Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 456

Search results for: Paul trap

456 Gaussian Operations with a Single Trapped Ion

Authors: Bruna G. M. Araújo, Pedro M. M. Q. Cruz

Abstract:

In this letter, we review the literature of the major concepts that govern Gaussian quantum information. As we work with quantum information and computation with continuous variables, Gaussian states are needed to better describe these systems. Analyzing a single ion locked in a Paul trap we use the interaction picture to obtain a toolbox of Gaussian operations with the ion-laser interaction Hamiltionian. This is achieved exciting the ion through the combination of two lasers of distinct frequencies corresponding to different sidebands of the external degrees of freedom. First we study the case of a trap with 1 mode and then the case with 2 modes. In this way, we achieve different continuous variables gates just by changing the external degrees of freedom of the trap and combining the Hamiltonians of blue and red sidebands.

Keywords: Paul trap, ion-laser interaction, Gaussian operations

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455 Performance of Different Biodegradable Waxes Based Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology-Male Anhelation Technique-Cue Lure Formulations in Bittergourd Field against Bactrocera cucurbitae

Authors: Amna Jalal, Muhammad Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Jalal Arif, Anum Tariq, Waleed Afzal Naveed, Talha Farooq, Mubashir Iqbal, Muhammad Junaid Nisar

Abstract:

Melon fruit flies (Diptera: Tephritidae: Dacinae) are economically important pests of the cucurbits and are geographically distributed throughout the tropics and subtropics of the world. It causes heavy quantitative and qualitative losses in bitter gourd. The present experiment was carried out to evaluate the performance of different biodegradable waxes based SPLAT-MAT-CL (Specialized Pheromone and Lure Application Technology-Male Anhelation Technique- Cue Lure) formulations in bitter gourd field. Fourteen SPLAT-MAT emulsions/formulations were prepared by admixing different SPLAT matrices with toxicant (spinosad) and sex pheromone cuelure (attractant) in different proportionate percentage by weight. The results revealed that attraction and trapping of fruit flies of B. cucurbitae varied significantly for different SPLAT-MAT-CL formulations (p < 0.05). The maximum B. cucurbitae males were trapped in SPLAT-MAT-CL-7 (60 flies/trap/day) followed by SPLAT-MAT-CL-9 (40 flies/trap/day). The performance of all other formulations of SPLAT-MAT-CL was found in the order of SPLAT-MAT-CL-8 (30 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-3 (28 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-5 (25 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-4 (22 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-12 (20 flies/trap/day) SPLAT-MAT-CL-2 (19 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-14 (17 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-13 (15 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-11 (10 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-1 (8 flies/trap/day) > SPLAT-MAT-CL-10 (02 flies/trap/day). Overall, all the SPLAT-MAT-CL formulations, except SPLAT-MAT-CL-10, demonstrated higher density of captures of B. cucurbitae males as compared to standard (06 flies/trap/day). The results also demonstrate that SPLAT-MAT-CL-7, SPLAT-MAT-CL-9, SPLAT-MAT-CL-8, SPLAT-MAT-CL-3, SPLAT-MAT-CL-5, SPLAT-MAT-CL-4, SPLAT-MAT-CL-12, SPLAT-MAT-CL-2, SPLAT-MAT-CL-14, SPLAT-MAT-CL-13, SPLAT-MAT-CL-11 and SPLAT-MAT-CL-1 explained approximately 5, 4.6, 4.1, 3.6, 3.3, 3.1,2.8,2.5 and 1.6 times higher captures of B. cucurbitae males over standards. However, SPLAT-MAT-CL-10 demonstrated 3 times fewer captures of B. cucurbitae males over standards. In conclusion, SPLAT-MAT-CL-7, SPLAT-MAT-CL-9 can be exploited for the monitoring and trapping of B. cucurbitae in its IPM of program.

