Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 121

Search results for: Montgomery multiplication

121 Modified Montgomery for RSA Cryptosystem

Authors: Rupali Verma, Maitreyee Dutta, Renu Vig


Encryption and decryption in RSA are done by modular exponentiation which is achieved by repeated modular multiplication. Hence, efficiency of modular multiplication directly determines the efficiency of RSA cryptosystem. This paper designs a Modified Montgomery Modular multiplication in which addition of operands is computed by 4:2 compressor. The basic logic operations in addition are partitioned over two iterations such that parallel computations are performed. This reduces the critical path delay of proposed Montgomery design. The proposed design and RSA are implemented on Virtex 2 and Virtex 5 FPGAs. The two factors partitioning and parallelism have improved the frequency and throughput of proposed design.

Keywords: RSA, montgomery modular multiplication, 4:2 compressor, FPGA

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
120 Efficient Semi-Systolic Finite Field Multiplier Using Redundant Basis

Authors: Hyun-Ho Lee, Kee-Won Kim


The arithmetic operations over GF(2m) have been extensively used in error correcting codes and public-key cryptography schemes. Finite field arithmetic includes addition, multiplication, division and inversion operations. Addition is very simple and can be implemented with an extremely simple circuit. The other operations are much more complex. The multiplication is the most important for cryptosystems, such as the elliptic curve cryptosystem, since computing exponentiation, division, and computing multiplicative inverse can be performed by computing multiplication iteratively. In this paper, we present a parallel computation algorithm that operates Montgomery multiplication over finite field using redundant basis. Also, based on the multiplication algorithm, we present an efficient semi-systolic multiplier over finite field. The multiplier has less space and time complexities compared to related multipliers. As compared to the corresponding existing structures, the multiplier saves at least 5% area, 50% time, and 53% area-time (AT) complexity. Accordingly, it is well suited for VLSI implementation and can be easily applied as a basic component for computing complex operations over finite field, such as inversion and division operation.

Keywords: finite field, Montgomery multiplication, systolic array, cryptography

Procedia PDF Downloads 212
119 Solving 94-Bit ECDLP with 70 Computers in Parallel

Authors: Shunsuke Miyoshi, Yasuyuki Nogami, Takuya Kusaka, Nariyoshi Yamai


Elliptic curve discrete logarithm problem (ECDLP) is one of problems on which the security of pairing-based cryptography is based. This paper considers Pollard's rho method to evaluate the security of ECDLP on Barreto-Naehrig (BN) curve that is an efficient pairing-friendly curve. Some techniques are proposed to make the rho method efficient. Especially, the group structure on BN curve, distinguished point method, and Montgomery trick are well-known techniques. This paper applies these techniques and shows its optimization. According to the experimental results for which a large-scale parallel system with MySQL is applied, 94-bit ECDLP was solved about 28 hours by parallelizing 71 computers.

Keywords: Pollard's rho method, BN curve, Montgomery multiplication

Procedia PDF Downloads 192
118 The Fallacy around Inserting Brackets to Evaluate Expressions Involving Multiplication and Division

Authors: Manduth Ramchander


Evaluating expressions involving multiplication and division can give rise to the fallacy that brackets can be arbitrarily inserted into expressions involving multiplication and division. The aim of this article was to draw upon mathematical theory to prove that brackets cannot be arbitrarily inserted into expressions involving multiplication and division and in particular in expressions where division precedes multiplication. In doing so, it demonstrates that the notion that two different answers are possible, when evaluating expressions involving multiplication and division, is indeed a false one. Searches conducted in a number of scholarly databases unearthed the rules to be applied when removing brackets from expressions, which revealed that consideration needs to be given to sign changes when brackets are removed. The rule pertaining to expressions involving multiplication and division was then extended upon, in its reverse format, to prove that brackets cannot be arbitrarily inserted into expressions involving multiplication and division. The application of the rule demonstrates that an expression involving multiplication and division can have only one correct answer. It is recommended that both the rule and its reverse be included in the curriculum, preferably at the juncture when manipulation with brackets is introduced.

Keywords: brackets, multiplications and division, operations, order

Procedia PDF Downloads 74
117 Low-Complexity Multiplication Using Complement and Signed-Digit Recoding Methods

Authors: Te-Jen Chang, I-Hui Pan, Ping-Sheng Huang, Shan-Jen Cheng


In this paper, a fast multiplication computing method utilizing the complement representation method and canonical recoding technique is proposed. By performing complements and canonical recoding technique, the number of partial products can be reduced. Based on these techniques, we propose an algorithm that provides an efficient multiplication method. On average, our proposed algorithm is to reduce the number of k-bit additions from (0.25k+logk/k+2.5) to (k/6 +logk/k+2.5), where k is the bit-length of the multiplicand A and multiplier B. We can therefore efficiently speed up the overall performance of the multiplication. Moreover, if we use the new proposes to compute common-multiplicand multiplication, the computational complexity can be reduced from (0.5 k+2 logk/k+5) to (k/3+2 logk/k+5) k-bit additions.

