Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7783

Search results for: construction materials

7783 The Eco-Efficient Construction: A Review of Embodied Energy in Building Materials

Authors: Francesca Scalisi, Cesare Sposito

Abstract:

The building construction industry consumes a large amount of resources and energy, both during construction (embodied energy) and during the operational phase (operating energy). This paper presents a review of the literature on low carbon and low embodied energy materials in buildings. The embodied energy comprises the energy consumed during the extraction, processing, transportation, construction, and demolition of building materials. While designing a nearly zero energy building, it is necessary to choose and use materials, components, and technologies that allow to reduce the consumption of energy and also to reduce the emissions in the atmosphere during all the Life Cycle Assessment phases. The appropriate choice of building materials can contribute decisively to reduce the energy consumption of the building sector. The increasing worries for the environmental impact of construction materials are witnessed by a lot of studies. The mentioned worries have brought again the attention towards natural materials. The use of more sustainable construction materials and construction techniques represent a major contribution to the eco-efficiency of the construction industry and thus to a more sustainable development.

Keywords: embodied energy, embodied carbon, life cycle assessment, architecture, sustainability, material construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
7782 Study of Management of Waste Construction Materials in Civil Engineering Projects

Authors: Jalindar R. Patil, Harish P. Gayakwad

Abstract:

The increased economic growth across the globe as well as urbanization in developing countries have led into extensive construction activities that generate large amounts of wastes. Material wastage in construction projects resulted into huge financial setbacks to builders and contractors. In addition to this, it may also cause significant effects over aesthetics, health, and the general environment. However in many cities across the globe where construction wastes material management is still a problem. In this paper, the discussion is all about the method for the management of waste construction materials. The objectives of this seminar are to identify the significant source of construction waste globally, to improve the performance of by extracting the major barriers construction waste management and to determine the cost impact on the construction project. These wastes needs to be managed as well as their impacts needs to be ascertained to pave way for their proper management. The seminar includes the details of construction waste management with the reference to construction project. The application of construction waste management in the civil engineering projects is to describe the reduction in the construction wastes.

Keywords: civil engineering, construction materials, waste management, construction activities

Procedia PDF Downloads 396
7781 Recycling Construction Waste Materials to Reduce the Environmental Pollutants

Authors: Mehrdad Abkenari, Alireza Rezaei, Naghmeh Pournayeb

Abstract:

There have recently been many studies and investments in developed and developing countries regarding the possibility of recycling construction waste, which are still ongoing. Since the term 'construction waste' covers a vast spectrum of materials in constructing buildings, roads and etc., many investigations are required to measure their technical performance in use as well as their time and place of use. Concrete is among the major and fundamental materials used in current construction industry. Along with the rise of population in developing countries, it is desperately required to meet the people's primary need in construction industry and on the other hand, dispose existing wastes for reducing the amount of environmental pollutants. Restrictions of natural resources and environmental pollution are the most important problems encountered by civil engineers. Reusing construction waste is an important and economic approach that not only assists the preservation of environment but also, provides us with primary raw materials. In line with consistent municipal development in disposal and reuse of construction waste, several approaches including, management of construction waste and materials, materials recycling and innovation and new inventions in materials have been predicted. This article has accordingly attempted to study the activities related to recycling of construction wastes and then, stated the economic, quantitative, qualitative and environmental results obtained.

Keywords: civil engineering, environment, recycling, construction waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 232
7780 The Role of Nano-Science in Construction of Civil Engineering and Environment

Authors: Mehrdad Abkenari, Naghmeh Pournayeb, Mohsen Ramezan Shirazi

Abstract:

Nano-science has been widely used in different engineering sciences. Generally, materials’ application can be determined through their chemical and physical properties. Nano-science has introduced as a new way in production systems that not only turns the materials into very small particles but also, gives them new and considerable properties. Like other fields of study, civil engineering has not been ignorant of benefits and characteristics of new nanotechnology and has used it in the construction industry and environmental engineering. Therefore, considering such chemical properties as elemental analysis and molecular or atomic structure, the present article is aimed at studying the effects of Nano-materials on different branches of civil engineering. Finally, by identifying new Nano-materials, this study attempts to introduce advantages of using these materials for increasing the strength of materials during construction as well as finding new approaches to prevent or reduce the entrance of chemical pollutants during or after construction to the environment.

