Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8498

Search results for: information hiding

8498 Exploiting JPEG2000 into Reversible Information

Authors: Te-Jen Chang, I-Hui Pan, Kuang-Hsiung Tan, Shan-Jen Cheng, Chien-Wu Lan, Chih-Chan Hu

Abstract:

With the event of multimedia age in order to protect data not to be tampered, damaged, and faked, information hiding technologies are proposed. Information hiding means important secret information is hidden into cover multimedia and then camouflaged media is produced. This camouflaged media has the characteristic of natural protection. Under the undoubted situation, important secret information is transmitted out.Reversible information hiding technologies for high capacity is proposed in this paper. The gray images are as cover media in this technology. We compress gray images and compare with the original image to produce the estimated differences. By using the estimated differences, expression information hiding is used, and higher information capacity can be achieved. According to experimental results, the proposed technology can be approved. For these experiments, the whole capacity of information payload and image quality can be satisfied.

Keywords: cover media, camouflaged media, reversible information hiding, gray image

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
8497 A Novel Image Steganography Scheme Based on Mandelbrot Fractal

Authors: Adnan H. M. Al-Helali, Hamza A. Ali

Abstract:

Growth of censorship and pervasive monitoring on the Internet, Steganography arises as a new means of achieving secret communication. Steganography is the art and science of embedding information within electronic media used by common applications and systems. Generally, hiding information of multimedia within images will change some of their properties that may introduce few degradation or unusual characteristics. This paper presents a new image steganography approach for hiding information of multimedia (images, text, and audio) using generated Mandelbrot Fractal image as a cover. The proposed technique has been extensively tested with different images. The results show that the method is a very secure means of hiding and retrieving steganographic information. Experimental results demonstrate that an effective improvement in the values of the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE), Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC) and Image Fidelity (IF) over the previous techniques.

Keywords: fractal image, information hiding, Mandelbrot et fractal, steganography

Procedia PDF Downloads 450
8496 A Novel Image Steganography Method Based on Mandelbrot Fractal

Authors: Adnan H. M. Al-Helali, Hamza A. Ali

Abstract:

The growth of censorship and pervasive monitoring on the Internet, Steganography arises as a new means of achieving secret communication. Steganography is the art and science of embedding information within electronic media used by common applications and systems. Generally, hiding information of multimedia within images will change some of their properties that may introduce few degradation or unusual characteristics. This paper presents a new image steganography approach for hiding information of multimedia (images, text, and audio) using generated Mandelbrot Fractal image as a cover. The proposed technique has been extensively tested with different images. The results show that the method is a very secure means of hiding and retrieving steganographic information. Experimental results demonstrate that an effective improvement in the values of the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE), Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC), and Image Fidelity (IF) over the pervious techniques.

Keywords: fractal image, information hiding, Mandelbrot set fractal, steganography

Procedia PDF Downloads 468
8495 Personality as a Predictor of Knowledge Hiding Behavior: Case Study of Alpha Electronics

Authors: Sadeeqa Khan, Muhammad Usman

Abstract:

Employees’ knowledge hiding behaviors can be detrimental to employees’ interpersonal relationships and individual and organizational learning and creativity. However, to the best of the authors’ knowledge, the literature on the contingencies, antecedents and outcomes of employees’ knowledge hiding behaviors is still in its infancy. On the other hand, not everyone who hides knowledge hides it the same way, as individuals are different, so do their behaviors. This study explores the links between employees’ personality traits and their knowledge hiding behaviors. By using a single case study as a research methodology and collecting data through 28 semi-structured interviews from employees working in Alpha Electronics (the pseudo name of the company to ascertain anonymity) operating in Pakistan, we foreground the patterns of relationships between employees’ personality traits and knowledge hiding behaviors – rationalized hiding, evasive hiding and playing dumb. Our findings suggest that employees high on extraversion involve in evasive knowledge hiding; while employees low on extraversion (introverts) demonstrate rationalized hiding. Moreover, both extrovert and introvert employees involve in playing dumb in situations that involve risk for their jobs and careers. For instance, when knowledge is requested from their managers, both extrovert and introvert employees tend to play dumb, as in such cases, evasive and rationalized hiding can be harmful to their job and career-related interests and motives. Other than theoretical contributions, the study offers important implications for organizations faced with the challenges of shortage of skills and knowledge.