Keywords: attractancy, field conditions, melon fruit fly, SPLAT-MAT-CL

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454 Optimization of Spatial Light Modulator to Generate Aberration Free Optical Traps

Authors: Deepak K. Gupta, T. R. Ravindran

Abstract:

Holographic Optical Tweezers (HOTs) in general use iterative algorithms such as weighted Gerchberg-Saxton (WGS) to generate multiple traps, which produce traps with 99% uniformity theoretically. But in experiments, it is the phase response of the spatial light modulator (SLM) which ultimately determines the efficiency, uniformity, and quality of the trap spots. In general, SLMs show a nonlinear phase response behavior, and they may even have asymmetric phase modulation depth before and after π. This affects the resolution with which the gray levels are addressed before and after π, leading to a degraded trap performance. We present a method to optimize the SLM for a linear phase response behavior along with a symmetric phase modulation depth around π. Further, we optimize the SLM for its varying phase response over different spatial regions by optimizing the brightness/contrast and gamma of the hologram in different subsections. We show the effect of the optimization on an array of trap spots resulting in improved efficiency and uniformity. We also calculate the spot sharpness metric and trap performance metric and show a tightly focused spot with reduced aberration. The trap performance is compared by calculating the trap stiffness of a trapped particle in a given trap spot before and after aberration correction. The trap stiffness is found to improve by 200% after the optimization.

Keywords: spatial light modulator, optical trapping, aberration, phase modulation

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453 Behavioral and Electroantennographic Responses of the Tea Shot Hole Borer, Euwallacea fornicatus, Eichhoff (Scolytidae: Coleoptera) to Volatiles Compounds of Montanoa bipinnatifida (Compositae: Asteraceae) and Development of a Kairomone Trap

Authors: Sachin Paul James, Selvasundaram Rajagopal, Muraleedharan Nair, Babu Azariah

Abstract:

The shot hole borer (SHB), Euwallacea fornicatus (= Xyleborus fornicatus) (Scolytidae: Coleoptera) is one of the major pests of tea in southern India and Sri Lanka. The partially dried cut stem of a jungle plant, Montanoa bipinnatifida (C.Koch) (Compositae: Asteraceae) reported to attract shot hole borer beetles in the field. Collection, isolation, identification and quantification of the emitted volatiles from the partially dried cut stems of M. bipinnatifida using dynamic head space and GC-MS revealed the presence of seven compounds viz. α- pinene, β- phellandrene, β - pinene, D- limonene, trans-caryophyllene, iso- caryophyllene and germacrene– D. Behavioural bioassays using electroantennogram (EAG) and wind tunnel proved that, among these identified compounds only α - pinene, trans-caryophyllene, β – phellandrene and germacrene-D evoked significant behavioral response and maximum response was obtained to a specific blend of these four compounds @ 10:1:0.1:3. Field trapping experiments of this blend conducted in the SHB infested field using multiple funnel traps further proved the efficiency of the blend with a mean trap catch of 176.7 ± 13.1 beetles. Mass trapping studies in the field helped to develop a kairomone trap for the management of SHB in the tea fields of southern India.

Keywords: electroantennogram, kairomone trap, Montanoa bipinnatifida, tea shot hole borer

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452 Effect of Hydrogen Content and Structure in Diamond-Like Carbon Coatings on Hydrogen Permeation Properties

Authors: Motonori Tamura

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The hydrogen barrier properties of the coatings of diamond-like carbon (DLC) were evaluated. Using plasma chemical vapor deposition and sputtering, DLC coatings were deposited on Type 316L stainless steels. The hydrogen permeation rate was reduced to 1/1000 or lower by the DLC coatings. The DLC coatings with high hydrogen content had high hydrogen barrier function. For hydrogen diffusion in coatings, the movement of atoms through hydrogen trap sites such as pores in coatings, and crystal defects such as dislocations, is important. The DLC coatings are amorphous, and there are both sp3 and sp2 bonds, and excess hydrogen could be found in the interstitial space and the hydrogen trap sites. In the DLC coatings with high hydrogen content, these hydrogen trap sites are likely already filled with hydrogen atoms, and the movement of new hydrogen atoms could be limited.