Keywords: civil, nano-science, construction, environment

Procedia PDF Downloads 290
7779 Innovative Housing Construction Technologies in Slum Upgrading

Authors: Edmund M. Muthigani

Abstract:

Innovation in the construction industry has been characterized by new products and processes especially in slum upgrading. The need for low cost housing has motivated stakeholders to think outside the box in coming up with solutions. This paper explored innovative construction technologies that have been used in slum upgrading. The main objectives of the paper was to examine innovations in the construction housing sector and to show how incremental derived demand for decent housing has led to adoption of innovative technologies and materials. Systematic literature review was used to review studies on innovative construction technologies in slum upgrading. The review revealed slow process of innovations in the construction industry due to risk aversion by firms and the hesitance to adopt by firms and individuals. Low profit margins in low cost housing and lack of sufficient political support remain the major hurdles to innovative techniques adoption that can actualize right to decent housing. Conventional construction materials have remained unaffordable to many people and this has negated them decent housing. This has necessitated exploration of innovative materials to realize low cost housing. Stabilized soil blocks and sisal-cement roofing blocks are some of the innovative construction materials that have been utilized in slum upgrading. These innovative materials have not only lowered the cost of production of building elements but also eased costs of transport as the raw materials to produce them are readily available in or within the slum sites. Despite their shortcomings in durability and compressive strength, they have proved worthwhile in slum upgrading. Production of innovative construction materials and use of innovative techniques in slum upgrading also provided employment to the locals.

Keywords: construction, housing, innovation, slum, technology

Procedia PDF Downloads 60
7778 Characterization of Copper Slag and Jarofix Waste Materials for Road Construction

Authors: V. K. Arora, V. G. Havanagi, A. K. Sinha

Abstract:

Copper slag and Jarofix are waste materials, generated during the manufacture of copper and zinc respectively, which have potential for utility in embankment and road construction. Accordingly, a research project was carried out to study the characteristics of copper slag and Jarofix to utilize in the construction of road. In this study, copper slag and Jarofix were collected from Tuticorin, State of Tamil Nadu and Hindustan Zinc Ltd., Chittorgarh, Rajasthan state, India respectively. These materials were investigated for their physical, chemical, and geotechnical characteristics. The materials were collected from the disposal area and laboratory investigations were carried out to study its feasibility for use in the construction of embankment and sub grade layers of road pavement. This paper presents the results of physical, chemical and geotechnical characteristics of copper slag and Jarofix. It was concluded that copper slag and Jarofix may be utilized in the construction of road.

Keywords: copper slag, Jarofix waste, material, road construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 361
7777 Termite Mound Floors: Ready-to-Use Ecological Materials

Authors: Yanné Etienne

Abstract:

The current climatic conditions necessarily impose the development and use of construction materials with low or no carbon footprint. The Far North Region of Cameroon has huge deposits of termite mounds. Various tests in this work have been carried out on these soils with the aim of using them as construction materials. They are mainly geotechnical tests, physical and mechanical tests. The different tests gave the following values: uniformity coefficient (4.95), curvature coefficient (1.80), plasticity index (12.85%), optimum moisture content (6.70%), maximum dry density (2.05 g.cm-³), friction angles (14.07°), and cohesion of 100.29 kN.m2. The results obtained show that termite mound soils, which are ecological materials, are plastic and water-stable can be used for the production of load-bearing elements in construction.

Keywords: termite mound soil, ecological materials, building materials, geotechnical tests, physical and mechanical tests

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7776 A Review on the Use of Plastic Waste with Viable Materials in Composite Construction Block

Authors: Mohan T. Harish, Masson Lauriane, Sreevalsa Kolathayar

Abstract:

Environmental issues raise alarm in the constructional field which implies a need for exploring new construction materials derived from the waste and residual products. This paper presents a detailed review of the alternatives approaches employed in the construction field using plastic waste in mixture with mixed with fillers. A detailed analysis of the plastic waste used in concrete, with soil, sand, clay and natural residues like sawdust, rice husk etc are presented. The different process carried forward was also discussed along with the scrutiny of the change in mechanical properties. The effect of coupling agents in the proposed mixture has been appraised in detail which gives implications for its future application in the field of plastic waste with viable materials in composite construction blocks.