Keywords: knowledge hiding, personality, rationalized hiding, playing dumb, evasive hiding

Procedia PDF Downloads 142
8494 Secure Text Steganography for Microsoft Word Document

Authors: Khan Farhan Rafat, M. Junaid Hussain

Abstract:

Seamless modification of an entity for the purpose of hiding a message of significance inside its substance in a manner that the embedding remains oblivious to an observer is known as steganography. Together with today's pervasive registering frameworks, steganography has developed into a science that offers an assortment of strategies for stealth correspondence over the globe that must, however, need a critical appraisal from security breach standpoint. Microsoft Word is amongst the preferably used word processing software, which comes as a part of the Microsoft Office suite. With a user-friendly graphical interface, the richness of text editing, and formatting topographies, the documents produced through this software are also most suitable for stealth communication. This research aimed not only to epitomize the fundamental concepts of steganography but also to expound on the utilization of Microsoft Word document as a carrier for furtive message exchange. The exertion is to examine contemporary message hiding schemes from security aspect so as to present the explorative discoveries and suggest enhancements which may serve a wellspring of information to encourage such futuristic research endeavors.

Keywords: hiding information in plain sight, stealth communication, oblivious information exchange, conceal, steganography

Procedia PDF Downloads 164
8493 Difference Expansion Based Reversible Data Hiding Scheme Using Edge Directions

Authors: Toshanlal Meenpal, Ankita Meenpal

Abstract:

A very important technique in reversible data hiding field is Difference expansion. Secret message as well as the cover image may be completely recovered without any distortion after data extraction process due to reversibility feature. In general, in any difference expansion scheme embedding is performed by integer transform in the difference image acquired by grouping two neighboring pixel values. This paper proposes an improved reversible difference expansion embedding scheme. We mainly consider edge direction for embedding by modifying the difference of two neighboring pixels values. In general, the larger difference tends to bring a degraded stego image quality than the smaller difference. Image quality in the range of 0.5 to 3.7 dB in average is achieved by the proposed scheme, which is shown through the experimental results. However payload wise it achieves almost similar capacity in comparisons with previous method.

Keywords: information hiding, wedge direction, difference expansion, integer transform

Procedia PDF Downloads 402
8492 Data Hiding in Gray Image Using ASCII Value and Scanning Technique

Authors: R. K. Pateriya, Jyoti Bharti

Abstract:

This paper presents an approach for data hiding methods which provides a secret communication between sender and receiver. The data is hidden in gray-scale images and the boundary of gray-scale image is used to store the mapping information. In this an approach data is in ASCII format and the mapping is in between ASCII value of hidden message and pixel value of cover image, since pixel value of an image as well as ASCII value is in range of 0 to 255 and this mapping information is occupying only 1 bit per character of hidden message as compared to 8 bit per character thus maintaining good quality of stego image.

Keywords: ASCII value, cover image, PSNR, pixel value, stego image, secret message

Procedia PDF Downloads 316
8491 Applying Different Stenography Techniques in Cloud Computing Technology to Improve Cloud Data Privacy and Security Issues

Authors: Muhammad Muhammad Suleiman

Abstract:

Cloud Computing is a versatile concept that refers to a service that allows users to outsource their data without having to worry about local storage issues. However, the most pressing issues to be addressed are maintaining a secure and reliable data repository rather than relying on untrustworthy service providers. In this study, we look at how stenography approaches and collaboration with Digital Watermarking can greatly improve the system's effectiveness and data security when used for Cloud Computing. The main requirement of such frameworks, where data is transferred or exchanged between servers and users, is safe data management in cloud environments. Steganography is the cloud is among the most effective methods for safe communication. Steganography is a method of writing coded messages in such a way that only the sender and recipient can safely interpret and display the information hidden in the communication channel. This study presents a new text steganography method for hiding a loaded hidden English text file in a cover English text file to ensure data protection in cloud computing. Data protection, data hiding capability, and time were all improved using the proposed technique.