Keywords: algorithm design, complexity analysis, canonical recoding, public key cryptography, common-multiplicand multiplication

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116 A Note on Decidability of the Theory of Natural Numbers

Authors: Zahra Sheikhaleslami


The additive theory or (the multiplication theory) of a set of natural numbers is the first theory of the structure of that set with the addition or (multiplication) operation that set is taken be additive(multiplicative),i.e., closed under addition or (multiplication). In this paper, decidability (i.e.,there exists an algorithm that decides whether a given sentence is derivable from the theory )of the structures of natural numbers study in different languages and introduce ways that it allows quantifier elimination (for the theory ) and review some classical theorems and will give new proofs for old results.

Keywords: Decidability, Incompleteness, Number Structure, First Order Logic

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115 Integrating Indigenous Students’ Funds of Knowledge to Introduce Multiplication with a Picture Storybook

Authors: Murni Sianturi, Andreas Au Hurit


The low level of Indigenous Papuan students’ literacy and numeracy in Merauke Regency-Indonesia needs to be considered. The development of a learnable storybook with pictures related to their lives might raise their curiosity to read. This study aimed to design a storybook as a complementary resource for the third graders using Indigenous Malind cultural approaches by employing research and development methods. The product developed was a thematic-integrative picture storybook using funds of knowledge from Indigenous students. All the book contents depicted Indigenous students’ lives and were in line with the national curriculum syllabus, specifically representing one sub-theme−multiplication topic. Multiplication material of grade 3 was modified in the form of a story, and at the end of the reading, students were given several multiplication exercises. Based on the results of the evaluation from the expert team, it was found that the average score was in the excellent category. The students’ and teacher’s responses to the storybook were very positive. Students were thrilled when reading this book and also effortlessly understood the concept of multiplication. Therefore, this book might be used as a companion book to the main book and serve as introductory reading material for students prior to discussing multiplication material.

Keywords: a picture storybook, funds of knowledge, Indigenous elementary students, literacy, numeracy

Procedia PDF Downloads 113
114 Magnification Factor Based Seismic Response of Moment Resisting Frames with Open Ground Storey

Authors: Subzar Ahmad Bhat, Saraswati Setia, V. K.Sehgal


During the past earthquakes, open ground storey buildings have performed poorly due to the soft storey defect. Indian Standard IS 1893:2002 allows analysis of open ground storey buildings without considering infill stiffness but with a multiplication factor 2.5 in compensation for the stiffness discontinuity. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to check the applicability of the multiplication factor of 2.5 and study behaviour of the structure after the application of the multiplication factor. For this purpose, study is performed on models considering infill stiffness using SAP 2000 (Version 14) by linear static analysis and response spectrum analysis. Total seven models are analysed and designed for the range of multiplication factor ranging from 1.25 to 2.5. The value of multiplication factor equal to 2.5 has been found on the higher side, resulting in increased dimension and percentage of reinforcement without significant enhancement beyond a certain multiplication factor. When the building with OGS is designed for values of MF higher than 1.25 considering infill stiffness soft storey effect shifts from ground storey to first storey. For the analysis of the OGS structure best way to analysis the structure is to analyse it as the frame with stiffness and strength of the infill taken into account. The provision of infill walls in the upper storeys enhances the performance of the structure in terms of displacement and storey drift controls.

Keywords: open ground storey, multiplication factor, IS 1893:2002 provisions, static analysis, response spectrum analysis, infill stiffness, equivalent strut

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
113 Very Large Scale Integration Architecture of Finite Impulse Response Filter Implementation Using Retiming Technique

Authors: S. Jalaja, A. M. Vijaya Prakash


Recursive combination of an algorithm based on Karatsuba multiplication is exploited to design a generalized transpose and parallel Finite Impulse Response (FIR) Filter. Mid-range Karatsuba multiplication and Carry Save adder based on Karatsuba multiplication reduce time complexity for higher order multiplication implemented up to n-bit. As a result, we design modified N-tap Transpose and Parallel Symmetric FIR Filter Structure using Karatsuba algorithm. The mathematical formulation of the FFA Filter is derived. The proposed architecture involves significantly less area delay product (APD) then the existing block implementation. By adopting retiming technique, hardware cost is reduced further. The filter architecture is designed by using 90 nm technology library and is implemented by using cadence EDA Tool. The synthesized result shows better performance for different word length and block size. The design achieves switching activity reduction and low power consumption by applying with and without retiming for different combination of the circuit. The proposed structure achieves more than a half of the power reduction by adopting with and without retiming techniques compared to the earlier design structure. As a proof of the concept for block size 16 and filter length 64 for CKA method, it achieves a 51% as well as 70% less power by applying retiming technique, and for CSA method it achieves a 57% as well as 77% less power by applying retiming technique compared to the previously proposed design.