Keywords: plastic waste, composite materials, construction block, concrete, natural residue, coupling agent

Procedia PDF Downloads 168
7775 Radio Frequency Identification (Rfid) Cost-Effective, Location-Based System for Managing Construction Materials

Authors: Mourad Bakouka, Abdelaziz Rabehi

Abstract:

Companies need to have logistics and transportation in place that can adapt to the changing nature of construction sites. This ensures they can react quickly when needed. A study was conducted to develop a way to locate and track materials on construction sites. The system is an RFID/GPS integration that's required to pull off this feat. The study also reports how the platform has been used in construction. They found many advantages to using it, including reductions in both time and costs as well as improved management of materials orders. . For example, the time in which a project could start up was shortened from two weeks to three days with just a single digital order. As of now, the technology is still limited in its widespread adoption due largely to overall lack of awareness and difficulty connecting to it. However, as more and more companies embrace it in construction, the technology is expected to become ubiquitous. The developed platform provides contractors and construction managers with real-time information about the status of materials and work, allowing them to better manage the workflow in a project. The study sheds new light on this subject, which is essential to know. This work is becoming increasingly aware of the use of smart tools in constructing buildings.

Keywords: materials management, internet of things (IoT), radio frequency identification (RFID), construction site, supply chain management

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7774 Using Construction Wastes and Recyclable Materials in Sustainable Concrete Manufacture

Authors: Mohamed T. El-Hawary, Carsten Koenke, Amr M. El-Nemr, Nagy F. Hanna

Abstract:

Sustainable construction materials using solid construction wastes are of great environmental and economic significance. Construction wastes, demolishing wastes, and wastes coming out from the preparation of traditional materials could be used in sustainable concrete manufacture, which is the main scope of this paper. Ceramics, clay bricks, marble, recycled concrete, and many other materials should be tested and validated for use in the manufacture of green concrete. Introducing waste materials in concrete helps in reducing the required landfills, leaving more space for land investments, and decrease the environmental impact of the concrete buildings industry in both stages -construction and demolition-. In this paper, marble aggregate is used as a replacement for the natural aggregate in sustainable green concrete production. The results showed that marble aggregates can be used as a full replacement for the natural aggregates in eco-friendly green concrete.

Keywords: coarse aggregate replacement, economical designs, green concrete, marble aggregates, sustainability, waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 56
7773 Resources and Strategies towards the Development of a Sustainable Construction Materials Industry in Botswana

Authors: G. Malumbela, E. U. Masuku

Abstract:

The economy of Botswana has increased extensively since its independence. In contrast to this increase, the construction industry which is one of the key indicators of a developing nation continues to be highly dependent on imported building material products from the neighbouring countries of South Africa, Namibia, Zimbabwe, and Zambia. Only two companies in the country currently blend cement. Even then, the overwhelming majority of raw materials used in the blends are imported. Furthermore, there are no glass manufacturers in Botswana. The ceramic industry is limited to the manufacture of clay bricks notwithstanding a few studios on crockery and sanitary ware which nonetheless use imported clay. This paper presents natural resources and industrial waste products in Botswana that can be used for the development of sustainable building materials. It also investigates at the distribution and cost of other widely used building materials in the country. Finally, the present paper looks at projects and national strategies aimed at a country-wide development of a sustainable building materials industry together with their successes and hitches.

Keywords: Botswana construction industry, construction materials, natural resources, sustainable materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 215
7772 A Study of Carbon Emissions during Building Construction

Authors: Jonggeon Lee, Sungho Tae, Sungjoon Suk, Keunhyeok Yang, George Ford, Michael E. Smith, Omidreza Shoghli

Abstract:

In recent years, research to reduce carbon emissions through quantitative assessment of building life cycle carbon emissions has been performed as it relates to the construction industry. However, most research efforts related to building carbon emissions assessment have been focused on evaluation during the operational phase of a building’s life span. Few comprehensive studies of the carbon emissions during a building’s construction phase have been performed. The purpose of this study is to propose an assessment method that quantitatively evaluates the carbon emissions of buildings during the construction phase. The study analysed the amount of carbon emissions produced by 17 construction trades, and selected four construction trades that result in high levels of carbon emissions: reinforced concrete work; sheathing work; foundation work; and form work. Building materials, and construction and transport equipment used for the selected construction trades were identified, and carbon emissions produced by the identified materials and equipment were calculated for these four construction trades. The energy consumption of construction and transport equipment was calculated by analysing fuel efficiency and equipment productivity rates. The combination of the expected levels of carbon emissions associated with the utilization of building materials and construction equipment provides means for estimating the quantity of carbon emissions related to the construction phase of a building’s life cycle. The proposed carbon emissions assessment method was validated by case studies.