Keywords: cloud computing, steganography, information hiding, cloud storage, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 99
8490 A Survey of Feature-Based Steganalysis for JPEG Images

Authors: Syeda Mainaaz Unnisa, Deepa Suresh

Abstract:

Due to the increase in usage of public domain channels, such as the internet, and communication technology, there is a concern about the protection of intellectual property and security threats. This interest has led to growth in researching and implementing techniques for information hiding. Steganography is the art and science of hiding information in a private manner such that its existence cannot be recognized. Communication using steganographic techniques makes not only the secret message but also the presence of hidden communication, invisible. Steganalysis is the art of detecting the presence of this hidden communication. Parallel to steganography, steganalysis is also gaining prominence, since the detection of hidden messages can prevent catastrophic security incidents from occurring. Steganalysis can also be incredibly helpful in identifying and revealing holes with the current steganographic techniques, which makes them vulnerable to attacks. Through the formulation of new effective steganalysis methods, further research to improve the resistance of tested steganography techniques can be developed. Feature-based steganalysis method for JPEG images calculates the features of an image using the L1 norm of the difference between a stego image and the calibrated version of the image. This calibration can help retrieve some of the parameters of the cover image, revealing the variations between the cover and stego image and enabling a more accurate detection. Applying this method to various steganographic schemes, experimental results were compared and evaluated to derive conclusions and principles for more protected JPEG steganography.

Keywords: cover image, feature-based steganalysis, information hiding, steganalysis, steganography

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
8489 Data Hiding by Vector Quantization in Color Image

Authors: Yung Gi Wu

Abstract:

With the growing of computer and network, digital data can be spread to anywhere in the world quickly. In addition, digital data can also be copied or tampered easily so that the security issue becomes an important topic in the protection of digital data. Digital watermark is a method to protect the ownership of digital data. Embedding the watermark will influence the quality certainly. In this paper, Vector Quantization (VQ) is used to embed the watermark into the image to fulfill the goal of data hiding. This kind of watermarking is invisible which means that the users will not conscious the existing of embedded watermark even though the embedded image has tiny difference compared to the original image. Meanwhile, VQ needs a lot of computation burden so that we adopt a fast VQ encoding scheme by partial distortion searching (PDS) and mean approximation scheme to speed up the data hiding process. The watermarks we hide to the image could be gray, bi-level and color images. Texts are also can be regarded as watermark to embed. In order to test the robustness of the system, we adopt Photoshop to fulfill sharpen, cropping and altering to check if the extracted watermark is still recognizable. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed system can resist the above three kinds of tampering in general cases.

Keywords: data hiding, vector quantization, watermark, color image

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
8488 An Improved Image Steganography Technique Based on Least Significant Bit Insertion

Authors: Olaiya Folorunsho, Comfort Y. Daramola, Joel N. Ugwu, Lawrence B. Adewole, Olufisayo S. Ekundayo

Abstract:

In today world, there is a tremendous rise in the usage of internet due to the fact that almost all the communication and information sharing is done over the web. Conversely, there is a continuous growth of unauthorized access to confidential data. This has posed a challenge to information security expertise whose major goal is to curtail the menace. One of the approaches to secure the safety delivery of data/information to the rightful destination without any modification is steganography. Steganography is the art of hiding information inside an embedded information. This research paper aimed at designing a secured algorithm with the use of image steganographic technique that makes use of Least Significant Bit (LSB) algorithm for embedding the data into the bit map image (bmp) in order to enhance security and reliability. In the LSB approach, the basic idea is to replace the LSB of the pixels of the cover image with the Bits of the messages to be hidden without destroying the property of the cover image significantly. The system was implemented using C# programming language of Microsoft.NET framework. The performance evaluation of the proposed system was experimented by conducting a benchmarking test for analyzing the parameters like Mean Squared Error (MSE) and Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The result showed that image steganography performed considerably in securing data hiding and information transmission over the networks.