Keywords: hydrogen permeation, stainless steels, diamond-like carbon, hydrogen trap sites

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451 Numerical Analysis of Flow in the Gap between a Simplified Tractor-Trailer Model and Cross Vortex Trap Device

Authors: Terrance Charles, Zhiyin Yang, Yiling Lu

Abstract:

Heavy trucks are aerodynamically inefficient due to their un-streamlined body shapes, leading to more than of 60% engine power being required to overcome the aerodynamics drag at 60 m/hr. There are many aerodynamics drag reduction devices developed and this paper presents a study on a drag reduction device called Cross Vortex Trap Device (CVTD) deployed in the gap between the tractor and the trailer of a simplified tractor-trailer model. Numerical simulations have been carried out at Reynolds number 0.51×106 based on inlet flow velocity and height of the trailer using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach. Three different configurations of CVTD have been studied, ranging from single to three slabs, equally spaced on the front face of the trailer. Flow field around three different configurations of trap device have been analysed and presented. The results show that a maximum of 12.25% drag reduction can be achieved when a triple vortex trap device is used. Detailed flow field analysis along with pressure contours are presented to elucidate the drag reduction mechanisms of CVTD and why the triple vortex trap configuration produces the maximum drag reduction among the three configurations tested.

Keywords: aerodynamic drag, cross vortex trap device, truck, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes, RANS

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450 The Effect of Meteorological Factors on the Trap Catches of Culicoides Species

Authors: Ahmed M. Rashed

Abstract:

Culicoides midges are known to be vectors of disease to both man and animals. For providing information necessary for control methods to be applied to the best advantage, a New jersey light-trap was used. Twenty species were identified during this study and eight species were recorded from Chantilly for the first time, these include C.grisescens, C.nubeculosus, C.cubitalis, C.achrayi, C.circumscriptus, C.stigma, C.reconditus, and C.parroti. The environmental factors, wind speed and temperature were found to have a marked effect on the activity of Culicoides midges. The temperature was found to be positively correlated and the wind speed negatively correlated with the light-trap catch. However, humidioty could not be shown to have any effect on the catch.

Keywords: culicoides, meteorological factors, wind speed, disease

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449 Management of Jebusaea hammerschmidtii and Batrachedra amydraula on Date Palm Trees in UAE

Authors: Mohammad Ali Al-Deeb, Hamda Ateeq Al Dhaheri

Abstract:

Insects cause major damage to crops and fruit trees worldwide. In the United Arab Emirates, the date palm tree is the most economically important tree which is used for date production as well as an ornamental tree. In 2002, the number of date palm trees in UAE was 40,700,000 and it is increasing over time. The longhorn stem borer (Jebusaea hammerschmidtii) and the lesser date month (Batrachedra amydraula) are important insect pests causing damage to date palm trees in UAE. Population dynamics of the Jebusaea hammerschmidtii and Batrachedra amydraula were studied by using light and pheromons traps, respectively in Al-Ain, UAE. The first trap catch of B. amydraula adults occurred on 19 April and the insect population peaked up on 26 April 2014. The first trap catch of J. hammerschmidtii occurred in April 2014. The numbers increased over time and the population peak occurred in June. The trapping was also done in 2015. The changes in insect numbers in relation to weather parameters are discussed. Also, the importance of the results on the management of these two pests is highlighted.

Keywords: date palm, integrated pest management, UAE, light trap, pheromone trap

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448 Production Optimization through Ejector Installation at ESA Platform Offshore North West Java Field

Authors: Arii Bowo Yudhaprasetya, Ario Guritno, Agus Setiawan, Recky Tehupuring, Cosmas Supriatna

Abstract:

The offshore facilities condition of Pertamina Hulu Energi Offshore North West Java (PHE ONWJ) varies greatly from place to place, depending on the characteristics of the presently installed facilities. In some locations, such as ESA platform, gas trap is mainly caused by the occurrence of flash gas phenomenon which is known as mechanical-physical separation process of multiphase flow. Consequently, the presence of gas trap at main oil line would accumulate on certain areas result in a reduced oil stream throughout the pipeline. Any presence of discrete gaseous along continuous oil flow represents a unique flow condition under certain specific volume fraction and velocity field. From gas lift source, a benefit line is used as a motive flow for ejector which is designed to generate a syphon effect to minimize the gas trap phenomenon. Therefore, the ejector’s exhaust stream will flow to the designated point without interfering other systems.