Keywords: carry save adder Karatsuba multiplication, mid range Karatsuba multiplication, modified FFA and transposed filter, retiming

Procedia PDF Downloads 154
112 Implementation of Integer Sub-Decomposition Method on Elliptic Curves with J-Invariant 1728

Authors: Siti Noor Farwina Anwar, Hailiza Kamarulhaili


In this paper, we present the idea of implementing the Integer Sub-Decomposition (ISD) method on elliptic curves with j-invariant 1728. The ISD method was proposed in 2013 to compute scalar multiplication in elliptic curves, which remains to be the most expensive operation in Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC). However, the original ISD method only works on integer number field and solve integer scalar multiplication. By extending the method into the complex quadratic field, we are able to solve complex multiplication and implement the ISD method on elliptic curves with j-invariant 1728. The curve with j-invariant 1728 has a unique discriminant of the imaginary quadratic field. This unique discriminant of quadratic field yields a unique efficiently computable endomorphism, which later able to speed up the computations on this curve. However, the ISD method needs three endomorphisms to be accomplished. Hence, we choose all three endomorphisms to be from the same imaginary quadratic field as the curve itself, where the first endomorphism is the unique endomorphism yield from the discriminant of the imaginary quadratic field.

Keywords: efficiently computable endomorphism, elliptic scalar multiplication, j-invariant 1728, quadratic field

Procedia PDF Downloads 119
111 In vitro Clonal Multiplication and Acclimatization of Large Cardamom (Amomum subulatum Roxb.)

Authors: Krishna Poudel, Tahar Katuwal, Sujan Karki


A rapid propagation and acclimatization method of large cardamom was optimized in this study. Sprouted rhizome buds were collected. The excised rhizome bud explants were cultured on semi solid culture media. The explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog’s (MS) medium supplemented with different concentration and combinations of BAP (6-Benzyl-amino-purine) and IBA (Indole-3-butyric acid) for shoot and root induction. Explants cultured on MS basal medium supplemented with 1.0 mg/l BAP + 0.5 gm/l IBA showed the highest rate of shoot multiplication. In vitro shoots were rooted on to the half-strength MS basal media supplemented with 0.5 mg/l IBA. Rooted shoots were transplanted in the screen house for hardening process. These hardened plants were subsequently shifted into the netted nursery for further multiplication process.

Keywords: concentration, explants, hardening, rhizome

Procedia PDF Downloads 169
110 Filling the Gaps with Representation: Netflix’s Anne with an E as a Way to Reveal What the Text Hid

Authors: Arkadiusz Adam Gardaś


In his theory of gaps, Wolfgang Iser states that literary texts often lack direct messages. Instead of using straightforward descriptions, authors leave the gaps or blanks, i.e., the spaces within the text that come into existence only when readers fill them with their understanding and experiences. This paper’s aim is to present Iser’s literary theory in an intersectional way by comparing it to the idea of intersemiotic translation. To be more precise, the author uses the example of Netflix’s adaption of Lucy Maud Montgomery’s Anne of Green Gables as a form of rendering a book into a film in such a way that certain textual gaps are filled with film images. Intersemiotic translation is a rendition in which signs of one kind of media are translated into the signs of the other media. Film adaptions are the most common, but not the only, type of intersemiotic translation. In this case, the role of the translator is taken by a screenwriter. A screenwriter’s role can reach beyond the direct meaning presented by the author, and instead, it can delve into the source material (here – a novel) in a deeper way. When it happens, a screenwriter is able to spot the gaps in the text and fill them with images that can later be presented to the viewers. Anne with an E, the Netflix adaption of Montgomery’s novel, may be used as a highly meaningful example of such a rendition. It is due to the fact that the 2017 series was broadcasted more than a hundred years after the first edition of the novel was published. This means that what the author might not have been able to show in her text can now be presented in a more open way. The screenwriter decided to use this opportunity to represent certain groups in the film, i.e., racial and sexual minorities, and women. Nonetheless, the series does not alter the novel; in fact, it adds to it by filling the blanks with more direct images. In the paper, fragments of the first season of Anne with an E are analysed in comparison to its source, the novel by Montgomery. The main purpose of that is to show how intersemiotic translation connected with the Iser’s literary theory can enrich the understanding of works of art, culture, media, and literature.

Keywords: intersemiotic translation, film, literary gaps, representation

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
109 Spectral Analysis Approaches for Simultaneous Determination of Binary Mixtures with Overlapping Spectra: An Application on Pseudoephedrine Sulphate and Loratadine

Authors: Sara El-Hanboushy, Hayam Lotfy, Yasmin Fayez, Engy Shokry, Mohammed Abdelkawy


Simple, specific, accurate and precise spectrophotometric methods are developed and validated for simultaneous determination of pseudoephedrine sulphate (PSE) and loratadine (LOR) in combined dosage form based on spectral analysis technique. Pseudoephedrine (PSE) in binary mixture could be analyzed either by using its resolved zero order absorption spectrum at its λ max 256.8 nm after subtraction of LOR spectrum or in presence of LOR spectrum by absorption correction method at 256.8 nm, dual wavelength (DWL) method at 254nm and 273nm, induced dual wavelength (IDWL) method at 256nm and 272nm and ratio difference (RD) method at 256nm and 262 nm. Loratadine (LOR) in the mixture could be analyzed directly at 280nm without any interference of PSE spectrum or at 250 nm using its recovered zero order absorption spectrum using constant multiplication(CM).In addition, simultaneous determination for PSE and LOR in their mixture could be applied by induced amplitude modulation method (IAM) coupled with amplitude multiplication (PM).