Keywords: steganography, image steganography, least significant bits, bit map image

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
8487 Image Steganography Using Least Significant Bit Technique

Authors: Preeti Kumari, Ridhi Kapoor

Abstract:

 In any communication, security is the most important issue in today’s world. In this paper, steganography is the process of hiding the important data into other data, such as text, audio, video, and image. The interest in this topic is to provide availability, confidentiality, integrity, and authenticity of data. The steganographic technique that embeds hides content with unremarkable cover media so as not to provoke eavesdropper’s suspicion or third party and hackers. In which many applications of compression, encryption, decryption, and embedding methods are used for digital image steganography. Due to compression, the nose produces in the image. To sustain noise in the image, the LSB insertion technique is used. The performance of the proposed embedding system with respect to providing security to secret message and robustness is discussed. We also demonstrate the maximum steganography capacity and visual distortion.

Keywords: steganography, LSB, encoding, information hiding, color image

Procedia PDF Downloads 393
8486 Reversible Information Hitting in Encrypted JPEG Bitstream by LSB Based on Inherent Algorithm

Authors: Vaibhav Barve

Abstract:

Reversible information hiding has drawn a lot of interest as of late. Being reversible, we can restore unique computerized data totally. It is a plan where mystery data is put away in digital media like image, video, audio to maintain a strategic distance from unapproved access and security reason. By and large JPEG bit stream is utilized to store this key data, first JPEG bit stream is encrypted into all around sorted out structure and then this secret information or key data is implanted into this encrypted region by marginally changing the JPEG bit stream. Valuable pixels suitable for information implanting are computed and as indicated by this key subtle elements are implanted. In our proposed framework we are utilizing RC4 algorithm for encrypting JPEG bit stream. Encryption key is acknowledged by framework user which, likewise, will be used at the time of decryption. We are executing enhanced least significant bit supplanting steganography by utilizing genetic algorithm. At first, the quantity of bits that must be installed in a guaranteed coefficient is versatile. By utilizing proper parameters, we can get high capacity while ensuring high security. We are utilizing logistic map for shuffling of bits and utilization GA (Genetic Algorithm) to find right parameters for the logistic map. Information embedding key is utilized at the time of information embedding. By utilizing precise picture encryption and information embedding key, the beneficiary can, without much of a stretch, concentrate the incorporated secure data and totally recoup the first picture and also the original secret information. At the point when the embedding key is truant, the first picture can be recouped pretty nearly with sufficient quality without getting the embedding key of interest.

Keywords: data embedding, decryption, encryption, reversible data hiding, steganography

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
8485 Survey: Topology Hiding in Multipath Routing Protocol in MANET

Authors: Akshay Suhas Phalke, Manohar S. Chaudhari

Abstract:

In this paper, we have discussed the multipath routing with its variants. Our purpose is to discuss the different types of the multipath routing mechanism. Here we also put the taxonomy of the multipath routing. Multipath routing is used for the alternate path routing, reliable transmission of data and for better utilization of network resources. We also discussed the multipath routing for topology hiding such as TOHIP. In multipath routing, different parameters such as energy efficiency, packet delivery ratio, shortest path routing, fault tolerance play an important role. We have discussed a number of multipath routing protocol based on different parameters lastly.

Keywords: multi-path routing, WSN, topology, fault detection, trust

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
8484 Robust Data Image Watermarking for Data Security

Authors: Harsh Vikram Singh, Ankur Rai, Anand Mohan

Abstract:

In this paper, we propose secure and robust data hiding algorithm based on DCT by Arnold transform and chaotic sequence. The watermark image is scrambled by Arnold cat map to increases its security and then the chaotic map is used for watermark signal spread in middle band of DCT coefficients of the cover image The chaotic map can be used as pseudo-random generator for digital data hiding, to increase security and robustness .Performance evaluation for robustness and imperceptibility of proposed algorithm has been made using bit error rate (BER), normalized correlation (NC), and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) value for different watermark and cover images such as Lena, Girl, Tank images and gain factor .We use a binary logo image and text image as watermark. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm achieves higher security and robustness against JPEG compression as well as other attacks such as addition of noise, low pass filtering and cropping attacks compared to other existing algorithm using DCT coefficients. Moreover, to recover watermarks in proposed algorithm, there is no need to original cover image.