Keywords: diffuser, ejector, flow, fluent

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447 The Emerging Multi-Species Trap Fishery in the Red Sea Waters of Saudi Arabia

Authors: Nabeel M. Alikunhi, Zenon B. Batang, Aymen Charef, Abdulaziz M. Al-Suwailem

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Saudi Arabia has a long history of using traps as a traditional fishing gear for catching commercially important demersal, mainly coral reef-associated fish species. Fish traps constitute the dominant small-scale fisheries in Saudi waters of Arabian Gulf (eastern seaboard of Saudi Arabia). Recently, however, traps have been increasingly used along the Saudi Red Sea coast (western seaboard), with a coastline of 1800 km (71%) compared to only 720 km (29%) in the Saudi Gulf region. The production trend for traps indicates a recent increase in catches and percent contribution to traditional fishery landings, thus ascertaining the rapid proliferation of trap fishing along the Saudi Red Sea coast. Reef-associated fish species, mainly groupers (Serranidae), emperors (Lethrinidae), parrotfishes (Scaridae), scads and trevallies (Carangidae), and snappers (Lutjanidae), dominate the trap catches, reflecting the reef-dominated shelf zone in the Red Sea. This ongoing investigation covers following major objectives (i) Baseline studies to characterize trap fishery through landing site visit and interview surveys (ii) Stock assessment by fisheries and biological data obtained through monthly landing site monitoring using fishery operational model by FLBEIA, (iii) Operational impacts, derelict traps assessment and by-catch analysis through bottom-mounted video camera and onboard monitoring (iv) Elucidation of fishing grounds and derelict traps impacts by onboard monitoring, Remotely Operated underwater Vehicle and Autonomous Underwater Vehicle surveys; and (v) Analysis of gear design and operations which covers colonization and deterioration experiments. The progress of this investigation on the impacts of the trap fishery on fish stocks and the marine environment in the Saudi Red Sea region is presented.

Keywords: red sea, Saudi Arabia, fish trap, stock assessment, environmental impacts

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446 Developers’ Gains and Losses from the Economic Incentives of Green Building: Explanations from the Transitional Gains Trap and Transaction Cost Economics

Authors: Ke Fan, Edwin H. W. Chan

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Economic incentives of green building (GB) have been implemented to promote green building and address the market barriers. However, if developers could gain from the incentives, why not all the buildings are green? This paper aims to study this problem and provide a new perspective to look at the economic incentives. The theories of Transitional Gains Trap (TGP) and Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) are employed to explain the developers’ gains and losses from the economic incentives. This paper takes the GFA (gross floor area) concession incentive in Hong Kong, which is one of the most popular incentives, as the case to conduct in-depth case study and it did interview to validate the results. The results show that after implementing the GFA concession scheme, the benefit of the GFA concession is capitalized into land value. Therefore, developers have to bear the increased land cost, which supports the theory of the TGP. Even though, some developers are still not willing to participate in the incentive scheme because of high transaction costs (TCs).

Keywords: green building, economic incentives, transitional gains trap, transaction cost

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445 Evaluation of Trapping Efficiency of Slow Released Formulations of Methyl Eugenol with Lanolin Wax against Bactrocera zonata

Authors: Waleed Afzal Naveed, Muhammd Dildar Gogi, Muhammad Sufian, Muhammad Amjad Ali, Muhammad Junaid Nisar, Mubashar Iqbal, Amna Jalal, Faisal Munir

Abstract:

The study was carried out to evaluate the performance of Slow-Released Formulations (SRF) of Methyl eugenol with Lanolin wax in orchard of the University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan against fruit flies. Lanolin wax was mixed with methyl eugenol in nine ratios (10:90, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40, 70:30, 80:20 and 90:10). The results revealed that SRFₗₗ-7 trapped 42.1 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 51.71%, proved strongly attractive SRFₗₗ for B. zonata and was categorized as Class-III slow-released formulation (AI > 50%). The SRFₗₗ-2, SRFₗₗ-3, SRFₗₗ-4, SRFₗₗ-5, SRFₗₗ-6, SRFₗₗ-8 and SRFₗₗ-9 trapped 17.7, 27.9, 32.3, 23.8, 28.3, 37.8 and 19.9 flies /day/trap, exhibited an attractancy index (AI) of 20.54%, 41.02%, 26.00%, 34.15%, 43.50%, 49.86% and 46.07% AI respectively, proved moderately attractive slow-released formulations for B. zonata and were categorized as Class-II slow-released formulations (AI = 11-50%). However, SRFₗₗ-1 trapped 14.8 flies /day/trap, exhibited 0.71% AI proved little or nonattractive slow-released formulation and was categorized as Class-I slow-released formulation for B. zonata (AI < 11%).

Keywords: Bactrocera zonata, slow-released formulation, lenoline wax, methyl euginol

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444 An Assessment of Poland's Current Macroeconomic Conditions to Determine Whether It Is in a Middle Income Trap

Authors: Bozena Leven

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The middle-income trap (MIT) describes a situation faced by countries at a relatively mature stage of development that often poses an obstacle to sustainable long-term growth. MIT is characterized by declining factor productivity from the exhaustion of labor intensive, import and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) based strategies when middle-income status is achieved. In this paper, we focus on MIT and Poland. In the past two decades, Poland experienced steady growth based largely on imported technologies and low-cost labor. Recently, that economic growth has slowed, prompting economists to ask whether Poland is experiencing MIT. To answer this question, we analyze changes in investment in Poland; specifically- its growth and composition – as well as savings, FDI, educational attainments of the labor force, development of new technologies and products, the role of imports, diversification of exports, and product complexity. We also examine the development of modern infrastructure, institutions (including legal environment) and demographic changes in Poland that support growth. Our findings indicate that certain factors consistent with MIT are gaining importance in Poland, and represent a challenge to that country’s future growth rate.

Keywords: engines of growth, factor productivity, middle income trap, sustainable development

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443 Interaction of Steinernema Glaseri, an Entomopathogenic Nematode with a Predatory Fungus Arthrobotrys Superba on Different Nutrient Media

Authors: Varsha Baweja

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Steinernema glaseri is known to be the most potent biocontrol agent against a number of insect pests of various orders and of diverse habitats under laboratory conditions. But in nature many micro pathogens may affect the efficacy of such entomopathogenic nematodes. Keeping this in view, the interaction of Steinernema glaseri with a predatory fungus Arthrobotrys superba was assessed on eight different nutrient media. The activity of A.superba was evaluated in terms of trap formation, conidiophore formation, and number of adhesive cells formed in the presence and absence of nematodes. The fungus failed to form any trap on any of the culture media in the absence of nematodes. However, in the presence of nematodes, the trap formation by the test fungus was increased but the number of conidiophores decreased with increase in dilution of Corn Meal Agar from 5% to 2%. Higher number of chlamydospores were observed in phenylalanine treated medium which indicates the inhibiting effect of phenylalanine on the growth of A. superba. Our results suggest that care should be taken during release of entomopathogenic nematodes in an agroecosystem for managing various insect pests in a more efficient manner.

Keywords: Entomopathogenic Nematode , Steinernema Glaseri, Predatory Fungus, Arthrobotrys Superba

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442 Mainland China and Taiwan’s Strategies for Overcoming the Middle/High Income Trap: Domestic Consensus-Building and the Foundations of Cross-Strait Interactions