Keywords: building construction phase, carbon emissions assessment, building life cycle

Procedia PDF Downloads 668
7771 Production and Recycling of Construction and Demolition Waste

Authors: Vladimira Vytlacilova

Abstract:

Recycling of construction and demolition waste (C&DW) and their new reuse in structures is one of the solutions of environmental problems. Construction and demolition waste creates a major portion of total solid waste production in the world and most of it is used in landfills all the time. The paper deals with the situation of the recycling of the building and demolition waste in the Czech Republic during the recent years. The paper is dealing with questions of C&D waste recycling, it also characterizes construction and demolition waste in general, furthermore it analyses production of construction waste and subsequent production of recycled materials.

Keywords: Recycling, Construction and demolition waste, Recycled rubble, Waste management

Procedia PDF Downloads 189
7770 Reduce, Reuse and Recycle: Grand Challenges in Construction Recovery Process

Authors: Abioye A. Oyenuga, Rao Bhamidiarri

Abstract:

Hurling a successful Construction and Demolition Waste (C&DW) recycling operation around the globe is a challenge today, predominantly because secondary materials markets are yet to be integrated. Reducing, Reusing and recycling of (C&DW) have been employed over the years, and various techniques have been investigated. However, the economic and environmental viability of its application seems limited. This paper discusses the costs and benefits in using secondary materials and focus on investigating reuse and recycling process for five major types of construction materials: concrete, metal, wood, cardboard/paper, and plasterboard. Data obtained from demolition specialist and contractors are considered and evaluated. With the date source, the research paper found that construction material recovery process fully incorporate the 3R’s process and shows how energy recovery by means of 3R's principles can be evaluated. This scrutiny leads to the empathy of grand challenges in construction material recovery process. Recommendations to deepen material recovery process are also discussed.

Keywords: construction and demolition waste (C&DW), 3R concept, recycling, reuse, waste management, UK

Procedia PDF Downloads 348
7769 Analyzing Sociocultural Factors Shaping Architects’ Construction Material Choices: The Case of Jordan

Authors: Maiss Razem

Abstract:

The construction sector is considered a major consumer of materials that undergoes processes of extraction, processing, transportation, and maintaining when used in buildings. Several metrics have been devised to capture the environmental impact of the materials consumed during construction using lifecycle thinking. Rarely has the materiality of this sector been explored qualitatively and systemically. This paper aims to explore socio-cultural forces that drive the use of certain materials in the Jordanian construction industry, using practice theory as a heuristic method of analysis, more specifically Shove et al. three-element model. By conducting semi-structured interviews with architects, the results unravel contextually embedded routines when determining qualities of three materialities highlighted herein; stone, glass and spatial openness. The study highlights the inadequacy of only using efficiency as a quantitative metric of sustainable materials and argues for the need to link material consumption with socio-economic, cultural, and aesthetic driving forces. The operationalization of practice theory by tracing materials’ lifetimes as they integrate with competencies and meanings captures dynamic engagements through the analyzed routines of actors in the construction practice. This study can offer policymakers better-nuanced representation to green this sector beyond efficiency rhetoric and quantitative metrics.

Keywords: architects' practices, construction materials, Jordan, practice theory

Procedia PDF Downloads 94
7768 Managing Construction Wastes in Nigeria for Sustainable Development

Authors: Ezekiel Ejiofor Nnadi

Abstract:

Nigeria construction industry is known for its active construction activities. This has earmarked the industry to be the key to economic growth of the nation. It has largest employer of labour and gives sustenance to other industries like manufacturing industry. While this is a sign of growth and prosperity; the waste generated by the industry has always been a problem and a serious concern. It results in wastage of economic gain and has resultant health effect on the populace apart from injury being sustained on sites. This work provides a platform to learn more about construction waste, its management strategy and how to reduce waste production in Nigeria construction industry. Construction sites, waste management authority and public health institutions in Lagos as the centre of most construction activities in Nigeria were selected, and a set of questionnaire was administered to using the systematic sampling technique. Descriptive statistics and relative importance index (RII) technique were employed for the analysis of the data gathered. The findings of the analysis show that excessive wastes reduce contractors’ profit margin and also that some construction wastes contain hazardous and toxic elements such as lead, asbestos or radioactive materials which required proper handling and effective disposal. The conclusion was drawn that the check on waste on construction sites starts with the designers to the contractors who execute on site.