Keywords: dual wavelength (DW), induced amplitude modulation method (IAM) coupled with amplitude multiplication (PM), loratadine, pseudoephedrine sulphate, ratio difference (RD)

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108 The Students' Mathematical Competency and Attitude towards Mathematics Using the Trachtenberg Speed Math System

Authors: Marlone D. Severo


A pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design was used to test the intervention of Trachtenberg Speed Math on the mathematical competency of sixty (60) matched-paired students with a poor performing grade in Mathematics from one of the biggest public national high school at the South of Metro Manila. Both control and experimental group were administered with the Attitude Towards Mathematics Inventory (ATMI) before the pretest were given and both group showed high dislike for Mathematics. Pretest showed a 53 percent accuracy for the control group and 51 percent for the experimental group using a 15-item long multiplication test without any aid of a computing device. The experimental group were taught how to use the Trachtenberg number-keys and techniques in multiplication between October 2014 to March 2015. Post-test showed an improvement in the experimental group with 96 percent accuracy for the control group and a dismal 57 percent for the control group in long-multiplication. Post-test ATMI were administered. The control group showed a great dislike towards Mathematics, while the experimental group showed a positive attitude towards the subject.

Keywords: attitude towards mathematics, mathematical competency, number-keys, trachtenberg speed math

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107 Modeling a Feedback Concept in a Spherical Thundercloud Cell

Authors: Zemlianskaya Daria, Egor Stadnichuk, Ekaterina Svechnikova


Relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs) are generally accepted as a source of thunderstorms gamma-ray radiation. Avalanches' dynamics in the electric fields can lead to their multiplication via gamma-rays and positrons, which is called relativistic feedback. This report shows that a non-uniform electric field geometry leads to the new RREAs multiplication mechanism - “geometric feedback”, which occurs due to the exchange of high-energy particles between different accelerating regions within a thundercloud. This report will present the results of the simulation in GEANT4 of feedback in a spherical cell. Necessary conditions for the occurrence of geometric feedback were obtained from it.

Keywords: electric field, GEANT4, gamma-rays, relativistic runaway electron avalanches (RREAs), relativistic feedback, the thundercloud

Procedia PDF Downloads 89
106 The Theory of Number "0"

Authors: Iryna Shevchenko


The science of mathematics was originated at the order of count of objects and subsequently for the measurement of size and quality of objects using the logical or abstract means. The laws of mathematics are based on the study of absolute values. The number 0 or "nothing" is the purely logical (as the opposite to absolute) value as the "nothing" should always assume the space for the something that had existed there; otherwise the "something" would never come to existence. In this work we are going to prove that the number "0" is the abstract (logical) and not an absolute number and it has the absolute value of “∞” (infinity). Therefore, the number "0" might not stand in the row of numbers that symbolically represents the absolute values, as it would be the mathematically incorrect. The symbolical value of number "0" in the row of numbers could be represented with symbol "∞" (infinity). As a result, we have the mathematical row of numbers: epsilon, ...4, 3, 2, 1, ∞. As the conclusions of the theory of number “0” we presented the statements: multiplication and division by fractions of numbers is illegal operation and the mathematical division by number “0” is allowed.

Keywords: illegal operation of division and multiplication by fractions of number, infinity, mathematical row of numbers, theory of number “0”

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105 Private Coded Computation of Matrix Multiplication

Authors: Malihe Aliasgari, Yousef Nejatbakhsh


The era of Big Data and the immensity of real-life datasets compels computation tasks to be performed in a distributed fashion, where the data is dispersed among many servers that operate in parallel. However, massive parallelization leads to computational bottlenecks due to faulty servers and stragglers. Stragglers refer to a few slow or delay-prone processors that can bottleneck the entire computation because one has to wait for all the parallel nodes to finish. The problem of straggling processors, has been well studied in the context of distributed computing. Recently, it has been pointed out that, for the important case of linear functions, it is possible to improve over repetition strategies in terms of the tradeoff between performance and latency by carrying out linear precoding of the data prior to processing. The key idea is that, by employing suitable linear codes operating over fractions of the original data, a function may be completed as soon as enough number of processors, depending on the minimum distance of the code, have completed their operations. The problem of matrix-matrix multiplication in the presence of practically big sized of data sets faced with computational and memory related difficulties, which makes such operations are carried out using distributed computing platforms. In this work, we study the problem of distributed matrix-matrix multiplication W = XY under storage constraints, i.e., when each server is allowed to store a fixed fraction of each of the matrices X and Y, which is a fundamental building of many science and engineering fields such as machine learning, image and signal processing, wireless communication, optimization. Non-secure and secure matrix multiplication are studied. We want to study the setup, in which the identity of the matrix of interest should be kept private from the workers and then obtain the recovery threshold of the colluding model, that is, the number of workers that need to complete their task before the master server can recover the product W. The problem of secure and private distributed matrix multiplication W = XY which the matrix X is confidential, while matrix Y is selected in a private manner from a library of public matrices. We present the best currently known trade-off between communication load and recovery threshold. On the other words, we design an achievable PSGPD scheme for any arbitrary privacy level by trivially concatenating a robust PIR scheme for arbitrary colluding workers and private databases and the proposed SGPD code that provides a smaller computational complexity at the workers.