Authors: Mingke Ma

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The recent discovery of the High-Income Trap phenomena and the established Middle-Income Trap literature have identified the similarity of the structural challenges that both Mainland China and Taiwan have been facing since the simultaneous growth slowdown from the 2000s. Mainland China and Taiwan’s ineffectiveness in productivity growth weakened their overall competitiveness in Global Value Chains. With the subsequent decline of industrial profitability, social compression from late development persists and jeopardises the social cohesion. From Ma Ying-jeou’s ‘633’ promise and Tsai Ing-wen’s ‘5+2’ industrial framework to Mainland China’s 11th to 14th Five-Year Plans, leaderships across the Strait have been striving to constitute new models for inclusive and sustainable development through policy responses. This study argues that social consensuses that have been constructed by the domestic political processes define the feasibility of the reform strategies, which further construct the conditions for Cross-Strait interactions. Based on the existing literature of New Institutional Economics, Middle/High Income Trap, and Compressed Development, this study adopts a Historical Institutionalist analytical framework to identify how the historical path-dependency contributes to the contemporary growth constraints in both economies and the political difficulty on navigating the institutional and Organisational change. It continues by tracing the political process of economic reform to examine the sustainability and resilience of the manifested social consensus that had empowered the proposed policy frameworks. Afterwards, it examines how the political outcomes in such a simultaneous process shared by both Mainland China and Taiwan construct the social, economic, institutional, and political foundations of contemporary Cross-Strait engagement.

Keywords: historical institutionalism, political economy, cross-strait relations, high/middle income trap

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441 Glorification Trap in Combating Human Trafficking in Indonesia: An Application of Three-Dimensional Model of Anti-Trafficking Policy

Authors: M. Kosandi, V. Susanti, N. I. Subono, E. Kartini

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This paper discusses the risk of glorification trap in combating human trafficking, as it is shown in the case of Indonesia. Based on a research on Indonesian combat against trafficking in 2017-2018, this paper shows the tendency of misinterpretation and misapplication of the Indonesian anti-trafficking law into misusing the law for glorification, to create an image of certain extent of achievement in combating human trafficking. The objective of this paper is to explain the persistent occurrence of human trafficking crimes despite the significant progress of anti-trafficking efforts of Indonesian government. The research was conducted in 2017-2018 by qualitative approach through observation, depth interviews, discourse analysis, and document study, applying the three-dimensional model for analyzing human trafficking in the source country. This paper argues that the drive for glorification of achievement in the combat against trafficking has trapped Indonesian government in the loop of misinterpretation, misapplication, and misuse of the anti-trafficking law. In return, the so-called crime against humanity remains high and tends to increase in Indonesia.

Keywords: human trafficking, anti-trafficking policy, transnational crime, source country, glorification trap

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440 Insect Diversity Assessment of Maize Crop (Zea mays L.) by Using Sweep Net, Pitfall Trap and Plant Inspection Methods

Authors: Muhammad Naeem Mushtaq, Muhammad Arshad, Shahid Majeed

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Maize is known as queen of cereals because of its highest genetic yield potential and multipurpose characteristics in human being and animal diet. Maize crop visited by many major, minor, visitors and sporadic insect pests. This study was conducted during 2014 to evaluate the richness and evenness of these insect pests and their interaction with metrological conditions at University of Agriculture, Faisalabad. In this experiment, two localities were selected; one was treated with pesticide and second was untreated. Maize field visited by many insect pests. Those insect pests were collected by using three collection method: sweep net, pitfall trap and plant inspection. The data was collected weekly interval from August to October and statistically analyzed by using Shannon Index which showed the results of insect pest richness and evenness. The value of Shannon Index was higher with the increase in number of species and abundance of insects. Camponotus nearcticus was most abundant in sweep net and pitfall trap method while Rhopalosiphum maidis was abundant in plant inspection method. Temperature was negatively co-relate with the insect population in all three collection methods while the relative humidity and rainfall had varying results.