Keywords: construction cost, construction industry, economic growth, materials wastes

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
7767 Flexural Behavior of Eco-Friendly Prefabricated Low Cost Bamboo Reinforced Wall Panels

Authors: Vishal Puri, Pradipta Chakrabortty, Swapan Majumdar

Abstract:

Precast concrete construction is the most commonly used technique for a rapid construction. This technique is very frequently used in the developed countries. Different guidelines required to utilize the potential of prefabricated construction are still not available in the developing countries. This causes over dependence on in-situ construction procedure which further affects the quality, scheduling, and duration of construction. Also with the ever increasing costs of building materials and their negative impact on the environment it has become imperative to look out for alternate construction materials which are cheap and sustainable. Bamboo and fly ash are alternate construction materials having great potential in the construction industry. Thus there is a great need to develop prefabricated components by utilizing the potential of these materials. Bamboo reinforced beams, bamboo reinforced columns and bamboo arches as researched previously have shown great prospects for prefabricated construction industry. But, many other prefabricated components still need to be studied and widely tested before their utilization in the prefabricated construction industry. In the present study, authors have showcased prefabricated bamboo reinforced wall panel for the prefabricated construction industry. It presents a detailed methodology for the development of such prefabricated panels. It also presents the flexural behavior of such panels as tested under flexural loads following ASTM guidelines. It was observed that these wall panels are much flexible and do not show brittle failure as observed in traditional brick walls. It was observed that prefabricated walls are about 42% cheaper as compared to conventional brick walls. It was also observed that prefabricated walls are considerably lighter in weight and are environment friendly. It was thus concluded that this type of wall panels are an excellent alternative for partition brick walls.

Keywords: bamboo, prefabricated walls, reinforced structure, sustainable infrastructure

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
7766 Environmental Decision Making Model for Assessing On-Site Performances of Building Subcontractors

Authors: Buket Metin

Abstract:

Buildings cause a variety of loads on the environment due to activities performed at each stage of the building life cycle. Construction is the first stage that affects both the natural and built environments at different steps of the process, which can be defined as transportation of materials within the construction site, formation and preparation of materials on-site and the application of materials to realize the building subsystems. All of these steps require the use of technology, which varies based on the facilities that contractors and subcontractors have. Hence, environmental consequences of the construction process should be tackled by focusing on construction technology options used in every step of the process. This paper presents an environmental decision-making model for assessing on-site performances of subcontractors based on the construction technology options which they can supply. First, construction technologies, which constitute information, tools and methods, are classified. Then, environmental performance criteria are set forth related to resource consumption, ecosystem quality, and human health issues. Finally, the model is developed based on the relationships between the construction technology components and the environmental performance criteria. The Fuzzy Analytical Hierarchy Process (FAHP) method is used for weighting the environmental performance criteria according to environmental priorities of decision-maker(s), while the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS) method is used for ranking on-site environmental performances of subcontractors using quantitative data related to the construction technology components. Thus, the model aims to provide an insight to decision-maker(s) about the environmental consequences of the construction process and to provide an opportunity to improve the overall environmental performance of construction sites.

Keywords: construction process, construction technology, decision making, environmental performance, subcontractor

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
7765 Health Post A Sustainable Prototype for the Third World

Authors: Chizzoniti Domenico, Beggiora Klizia, Cattani Letizia, Moscatelli Monica

Abstract:

This paper concerns the study of sustainable construction materials applied on the "Health Post", a prototype for the primary health care situated in alienated areas of the world. It's suitable for social and climatic Sub-Saharan context; however, it could be moved in other countries of the world with similar urgent needs. The idea is to create a Health Post with local construction materials that have a low environmental impact and promote the local workforce allowing reuse of traditional building techniques lowering production costs and transport. The aim of Primary Health Care Centre is to be a flexible and expandable structure identifying a modular form that can be repeated several times to expand its existing functions. In this way it could be not only a health care centre but also a socio-cultural facility.