Keywords: coded distributed computation, private information retrieval, secret sharing, stragglers

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104 Influence of Cyperus Rotundus Active Principles Inhibit Viral Multiplication and Stimulate Immune System in Indian White Shrimp Fenneropenaeus Indicus against White Spot Syndrome Virus Infection

Authors: Thavasimuthu Citarasu, Mariavincent Michaelbabu, Vikram Vakharia


The rhizome of Java grass, Cyperus rotundus was extracted different organic polar and non-polar solvents and performed the in vitro antiviral and immunostimulant activities against White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively. Based on the initial screening the ethyl acetate extract of C. rotundus was strong activities and further it was purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions were screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. Among the different fractions screened against the WSSV and V. harveyi, the fractions, F-III to FV had strong activities. In order to study the in vivo influence of C. rotundus, the fractions (F-III to FV) were pooled and delivered to the F. indicus through artificial feed for 30 days. After the feeding trail the experimental and control diet fed F. indicus were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the survival, molecular diagnosis, biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. Surprisingly, the pooled fractions (F-III to FV) incorporated diets helped to significantly (P < 0.01) suppressed viral multiplication, showed significant (P < 0.01) differences in protein and glucose levels, improved total haemocyte count (THC), coagulase activity, significantly increased (P < =0.001) prophenol oxidase and intracellular superoxide anion production compared to the control shrimps. Based on the results, C. rotundus extracts effectively suppressed WSSV multiplication and improve the immune system in F. indicus against WSSV infection and this knowledge will helps to develop novel drugs from C. rotundus against WSSV.

Keywords: antiviral drugs, cyperus rotundus, fenneropenaeus indicus, WSSV

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103 Designing Teaching Aids for Dyslexia Students in Mathematics Multiplication

Authors: Mohini Mohamed, Nurul Huda Mas’od


This study was aimed at designing and developing an assistive mathematical teaching aid (courseware) in helping dyslexic students in learning multiplication. Computers and multimedia interactive courseware has benefits students in terms of increase learner’s motivation and engage them to stay on task in classroom. Most disability student has short attention span thus with the advantage offered by multimedia interactive courseware allows them to retain the learning process for longer period as compared to traditional chalk and talk method. This study was conducted in a public school at a primary level with the help of three special education teachers and six dyslexic students as participants. Qualitative methodology using interview with special education teachers and observations in classes were conducted. The development of the multimedia interactive courseware in this study was divided to three processes which were analysis and design, development and evaluation. The courseware was evaluated by using User Acceptance Survey Form and interview. Feedbacks from teachers were used to alter, correct and develop the application for a better multimedia interactive courseware.

Keywords: disability students, dyslexia, mathematics teaching aid, multimedia interactive courseware

Procedia PDF Downloads 310
102 Scalable Systolic Multiplier over Binary Extension Fields Based on Two-Level Karatsuba Decomposition

Authors: Chiou-Yng Lee, Wen-Yo Lee, Chieh-Tsai Wu, Cheng-Chen Yang


Shifted polynomial basis (SPB) is a variation of polynomial basis representation. SPB has potential for efficient bit-level and digit-level implementations of multiplication over binary extension fields with subquadratic space complexity. For efficient implementation of pairing computation with large finite fields, this paper presents a new SPB multiplication algorithm based on Karatsuba schemes, and used that to derive a novel scalable multiplier architecture. Analytical results show that the proposed multiplier provides a trade-off between space and time complexities. Our proposed multiplier is modular, regular, and suitable for very-large-scale integration (VLSI) implementations. It involves less area complexity compared to the multipliers based on traditional decomposition methods. It is therefore, more suitable for efficient hardware implementation of pairing based cryptography and elliptic curve cryptography (ECC) in constraint driven applications.

Keywords: digit-serial systolic multiplier, elliptic curve cryptography (ECC), Karatsuba algorithm (KA), shifted polynomial basis (SPB), pairing computation

Procedia PDF Downloads 282
101 Content-Aware Image Augmentation for Medical Imaging Applications

Authors: Filip Rusak, Yulia Arzhaeva, Dadong Wang


Machine learning based Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) is gaining much popularity in medical imaging and diagnostic radiology. However, it requires a large amount of high quality and labeled training image datasets. The training images may come from different sources and be acquired from different radiography machines produced by different manufacturers, digital or digitized copies of film radiographs, with various sizes as well as different pixel intensity distributions. In this paper, a content-aware image augmentation method is presented to deal with these variations. The results of the proposed method have been validated graphically by plotting the removed and added seams of pixels on original images. Two different chest X-ray (CXR) datasets are used in the experiments. The CXRs in the datasets defer in size, some are digital CXRs while the others are digitized from analog CXR films. With the proposed content-aware augmentation method, the Seam Carving algorithm is employed to resize CXRs and the corresponding labels in the form of image masks, followed by histogram matching used to normalize the pixel intensities of digital radiography, based on the pixel intensity values of digitized radiographs. We implemented the algorithms, resized the well-known Montgomery dataset, to the size of the most frequently used Japanese Society of Radiological Technology (JSRT) dataset and normalized our digital CXRs for testing. This work resulted in the unified off-the-shelf CXR dataset composed of radiographs included in both, Montgomery and JSRT datasets. The experimental results show that even though the amount of augmentation is large, our algorithm can preserve the important information in lung fields, local structures, and global visual effect adequately. The proposed method can be used to augment training and testing image data sets so that the trained machine learning model can be used to process CXRs from various sources, and it can be potentially used broadly in any medical imaging applications.