Keywords: data hiding, watermarking, DCT, chaotic sequence, arnold transforms

Procedia PDF Downloads 417
8483 Development of a Data Security Model Using Steganography

Authors: Terungwa Simon Yange, Agana Moses A.

Abstract:

This paper studied steganography and designed a simplistic approach to a steganographic tool for hiding information in image files with the view of addressing the security challenges with data by hiding data from unauthorized users to improve its security. The Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method (SSADM) was used in this work. The system was developed using Java Development Kit (JDK) 1.7.0_10 and MySQL Server as its backend. The system was tested with some hypothetical health records which proved the possibility of protecting data from unauthorized users by making it secret so that its existence cannot be easily recognized by fraudulent users. It further strengthens the confidentiality of patient records kept by medical practitioners in the health setting. In conclusion, this work was able to produce a user friendly steganography software that is very fast to install and easy to operate to ensure privacy and secrecy of sensitive data. It also produced an exact copy of the original image and the one carrying the secret message when compared with each.

Keywords: steganography, cryptography, encryption, decryption, secrecy

Procedia PDF Downloads 183
8482 Blind Data Hiding Technique Using Interpolation of Subsampled Images

Authors: Singara Singh Kasana, Pankaj Garg

Abstract:

In this paper, a blind data hiding technique based on interpolation of sub sampled versions of a cover image is proposed. Sub sampled image is taken as a reference image and an interpolated image is generated from this reference image. Then difference between original cover image and interpolated image is used to embed secret data. Comparisons with the existing interpolation based techniques show that proposed technique provides higher embedding capacity and better visual quality marked images. Moreover, the performance of the proposed technique is more stable for different images.

Keywords: interpolation, image subsampling, PSNR, SIM

Procedia PDF Downloads 414
8481 High Performance Electrocardiogram Steganography Based on Fast Discrete Cosine Transform

Authors: Liang-Ta Cheng, Ching-Yu Yang

Abstract:

Based on fast discrete cosine transform (FDCT), the authors present a high capacity and high perceived quality method for electrocardiogram (ECG) signal. By using a simple adjusting policy to the 1-dimentional (1-D) DCT coefficients, a large volume of secret message can be effectively embedded in an ECG host signal and be successfully extracted at the intended receiver. Simulations confirmed that the resulting perceived quality is good, while the hiding capability of the proposed method significantly outperforms that of existing techniques. In addition, our proposed method has a certain degree of robustness. Since the computational complexity is low, it is feasible for our method being employed in real-time applications.

Keywords: data hiding, ECG steganography, fast discrete cosine transform, 1-D DCT bundle, real-time applications

Procedia PDF Downloads 120
8480 An Optimal Steganalysis Based Approach for Embedding Information in Image Cover Media with Security

Authors: Ahlem Fatnassi, Hamza Gharsellaoui, Sadok Bouamama

Abstract:

This paper deals with the study of interest in the fields of Steganography and Steganalysis. Steganography involves hiding information in a cover media to obtain the stego media in such a way that the cover media is perceived not to have any embedded message for its unintended recipients. Steganalysis is the mechanism of detecting the presence of hidden information in the stego media and it can lead to the prevention of disastrous security incidents. In this paper, we provide a critical review of the steganalysis algorithms available to analyze the characteristics of an image stego media against the corresponding cover media and understand the process of embedding the information and its detection. We anticipate that this paper can also give a clear picture of the current trends in steganography so that we can develop and improvise appropriate steganalysis algorithms.

