with the change in the rater in testing of grammar items. There is scope of future improvement. The question papers need to be evaluated and feedback needs to be obtained from students and teachers for future improvement.

Keywords: context, evaluation, grammar, tests

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9 The Beacon of Collective Hope: Mixed Method Study on the Participation of Indian Youth with Regard to Mass Demonstrations Fueled by Social Activism Media

Authors: Akanksha Lohmore, Devanshu Arya, Preeti Kapur

Abstract:

Rarely does the human mind look at the positive fallout of highly negative events. Positive psychology attempts to emphasize on the strengths and positives for human well-being. The present study examines the underpinning socio-cognitive factors of the protest movements regarding the gang rape case of December 16th, 2012 through the lens of positive psychology. A gamut of negative emotions came to the forum globally: of anger, shame, hatred, violence, death penalty for the perpetrators, amongst other equally strong. In relation to this incident, a number of questions can be raised. Can such a heinous crime have some positive inputs for contemporary society? What is it that has held people to protests for long even when they see faded lines of success in view? This paper explains the constant feeding of protests and continuation of movements by the robust model of Collective Hope by Snyder, a phenomenon unexplored by social psychologists. In this paper, mixed method approach was undertaken. Results confirmed the interaction of various socio-psychological factors that imitated the Snyders model of collective hope. Emergence of major themes was: Sense of Agency, Sense of Worthiness, Social Sharing and Common Grievances and Hope of Collective Efficacy. Statistical analysis (correlation and regression) showed significant relationship between media usage and occurrence of these themes among participants. Media-communication processes and educational theories for development of citizenship behavior can find implications from these results. Theory development as indicated by theorists working in the area of Social Psychology of Protests can be furthered by the direction of research.

Keywords: agency, collective, hope, positive psychology, protest, social media

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8 Effects of Branched-Chain Amino Acid Supplementation on Sarcopenic Patients with Liver Cirrhosis

Authors: Deepak Nathiya1, Ramesh Roop Rai, Pratima Singh1, Preeti Raj1, Supriya Suman, Balvir Singh Tomar

Abstract:

Background: Sarcopenia is a catabolic state in liver cirrhosis (LC), accelerated with a breakdown of skeletal muscle to release amino acids which adversely affects survival, health-related quality of life, and response to any underlying disease. The primary objective of the study was to investigate the long-term effect of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) supplementations on parameters associated with improved prognosis in sarcopenic patients with LC, as well as to evaluate its impact on cirrhotic-related events. Methods: We carried out a 24 week, single-center, randomized, open-label, controlled, two cohort parallel-group intervention trial comparing the efficacy of BCAA against lactoalbumin (L-ALB) on 106 sarcopenic liver cirrhotics. The BCAA (intervention) group was treated with 7.2 g BCAA per whereas, the lactoalbumin group was also given 6.3 g of L-Albumin. The primary outcome was to assess the impact of BCAA on parameters of sarcopenia: muscle mass, muscle strength, and physical performance. The secondary outcomes were to study combined survival and maintenance of liver function changes in laboratory and clinical markers in the duration of six months. Results: Treatment with BCAA leads to significant improvement in sarcopenic parameters: muscle strength, muscle function, and muscle mass. The total cirrhotic-related complications and cumulative event-free survival occurred fewer in the BCAA group than in the L-ALB group. Prognostic markers also improved significantly in the study. Conclusion: The current clinical trial demonstrated that long-term BCAAs supplementation improved sarcopenia and prognostic markers in patients with advanced liver cirrhosis.

Keywords: sarcopenia, liver cirrhosis, BCAA, quality of life

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