Keywords: computer-aided diagnosis, image augmentation, lung segmentation, medical imaging, seam carving

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100 Mixed Number Algebra and Its Application

Authors: Md. Shah Alam


Mushfiq Ahmad has defined a Mixed Number, which is the sum of a scalar and a Cartesian vector. He has also defined the elementary group operations of Mixed numbers i.e. the norm of Mixed numbers, the product of two Mixed numbers, the identity element and the inverse. It has been observed that Mixed Number is consistent with Pauli matrix algebra and a handy tool to work with Dirac electron theory. Its use as a mathematical method in Physics has been studied. (1) We have applied Mixed number in Quantum Mechanics: Mixed Number version of Displacement operator, Vector differential operator, and Angular momentum operator has been developed. Mixed Number method has also been applied to Klein-Gordon equation. (2) We have applied Mixed number in Electrodynamics: Mixed Number version of Maxwell’s equation, the Electric and Magnetic field quantities and Lorentz Force has been found. (3) An associative transformation of Mixed Number numbers fulfilling Lorentz invariance requirement is developed. (4) We have applied Mixed number algebra as an extension of Complex number. Mixed numbers and the Quaternions have isomorphic correspondence, but they are different in algebraic details. The multiplication of unit Mixed number and the multiplication of unit Quaternions are different. Since Mixed Number has properties similar to those of Pauli matrix algebra, Mixed Number algebra is a more convenient tool to deal with Dirac equation.

Keywords: mixed number, special relativity, quantum mechanics, electrodynamics, pauli matrix

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99 Effect of Humic Substance on Ex-Vitro Propagation of Saffron (Crocus Sativus L.)

Authors: Abdelghani Tahiri, Youssef Karra, Naima Ait Aabd, Abdelaziz Mimouni


Saffron (Crocus sativus L.), the most expensive spice in the world derived from the stigmas, is an autumn-flowering and sterile triploid (2n=3x=24) geophyte species that belong to the Iridaceae family. This plant species is mainly propagated vegetatively through the formation of daughter corms from the mother one. Low multiplication rates of daughter corms under natural conditions, along with fungal contamination, significantly reduce the productivity and quality of saffron corms. The development of efficient and sustainable strategies for rapid and large-scale production of selected cultivars of saffron will be desired. For this, the main objective of this work is to improve the vegetative propagation of saffron under ex-vitro conditions. Preliminary results of the influence of increasing doses of humic substances (HS) on the growth and multiplication of corms under greenhouse conditions are evaluated. The obtained data shows that the effect of HS depends on the concentration used and the mode of application. Indeed, the application through irrigation has increased the number of shoots and corms, but it has reduced other parameters. On the other hand, the temporary treatment has improved all observed parameters except for the number of shoots and corms. Results obtained in this work suggest that it is possible to improve the propagation of saffron corms under greenhouse conditions.

Keywords: saffron, Crocus sativus L., corm, humic substances

Procedia PDF Downloads 102
98 Performance Evaluation of Wideband Code Division Multiplication Network

Authors: Osama Abdallah Mohammed Enan, Amin Babiker A/Nabi Mustafa


The aim of this study is to evaluate and analyze different parameters of WCDMA (wideband code division multiplication). Moreover, this study also incorporates brief yet throughout analysis of WCDMA’s components as well as its internal architecture. This study also examines different power controls. These power controls may include open loop power control, closed or inner group loop power control and outer loop power control. Different handover techniques or methods of WCDMA are also illustrated in this study. These handovers may include hard handover, inter system handover and soft and softer handover. Different duplexing techniques are also described in the paper. This study has also presented an idea about different parameters of WCDMA that leads the system towards QoS issues. This may help the operator in designing and developing adequate network configuration. In addition to this, the study has also investigated various parameters including Bit Energy per Noise Spectral Density (Eb/No), Noise rise, and Bit Error Rate (BER). After simulating these parameters, using MATLAB environment, it was investigated that, for a given Eb/No value the system capacity increase by increasing the reuse factor. Besides that, it was also analyzed that, noise rise is decreasing for lower data rates and for lower interference levels. Finally, it was examined that, BER increase by using one type of modulation technique than using other type of modulation technique.