Keywords: optimization, heuristics and metaheuristics algorithms, embedded systems, low-power consumption, steganalysis heuristic approach

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
8479 Secret Sharing in Visual Cryptography Using NVSS and Data Hiding Techniques

Authors: Misha Alexander, S. B. Waykar

Abstract:

Visual Cryptography is a special unbreakable encryption technique that transforms the secret image into random noisy pixels. These shares are transmitted over the network and because of its noisy texture it attracts the hackers. To address this issue a Natural Visual Secret Sharing Scheme (NVSS) was introduced that uses natural shares either in digital or printed form to generate the noisy secret share. This scheme greatly reduces the transmission risk but causes distortion in the retrieved secret image through variation in settings and properties of digital devices used to capture the natural image during encryption / decryption phase. This paper proposes a new NVSS scheme that extracts the secret key from randomly selected unaltered multiple natural images. To further improve the security of the shares data hiding techniques such as Steganography and Alpha channel watermarking are proposed.

Keywords: decryption, encryption, natural visual secret sharing, natural images, noisy share, pixel swapping

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
8478 Integrated Model for Enhancing Data Security Performance in Cloud Computing

Authors: Amani A. Saad, Ahmed A. El-Farag, El-Sayed A. Helali

Abstract:

Cloud computing is an important and promising field in the recent decade. Cloud computing allows sharing resources, services and information among the people of the whole world. Although the advantages of using clouds are great, but there are many risks in a cloud. The data security is the most important and critical problem of cloud computing. In this research a new security model for cloud computing is proposed for ensuring secure communication system, hiding information from other users and saving the user's times. In this proposed model Blowfish encryption algorithm is used for exchanging information or data, and SHA-2 cryptographic hash algorithm is used for data integrity. For user authentication process a user-name and password is used, the password uses SHA-2 for one way encryption. The proposed system shows an improvement of the processing time of uploading and downloading files on the cloud in secure form.

Keywords: cloud Ccomputing, data security, SAAS, PAAS, IAAS, Blowfish

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
8477 High Secure Data Hiding Using Cropping Image and Least Significant Bit Steganography

Authors: Khalid A. Al-Afandy, El-Sayyed El-Rabaie, Osama Salah, Ahmed El-Mhalaway

Abstract:

This paper presents a high secure data hiding technique using image cropping and Least Significant Bit (LSB) steganography. The predefined certain secret coordinate crops will be extracted from the cover image. The secret text message will be divided into sections. These sections quantity is equal the image crops quantity. Each section from the secret text message will embed into an image crop with a secret sequence using LSB technique. The embedding is done using the cover image color channels. Stego image is given by reassembling the image and the stego crops. The results of the technique will be compared to the other state of art techniques. Evaluation is based on visualization to detect any degradation of stego image, the difficulty of extracting the embedded data by any unauthorized viewer, Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio of stego image (PSNR), and the embedding algorithm CPU time. Experimental results ensure that the proposed technique is more secure compared with the other traditional techniques.

Keywords: steganography, stego, LSB, crop

Procedia PDF Downloads 198
8476 Integrated Model for Enhancing Data Security Processing Time in Cloud Computing

Authors: Amani A. Saad, Ahmed A. El-Farag, El-Sayed A. Helali

Abstract:

Cloud computing is an important and promising field in the recent decade. Cloud computing allows sharing resources, services and information among the people of the whole world. Although the advantages of using clouds are great, but there are many risks in a cloud. The data security is the most important and critical problem of cloud computing. In this research a new security model for cloud computing is proposed for ensuring secure communication system, hiding information from other users and saving the user's times. In this proposed model Blowfish encryption algorithm is used for exchanging information or data, and SHA-2 cryptographic hash algorithm is used for data integrity. For user authentication process a simple user-name and password is used, the password uses SHA-2 for one way encryption. The proposed system shows an improvement of the processing time of uploading and downloading files on the cloud in secure form.

Keywords: cloud computing, data security, SAAS, PAAS, IAAS, Blowfish

Procedia PDF Downloads 267
8475 Digital Image Steganography with Multilayer Security

Authors: Amar Partap Singh Pharwaha, Balkrishan Jindal

Abstract:

In this paper, a new method is developed for hiding image in a digital image with multilayer security. In the proposed method, the secret image is encrypted in the first instance using a flexible matrix based symmetric key to add first layer of security. Then another layer of security is added to the secret data by encrypting the ciphered data using Pythagorean Theorem method. The ciphered data bits (4 bits) produced after double encryption are then embedded within digital image in the spatial domain using Least Significant Bits (LSBs) substitution. To improve the image quality of the stego-image, an improved form of pixel adjustment process is proposed. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method, image quality metrics including Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR), Mean Square Error (MSE), entropy, correlation, mean value and Universal Image Quality Index (UIQI) are measured. It has been found experimentally that the proposed method provides higher security as well as robustness. In fact, the results of this study are quite promising.