Keywords: low costs building, sustainable construction materials, green construction system, prototype, health care, emergency

Procedia PDF Downloads 379
7764 Analysis of Construction Waste Generation and Its Effect in a Construction Site

Authors: R. K. D. G. Kaluarachchi

Abstract:

The generation of solid waste and its effective management are debated topics in Sri Lanka as well as in the global environment. It was estimated that the most of the waste generated in global was originated from construction and demolition of buildings. Thus, the proportion of construction waste in solid waste generation cannot be underestimated. The construction waste, which is the by-product generated and removed from work sites is collected in direct and indirect processes. Hence, the objectives of this research are to identify the proportion of construction waste which can be reused and identify the methods to reduce the waste generation without reducing the quality of the process. A 6-storey building construction site was selected for this research. The site was divided into six zones depending on the process. Ten waste materials were identified by considering the adverse effects on safety and health of people and the economic value of them. The generated construction waste in each zone was recorded per week for a period of five months. The data revealed that sand, cement, wood used for form work and rusted steel rods were the generated waste which has higher economic value in all zones. Structured interviews were conducted to gather information on how the materials are categorized as waste and the capability of reducing, reusing and recycling the waste. It was identified that waste is generated in following processes; ineffective storage of material for a longer time and improper handling of material during the work process. Further, the alteration of scheduled activities of construction work also yielded more waste. Finally, a proper management of construction waste is suggested to reduce and reuse waste.

Keywords: construction-waste, effective management, reduce, reuse

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
7763 Recycling Strategies of Construction Waste in Egypt

Authors: Hanan Anwar

Abstract:

All systems recycle. The construction industry has not only become a major consumer of natural materials along with a source of pollution. Environmental integrated production, reusing and recycling is of great importance in Egypt nowadays. Governments should ensure that the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of alternative systems is considered and is taken into account before construction starts. Hereby this paper focuses on the recycle of building materials as a way for environment protection and sustainable development. Environmental management integrates the requirements of sustainable development. There are many methods used to reduce waste and increase profits through salvage, reuse, and the recycling of construction waste. Sustainable development as a tool to continual improvement cycle processes innovations to save money.

Keywords: environment, management, reuse, recycling, sustainable development

Procedia PDF Downloads 199
7762 Effect of Pre-Construction on Construction Schedule and Client Loyalty

Authors: Jong Hoon Kim, Hyun-Soo Lee, Moonseo Park, Min Jeong, Inbeom Lee

Abstract:

Pre-construction is essential in achieving the success of a construction project. Due to the early involvement of project participants in the construction phase, project managers are able to plan ahead and solve issues well in advance leading to the success of the project and the satisfaction of the client. This research utilizes quantitative data derived from construction management projects in order to identify the relationship between pre-construction, construction schedule, and client satisfaction. A total of 65 construction projects and 93 clients were investigated for this research in an attempt to identify (a) the relationship between pre-construction and schedule reduction, and (b) pre-construction and client loyalty. Based on the quantitative analysis, this research was able to establish a negative correlation based on 65 construction projects between pre-construction and project schedule existed. This finding represents that the more pre-construction is performed for a certain project, the overall construction schedule decreased. Then, to determine the relationship between pre-construction and client satisfaction, Net Promoter Score (NPS) of 93 clients from the 65 projects was utilized. Pre-construction and NPS was further analyzed and a positive correlation was found between the two. This infers that clients tend to be more satisfied with projects with higher ratio of pre-construction than those projects with less pre-construction.

Keywords: client loyalty, NPS, pre-construction, schedule reduction

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
7761 Usage of Palm Oil Industrial Wastes as Construction Materials

Authors: Mohammad Momeenul Islam, U. Johnson Alengaram, Mohd Zamin Jumaat, Iftekhair Ibnul Bashar

Abstract:

Palm oil industry produces millions of tonnes of industrial wastes and these wastes create huge storage and environmental problems. In order to solve these problems various research works have been performed for past decades. The commonly available wastes are Oil palm shells (OPS) and Palm oil fuel ash (POFA). These materials have already acquired well recognition as alternate of conventional construction materials. OPS has been used as coarse aggregate and compressive strength was found up to 56 MPa for 56-day. It is said that 30 grade Oil Palm shell concrete (OPSC) is possible without adding any cementitious materials. The maximum modulus of elasticity for OPSC was found 18.6 GPa. The Oil palm shell concrete (OPSC) are used in country areas and nearby areas where the palm oil factories are located for houses, road-kerbs, drain blocks, etc. In case of superstructure like beams and slab are also produced by utilizing OPS. Many experimental works have been performed to establish POFA as a substituting binding material in replace of Ordinary Portland cement (OPC). Throughout the research it has been showed that up to 20% of cement by mass can be replaced by POFA. POFA is one of the most enriched pozzolanic materials. The main purpose of this review is to discuss the usage and opportunity of the palm oil industrial wastes as construction materials following the previous experimental research work.

Keywords: construction materials, oil palm shells (OPS), palm oil fuel ash (POFA), aggregates

Procedia PDF Downloads 251
7760 Recycled Use of Solid Wastes in Building Material: A Review

Authors: Oriyomi M. Okeyinka, David A. Oloke, Jamal M. Khatib

Abstract:

Large quantities of solid wastes being generated worldwide from sources such as household, domestic, industrial, commercial and construction demolition activities, leads to environmental concerns. Utilization of these wastes in making building construction materials can reduce the magnitude of the associated problems. When these waste products are used in place of other conventional materials, natural resources and energy are preserved and expensive and/or potentially harmful waste disposal is avoided. Recycling which is regarded as the third most preferred waste disposal option, with its numerous environmental benefits, stand as a viable option to offset the environmental impact associated with the construction industry. This paper reviews the results of laboratory tests and important research findings, and the potential of using these wastes in building construction materials with focus on sustainable development. Research gaps, which includes; the need to develop standard mix design for solid waste based building materials; the need to develop energy efficient method of processing solid waste use in concrete; the need to study the actual behavior or performance of such building materials in practical application and the limited real life application of such building materials have also been identified. Therefore a research is being proposed to develop an environmentally friendly, lightweight building block from recycled waste paper, without the use of cement, and with properties suitable for use as walling unit. This proposed research intends to incorporate, laboratory experimentation and modeling to address the identified research gaps.

Keywords: recycling, solid wastes, construction, building materials

Procedia PDF Downloads 315
7759 Stress Variation of Underground Building Structure during Top-Down Construction

Authors: Soo-yeon Seo, Seol-ki Kim, Su-jin Jung

Abstract:

In the construction of a building, it is necessary to minimize construction period and secure enough work space for stacking of materials during the construction especially in city area. In this manner, various top-down construction methods have been developed and widely used in Korea. This paper investigates the stress variation of underground structure of a building constructed by using SPS (Strut as Permanent System) known as a top-down method in Korea through an analytical approach. Various types of earth pressure distribution related to ground condition were considered in the structural analysis of an example structure at each step of the excavation. From the analysis, the most high member force acting on beams was found when the ground type was medium sandy soil and a stress concentration was found in corner area.

Keywords: construction of building, top-down construction method, earth pressure distribution, member force, stress concentration

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7758 Labor Productivity in the Construction Industry: Factors Influencing the Spanish Construction Labor Productivity

Authors: G. Robles, A. Stifi, José L. Ponz-Tienda, S. Gentes

Abstract:

This research paper aims to identify, analyze and rank factors affecting labor productivity in Spain with respect to their relative importance. Using a selected set of 35 factors, a structured questionnaire survey was utilized as the method to collect data from companies. Target population is comprised by a random representative sample of practitioners related with the Spanish construction industry. Findings reveal the top five ranked factors are as follows: (1) shortage or late supply of materials; (2) clarity of the drawings and project documents; (3) clear and daily task assignment; (4) tools or equipment shortages; (5) level of skill and experience of laborers. Additionally, this research also pretends to provide simple and comprehensive recommendations so that they could be implemented by construction managers for an effective management of construction labor forces.