Keywords: abundance, evenness, maize, richness

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439 A Theoretical Overview of Thermoluminescence

Authors: Sadhana Agrawal, Tarkeshwari Verma, Shmbhavi Katyayan

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The magnificently accentuating phenomenon of luminescence has gathered a lot of attentions from last few decades. Probably defined as the one involving emission of light from certain kinds of substances on absorbing various energies in the form of external stimulus, the phenomenon claims a versatile pertinence. First observed and reported in an extract of Ligrium Nephriticum by Monards, the phenomenon involves turning of crystal clear water into colorful fluid when comes in contact with the special wood. In words of Sir G.G. Stokes, the phenomenon actually involves three different techniques – absorption, excitation and emission. With variance in external stimulus, the corresponding luminescence phenomenon is obtained. Here, this paper gives a concise discussion of thermoluminescence which is one of the types of luminescence obtained when the external stimulus is given in form of heat energy. A deep insight of thermoluminescence put forward a qualitative analysis of various parameters such as glow curves peaks, trap depth, frequency factors and order of kinetics.

Keywords: frequency factor, glow curve peaks, thermoluminescence, trap depth

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438 Local Activities of the Membranes Associated with Glycosaminoglycan-Chitosan Complexes in Bone Cells

Authors: Chih-Chang Yeh, Min-Fang Yang, Hsin-I Chang

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Chitosan is a cationic polysaccharide derived from the partial deacetylation of chitin. Hyaluronic acid (HA), chondroitin sulfate (CS) and heparin (HP) are anionic glycosaminoglycans (GCGs) which can regulate osteogenic activity. In this study, chitosan membranes were prepared by glutaraldehyde crosslinking reaction and then complexed with three different types of GCGs. 7F2 osteoblasts-like cells and macrophages Raw264.7 were used as models to study the influence of chitosan membranes on osteometabolism. Although chitosan membranes are highly hydrophilic, the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes showed about 60-70% cell attachment. Furthermore, the membranes associated with HP-chitosan complexes could increase ALP activity in comparison with chitosan films only. Three types of the membranes associated with GCG-chitosan complexes could significantly inhibit LPS induced-nitric oxide expression. In addition, chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA can down-regulate tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity but not CS-chitosan complexes. Based on these results, we conclude that chitosan membranes associated with HP can increase ALP activity in osteoblasts and chitosan membranes associated with HP and HA reduce TRAP activity in osteoclasts.

Keywords: osteoblast, osteoclast, chitosan, glycosaminoglycan

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437 Preliminary Treatment in Wastewater Treatment Plants: Operation and Maintenance Aspects

Authors: Priscila M. Lima, Corine A. P. de Almeida, Muriele R. de Lima, Fernando J. C. Magalhães Filho

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This work characterized the preliminary treatment in WWTPs in the state of Mato Grosso Do Sul (Brazil) and analyzed aspects of operation and maintenance of solid waste retained, and was evaluated the interference of this step in treatment efficiency beyond the relationship between solid waste generation with rainfall and seasonality in the region of each WTPs. The results shown that the standard setting in the preliminary treatment consists of grid along with Sand Trap, followed by Parshall that is used in 94.12% of WWTPs analyzed, and in 5.88% of WWTPs it was added the air-lift to the Sand Trap. Was concluded that the influence of rainfall, flow and seasonality associated with the rate of waste generation in the preliminary treatment, had little relation to the operation and maintenance of the primary treatment. But in some cases, precipitation data showed increased rainfall converging with increased flow and solid waste generation.

Keywords: pretreatment, sewage, solid waste, wastewater

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436 Improved Rare Species Identification Using Focal Loss Based Deep Learning Models

Authors: Chad Goldsworthy, B. Rajeswari Matam

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The use of deep learning for species identification in camera trap images has revolutionised our ability to study, conserve and monitor species in a highly efficient and unobtrusive manner, with state-of-the-art models achieving accuracies surpassing the accuracy of manual human classification. The high imbalance of camera trap datasets, however, results in poor accuracies for minority (rare or endangered) species due to their relative insignificance to the overall model accuracy. This paper investigates the use of Focal Loss, in comparison to the traditional Cross Entropy Loss function, to improve the identification of minority species in the “255 Bird Species” dataset from Kaggle. The results show that, although Focal Loss slightly decreased the accuracy of the majority species, it was able to increase the F1-score by 0.06 and improve the identification of the bottom two, five and ten (minority) species by 37.5%, 15.7% and 10.8%, respectively, as well as resulting in an improved overall accuracy of 2.96%.