Keywords: Pythagorean theorem, pixel adjustment, ciphered data, image hiding, least significant bit, flexible matrix

Procedia PDF Downloads 259
8474 Hiding the Word to Learn the Meaning Distribution

Authors: Eduardo Antonio Mello Freitas

Abstract:

In Natural Language Processing, it is common to represent a word as a fixed vector or a contextualized vector in a sentence. But a single multidimensional vector can be insufficient to explain the complexity of word relations. It is easy to find a list of word meanings in a dictionary. But semantic cognition is about perception, memory, and meaning relations. The proposal is to create a meanings distribution hiding, fully or partially, the word under study. Before encoding the words, the approach starts replacing all instances of the understudy word with a special and unique token. Instead of many meanings of a word, the training uses many unique tokens of a meaning. Thus, the learning process becomes heavily dependent on neighbor words relationships. Inflections of the word under study and subwords can enrich the training in general. The algorithm looks for the best number of unique tokens clusters corresponding to the number of meanings. Gaussian models and fuzzy clustering can predict mixtures or cluster intersections, respectively. At the end of the learning process, each token has its location and part of the line context stored, making it feasible to validate the results. Then, the results confirm the effectiveness of meaning distribution to improve semantic cognition study.

Keywords: pattern recognition, word representation, polysemy, clustering analysis, cognitive linguistics

Procedia PDF Downloads 22
8473 Frequency of Occurrence Hybrid Watermarking Scheme

Authors: Hamza A. Ali, Adnan H. M. Al-Helali

Abstract:

Generally, a watermark is information that identifies the ownership of multimedia (text, image, audio or video files). It is achieved by introducing modifications into these files that are imperceptible to the human senses but easily recoverable by a computer program. These modifications are done according to a secret key in a descriptive model that would be either in the time domain or frequency domain or both. This paper presents a procedure for watermarking by mixing amplitude modulation with frequency transformation histogram; namely a specific value is used to modulate the intensity component Y of the YIQ components of the carrier image. This scheme is referred to as histogram embedding technique (HET). Results comparison with those of other techniques such as discrete wavelet transform (DWT), discrete cosine transform (DCT) and singular value decomposition (SVD) have shown an enhance efficiency in terms of ease and performance. It has manifested a good degree of robustness against various environment effects such as resizing, rotation and different kinds of noise. This method would prove very useful technique for copyright protection and ownership judgment.

Keywords: watermarking, ownership, copyright protection, steganography, information hiding, authentication

Procedia PDF Downloads 302
8472 Robust Medical Image Watermarking Using Frequency Domain and Least Significant Bits Algorithms

Authors: Volkan Kaya, Ersin Elbasi

Abstract:

Watermarking and stenography are getting importance recently because of copyright protection and authentication. In watermarking we embed stamp, logo, noise or image to multimedia elements such as image, video, audio, animation and text. There are several works have been done in watermarking for different purposes. In this research work, we used watermarking techniques to embed patient information into the medical magnetic resonance (MR) images. There are two methods have been used; frequency domain (Digital Wavelet Transform-DWT, Digital Cosine Transform-DCT, and Digital Fourier Transform-DFT) and spatial domain (Least Significant Bits-LSB) domain. Experimental results show that embedding in frequency domains resist against one type of attacks, and embedding in spatial domain is resist against another group of attacks. Peak Signal Noise Ratio (PSNR) and Similarity Ratio (SR) values are two measurement values for testing. These two values give very promising result for information hiding in medical MR images.