Keywords: construction management, factors, improvement, labor productivity, lean construction

Procedia PDF Downloads 203
7757 Valorization of the Waste Generated in Building Energy-Efficiency Rehabilitation Works as Raw Materials for Gypsum Composites

Authors: Paola Villoria Saez, Mercedes Del Rio Merino, Jaime Santacruz Astorqui, Cesar Porras Amores

Abstract:

In construction the Circular Economy covers the whole cycle of the building construction: from production and consumption to waste management and the market for secondary raw materials. The circular economy will definitely contribute to 'closing the loop' of construction product lifecycles through greater recycling and re-use, helping to build a market for reused construction materials salvaged from demolition sites, boosting global competitiveness and fostering sustainable economic growth. In this context, this paper presents the latest research of 'Waste to resources (W2R)' project funded by the Spanish Government, which seeks new solutions to improve energy efficiency in buildings by developing new building materials and products that are less expensive, more durable, with higher quality and more environmentally friendly. This project differs from others as its main objective is to reduce to almost zero the Construction and Demolition Waste (CDW) generated in building rehabilitation works. In order to achieve this objective, the group is looking for new ways of CDW recycling as raw materials for new conglomerate materials. With these new materials, construction elements reducing building energy consumption will be proposed. In this paper, the results obtained in the project are presented. Several tests were performed to gypsum samples containing different percentages of CDW waste generated in Spanish building retroffiting works. Results were further analyzed and one of the gypsum composites was highlighted and discussed. Acknowledgements: This research was supported by the Spanish State Secretariat for Research, Development and Innovation of the Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness under 'Waste 2 Resources' Project (BIA2013-43061-R).

Keywords: building waste, CDW, gypsum, recycling, resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 250
7756 A Review on the Use of Salt in Building Construction

Authors: Vesna Pungercar, Florian Musso

Abstract:

Identifying materials that can substitute rare or expensive natural resources is one of the key challenges for improving resource efficiency in the building sector. With a growing world population and rising living standards, more and more salt is produced as waste through seawater desalination and potash mining processes. Unfortunately, most of the salt is directly disposed of into nature, where it causes environmental pollution. On the other hand, salt is affordable, is used therapeutically in various respiratory treatments, and can store humidity and heat. It was, therefore, necessary to determine salt materials already in use in building construction and their hygrothermal properties. This research aims to identify salt materials from different scientific branches and historically, to investigate their properties and prioritize the most promising salt materials for indoor applications in a thermal envelope. This was realized through literature review and classification of salt materials into three groups (raw salt materials, composite salt materials, and processed salt materials). The outcome of this research shows that salt has already been used as a building material for centuries and has a potential for future applications due to its hygrothermal properties in a thermal envelope.

Keywords: salt, building material, hygrothermal properties, environment

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7755 Affordable and Sustainable Housing Construction: Case Studies

Authors: Tony Rizk

Abstract:

Recent material advances and cost efficiencies are transforming the housing industry away from traditional lumber and gypsum material to alternate fiberboard material that is workable and resistant to fire, mold, and pest infestation. The use of these materials may add to the initial cost of construction. However, the life cycle (cradle to grave) cost of houses using these construction materials and methods are lower than the life cycle costs using traditional housing construction materials and methods. This paper will present four (4) case studies of sustainable house projects. Each project was designed and constructed using earthen-based, sustainable fiberboard material that is resistant to fire, mold, and infestation and fabricated at a very low material calorific value. These house projects have a living space ranging from 625 sq. ft. for an accessory dwelling unit and up to 3,200 sq. ft. 1-story and 2-story homes. For each case study, we will present the house engineering design and construction method, the initial construction costs, a summary of the life cycle costs, and a comparison to the life cycle cost of traditional housing available in the literature.

Keywords: residential housing, sustainable housing, life cycle cost, fire resistance, mold, infestation resistance

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7754 Analysis of Delay Causes in Construction Projects in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Ibrahim Mahamid, A. Al-Ghonamy, M. Aichouni

Abstract:

This study aims at identifying the risk matrix for delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ viewpoint. A questionnaire survey was undertaken of 51 consultants working on construction projects in the Northern Province of Saudi Arabia. 35 delay causes were identified through a literature review. The study concluded that the top delay causes in construction projects in Saudi Arabia from consultants’ perspective are: bid award for lowest price, changes in material types and specifications during construction, contract management, duration of contract period, fluctuation of prices of materials, frequent changes in design, improper planning, inflationary pressure, lack of adequate manpower, long period of design and time of implementation, payments delay, poor labor productivity, and rework.

Keywords: delays, construction, consultants, contributors, risk map

Procedia PDF Downloads 403