Keywords: duplexing, handover, loop power control, WCDMA

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97 Embedded Semantic Segmentation Network Optimized for Matrix Multiplication Accelerator

Authors: Jaeyoung Lee


Autonomous driving systems require high reliability to provide people with a safe and comfortable driving experience. However, despite the development of a number of vehicle sensors, it is difficult to always provide high perceived performance in driving environments that vary from time to season. The image segmentation method using deep learning, which has recently evolved rapidly, provides high recognition performance in various road environments stably. However, since the system controls a vehicle in real time, a highly complex deep learning network cannot be used due to time and memory constraints. Moreover, efficient networks are optimized for GPU environments, which degrade performance in embedded processor environments equipped simple hardware accelerators. In this paper, a semantic segmentation network, matrix multiplication accelerator network (MMANet), optimized for matrix multiplication accelerator (MMA) on Texas instrument digital signal processors (TI DSP) is proposed to improve the recognition performance of autonomous driving system. The proposed method is designed to maximize the number of layers that can be performed in a limited time to provide reliable driving environment information in real time. First, the number of channels in the activation map is fixed to fit the structure of MMA. By increasing the number of parallel branches, the lack of information caused by fixing the number of channels is resolved. Second, an efficient convolution is selected depending on the size of the activation. Since MMA is a fixed, it may be more efficient for normal convolution than depthwise separable convolution depending on memory access overhead. Thus, a convolution type is decided according to output stride to increase network depth. In addition, memory access time is minimized by processing operations only in L3 cache. Lastly, reliable contexts are extracted using the extended atrous spatial pyramid pooling (ASPP). The suggested method gets stable features from an extended path by increasing the kernel size and accessing consecutive data. In addition, it consists of two ASPPs to obtain high quality contexts using the restored shape without global average pooling paths since the layer uses MMA as a simple adder. To verify the proposed method, an experiment is conducted using perfsim, a timing simulator, and the Cityscapes validation sets. The proposed network can process an image with 640 x 480 resolution for 6.67 ms, so six cameras can be used to identify the surroundings of the vehicle as 20 frame per second (FPS). In addition, it achieves 73.1% mean intersection over union (mIoU) which is the highest recognition rate among embedded networks on the Cityscapes validation set.

Keywords: edge network, embedded network, MMA, matrix multiplication accelerator, semantic segmentation network

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96 Cloud Shield: Model to Secure User Data While Using Content Delivery Network Services

Authors: Rachna Jain, Sushila Madan, Bindu Garg


Cloud computing is the key powerhouse in numerous organizations due to shifting of their data to the cloud environment. In recent years it has been observed that cloud-based-services are being used on large scale for content storage, distribution and processing. Various issues have been observed in cloud computing environment that need to be addressed. Security and privacy are found topmost concern area. In this paper, a novel security model is proposed to secure data by utilizing CDN services like image to icon conversion. CDN Service is a content delivery service which converts an image to icon, word to pdf & Latex to pdf etc. Presented model is used to convert an image into icon by keeping image secret. Here security of image is imparted so that image should be encrypted and decrypted by data owners only. It is also discussed in the paper that how server performs multiplication and selection on encrypted data without decryption. The data can be image file, word file, audio or video file. Moreover, the proposed model is capable enough to multiply images, encrypt them and send to a server application for conversion. Eventually, the prime objective is to encrypt an image and convert the encrypted image to image Icon by utilizing homomorphic encryption.

Keywords: cloud computing, user data security, homomorphic encryption, image multiplication, CDN service

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95 Comparing the Sequence and Effectiveness of Teaching the Four Basic Operations and Mathematics in Primary Schools

Authors: Abubakar Sadiq Mensah, Hassan Usman


The study compared the effectiveness of Audition, Multiplication, subtraction and Division (AMSD) and Addition, subtraction, Multiplication and Division (ASMD), sequence of teaching these four basic operations in mathematics to primary one pupil’s in Katsina Local Government, Katsina State. The study determined the sequence that was more effective and mostly adopted by teachers of the operations. One hundred (100) teachers and sixty pupils (60) from primary one were used for the study. The pupils were divided into two equal groups. The researcher taught these operations to each group separately for four weeks (4 weeks). Group one was taught using the ASMD sequence, while group two was taught using ASMD sequence. In order to generate the needed data for the study, questionnaires and tests were administered on the samples. Data collected were analyzed and major findings were arrived at: (i) Two primary mathematics text books were used in all the primary schools in the area; (ii) Each of the textbooks contained the ASMD sequence; (iii) 73% of the teachers sampled adopted the ASMD sequence of teaching these operations; and (iv) Group one of the pupils (taught using AMSD sequence) performed significantly better than their counter parts in group two (taught using AMSD sequence). On the basis of this, the researcher concluded that the AMSD sequence was more effective in teaching the operations than the ASMD sequence. Consequently, the researcher concluded that primary schools teachers, authors of primary mathematics textbooks, and curriculum planner should adopt the AMSD sequence of teaching these operations.