Keywords: watermarking, medical image, frequency domain, least significant bits, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 204
8471 Secured Transmission and Reserving Space in Images Before Encryption to Embed Data

Authors: G. R. Navaneesh, E. Nagarajan, C. H. Rajam Raju

Abstract:

Nowadays the multimedia data are used to store some secure information. All previous methods allocate a space in image for data embedding purpose after encryption. In this paper, we propose a novel method by reserving space in image with a boundary surrounded before encryption with a traditional RDH algorithm, which makes it easy for the data hider to reversibly embed data in the encrypted images. The proposed method can achieve real time performance, that is, data extraction and image recovery are free of any error. A secure transmission process is also discussed in this paper, which improves the efficiency by ten times compared to other processes as discussed.

Keywords: secure communication, reserving room before encryption, least significant bits, image encryption, reversible data hiding

Procedia PDF Downloads 322
8470 Anti-Forensic Countermeasure: An Examination and Analysis Extended Procedure for Information Hiding of Android SMS Encryption Applications

Authors: Ariq Bani Hardi

Abstract:

Empowerment of smartphone technology is growing very rapidly in various fields of science. One of the mobile operating systems that dominate the smartphone market today is Android by Google. Unfortunately, the expansion of mobile technology is misused by criminals to hide the information that they store or exchange with each other. It makes law enforcement more difficult to prove crimes committed in the judicial process (anti-forensic). One of technique that used to hide the information is encryption, such as the usages of SMS encryption applications. A Mobile Forensic Examiner or an investigator should prepare a countermeasure technique if he finds such things during the investigation process. This paper will discuss an extension procedure if the investigator found unreadable SMS in android evidence because of encryption. To define the extended procedure, we create and analyzing a dataset of android SMS encryption application. The dataset was grouped by application characteristics related to communication permissions, as well as the availability of source code and the documentation of encryption scheme. Permissions indicate the possibility of how applications exchange the data and keys. Availability of the source code and the encryption scheme documentation can show what the cryptographic algorithm specification is used, how long the key length, how the process of key generation, key exchanges, encryption/decryption is done, and other related information. The output of this paper is an extended or alternative procedure for examination and analysis process of android digital forensic. It can be used to help the investigators while they got a confused cause of SMS encryption during examining and analyzing. What steps should the investigator take, so they still have a chance to discover the encrypted SMS in android evidence?

Keywords: anti-forensic countermeasure, SMS encryption android, examination and analysis, digital forensic

Procedia PDF Downloads 61
8469 A Business-to-Business Collaboration System That Promotes Data Utilization While Encrypting Information on the Blockchain

Authors: Hiroaki Nasu, Ryota Miyamoto, Yuta Kodera, Yasuyuki Nogami

Abstract:

To promote Industry 4.0 and Society 5.0 and so on, it is important to connect and share data so that every member can trust it. Blockchain (BC) technology is currently attracting attention as the most advanced tool and has been used in the financial field and so on. However, the data collaboration using BC has not progressed sufficiently among companies on the supply chain of manufacturing industry that handle sensitive data such as product quality, manufacturing conditions, etc. There are two main reasons why data utilization is not sufficiently advanced in the industrial supply chain. The first reason is that manufacturing information is top secret and a source for companies to generate profits. It is difficult to disclose data even between companies with transactions in the supply chain. In the blockchain mechanism such as Bitcoin using PKI (Public Key Infrastructure), in order to confirm the identity of the company that has sent the data, the plaintext must be shared between the companies. Another reason is that the merits (scenarios) of collaboration data between companies are not specifically specified in the industrial supply chain. For these problems this paper proposes a Business to Business (B2B) collaboration system using homomorphic encryption and BC technique. Using the proposed system, each company on the supply chain can exchange confidential information on encrypted data and utilize the data for their own business. In addition, this paper considers a scenario focusing on quality data, which was difficult to collaborate because it is a top secret. In this scenario, we show a implementation scheme and a benefit of concrete data collaboration by proposing a comparison protocol that can grasp the change in quality while hiding the numerical value of quality data.

Keywords: business to business data collaboration, industrial supply chain, blockchain, homomorphic encryption

Procedia PDF Downloads 38