Keywords: matematic, high school, four basic operations, effectiveness of teaching

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94 Biomass Enhancement of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) Shoot Culture in Temporary Immersion System (TIS) RITA® Bioreactor Optimized in Two Different Immersion Periods

Authors: Agustine Melviana, Rizkita Esyanti


Stevia plant contains steviol glycosides which is estimated to be 300 times sweeter than sucrose. However in Indonesia, conventional (in vivo) propagation of Stevia rebaudiana was not effective due to a poor result. Therefore, alternative methods to propagate S. rebaudiana plants is needed, one of it is using in vitro method. Multiplication with a large quantity of stevia biomass in relatively short period can be conducted by using TIS RITA® (Recipient for Automated Temporary Immersion System). The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of immersion period of the medium on growth and the medium bioconversion into the production of shoot biomass. The study was conducted to determine the effect of different intensity period of medium to enhance biomass of stevia shoots. Shoot culture of S. rebaudiana was grown in full strength MS medium supplemented with 1 ppm Kinetin. RITA® bioreactors were set up with two different immersion periods, 15 min (RITA® 15) and 30 min (RITA® 30), scheduled every 6 hours and incubated for 21 days. The result indicated that immersion period affected the biomass and growth rate (µ). Thirty-minutes immersion showed greater percentage of shoot multiplication (93.44 ± 0.83%), percentage of leaf growth (85.24 ± 5.99%), growth rate (0.042 ± 0.001 g/day), and productivity (0.066 g/L medium/day) compared to that immersed in RITA® 15 min (76.90 ± 4.85%; 79.73 ± 7.76; 0.045 ± 0.004 g/day, and 0.045 g/L medium/day respectively). Enhancement of biomass in RITA® 30 reached 1,702 ± 0,114 gr, whereas in RITA® 15 only 0,953 ± 0,093 gr. Additionally, the pattern of sucrose, mineral, and inorganic compounds consumption followed the growth of plant biomass for both systems. In conclusion, the bioconversion efficiency from medium to biomass in RITA® 30 is better than RITA® 15.

Keywords: intensity period, shoot culture, Stevia rebaudiana, TIS RITA®

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93 Effective Dose and Size Specific Dose Estimation with and without Tube Current Modulation for Thoracic Computed Tomography Examinations: A Phantom Study

Authors: S. Gharbi, S. Labidi, M. Mars, M. Chelli, F. Ladeb


The purpose of this study is to reduce radiation dose for chest CT examination by including Tube Current Modulation (TCM) to a standard CT protocol. A scan of an anthropomorphic male Alderson phantom was performed on a 128-slice scanner. The estimation of effective dose (ED) in both scans with and without mAs modulation was done via multiplication of Dose Length Product (DLP) to a conversion factor. Results were compared to those measured with a CT-Expo software. The size specific dose estimation (SSDE) values were obtained by multiplication of the volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) with a conversion size factor related to the phantom’s effective diameter. Objective assessment of image quality was performed with Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR) measurements in phantom. SPSS software was used for data analysis. Results showed including CARE Dose 4D; ED was lowered by 48.35% and 51.51% using DLP and CT-expo, respectively. In addition, ED ranges between 7.01 mSv and 6.6 mSv in case of standard protocol, while it ranges between 3.62 mSv and 3.2 mSv with TCM. Similar results are found for SSDE; dose was higher without TCM of 16.25 mGy and was lower by 48.8% including TCM. The SNR values calculated were significantly different (p=0.03<0.05). The highest one is measured on images acquired with TCM and reconstructed with Filtered back projection (FBP). In conclusion, this study proves the potential of TCM technique in SSDE and ED reduction and in conserving image quality with high diagnostic reference level for thoracic CT examinations.

Keywords: anthropomorphic phantom, computed tomography, CT-expo, radiation dose

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92 Influence of Organic Supplements on Shoot Multiplication Efficiency of Phaius tankervilleae var. alba

Authors: T. Punjansing, M. Nakkuntod, S. Homchan, P. Inthima, A. Kongbangkerd


The influence of organic supplements on growth and multiplication efficiency of Phaius tankervilleae var. alba seedlings was investigated. 12 week-old seedlings were cultured on half-strength semi-solid Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium supplemented with 30 g/L sucrose, 8 g/L agar and various concentrations of coconut water (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mL/L) combined with potato extract (0, 25 and 50 g/L) and the pH was adjusted to 5.8 prior to autoclaving. The cultures were then kept under constant photoperiod (16 h light: 8 h dark) at 25 ± 2 °C for 12 weeks. The highest number of shoots (3.0 shoots/explant) was obtained when cultured on the medium added with 50 ml/L coconut water and 50 g/L potato extract whereas the highest number of leaves (5.9 leaves/explant) and roots (6.1 roots/explant) could receive on the medium supplemented with 150 ml/L coconut water and 50 g/L potato extract. with 150 ml/L coconut water and 50 g/L potato extract. Additionally, plantlets of P. tankervilleae var. alba were transferred to grow into seven different substrates i.e. soil, sand, coconut husk chip, soil-sand mix (1: 1), soil-coconut husk chip mix (1: 1), sand-coconut husk chip mix (1: 1) and soil-sand-coconut husk chip mix (1: 1: 1) for four weeks. The results found that acclimatized plants showed 100% of survivals when sand, coconut husk chip and sand-coconut husk chip mix are used as substrates. The number of leaves induced by sand-coconut husk chip mix was significantly higher than that planted in other substrates (P > 0.05). Meanwhile, no significant difference in new shoot formation among these substrates was observed (P < 0.05). This precursory developing protocol was likely to be applied for more large scale of plant production as well as conservation of germplasm of this orchid species.

Keywords: organic supplements, acclimatization, Phaius tankervilleae var. alba, orchid

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