Keywords: convolutional neural networks, data imbalance, deep learning, focal loss, species classification, wildlife conservation

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435 Men's Relationships in D. H. Lawrence's 'Sons and Lovers'

Authors: Chaich Hamza Walid

Abstract:

The primary goal of this paper is to question the situation of men’s place in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers. Our question is what is the role of each man in the novel? And how a mother’s possessiveness had changed the life of all men in the family? David Herbert Lawrence was an important and controversial English writer of the 20th century. He wrote many great works, one of his most popular novels, Sons and Loves, is an autobiographical account of his youth. This novel is about the life of the Morels. The author develops the story by portraying the relationships between many characters, especially the male ones we focus on. ‘Sons and Lovers’ seems to be written especially to women, all what Lawrence wrote is about women but when we go deeper, we see that Lawrence was also interested in men. This work will approach the question in two ways. The first chapter will deal with men’s place in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers, more exactly with Paul and his father Walter Morel, and with Baxter Dawes. We will focus on each man’s behavior with one another. In the second chapter, we will analyze possessiveness, that is to say, the desire of holding or having someone as one’s own or under one’s control. We will try to prove this view from the spiritual and symbolic possession of different relationships. Our study will be through an intensive psychological analysis of a wife’s possessiveness to her husband, and a mother’s possessiveness to her son’s; William and Paul. The conclusion will review all the important aspects of this analysis. It is very important to know about men’s relationships in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers this will give us another vision of the novel, and where we can situate Paul’s true relationships, that is to say, his relationships with his father and the other men in the novel.

Keywords: language, literature, English, civilisation

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434 Paleogene Syn-Rift Play Identification in Palembang Sub-Basin, South Sumatera, Indonesia

Authors: Perdana Rakhmana Putra, Hansen Wijaya, Sri Budiyani, Muhamad Natsir, Alexis badai Samudra

Abstract:

The Palembang Sub-Basin (PSB) located in southern part of South Sumatera basin (SSB) consist of half-graben complex trending N-S to NW-SE. These geometries are believe as an impact of strike-slip regime developed in Eocene-Oligocene. Generally, most of the wells in this area produced hydrocarbon from late stage of syn-rift sequences called Lower Talang Akar (LTAF) and post-rift sequences called Batu Raja Formation (BRF) and drilled to proved hydrocarbon on structural trap; three-way dip anticline, four-way dip anticline, dissected anticline, and stratigraphy trap; carbonate build-up and stratigraphic pinch out. Only a few wells reached the deeper syn-rift sequences called Lahat Formation (LAF) and Lemat Formation (LEF). The new interpretation of subsurface data was done by the tectonostratigraphy concept and focusing on syn-rift sequence. Base on seismic characteristic on basin centre, it divided into four sequences: pre-rift sequence, rift initiation, maximum rift and late rift. These sequences believed as a new exploration target on PSB mature basin. This paper will demonstrate the paleo depositional setting during Paleogene and exploration play concept of syn-rift sequence in PSB. The main play for this area consists of stratigraphic and structure play, where the stratigraphic play is Eocene-Oligocene sediment consist of LAF sandstone, LEF-Benakat formation, and LAF with pinch-out geometry. The pinch-out, lenses geometry and on-lap features can be seen on the seismic reflector and formed at the time of the syn-rift sequence. The structural play is dominated by a 3 Way Dip play related to reverse fault trap.

Keywords: syn-rift, tectono-stratigraphy, exploration play, basin center play, south sumatera basin

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433 Real-Space Mapping of Surface Trap States in Cigse Nanocrystals Using 4D Electron Microscopy

Authors: Riya Bose, Ashok Bera, Manas R. Parida, Anirudhha Adhikari, Basamat S. Shaheen, Erkki Alarousu, Jingya Sun, Tom Wu, Osman M. Bakr, Omar F. Mohammed

Abstract:

This work reports visualization of charge carrier dynamics on the surface of copper indium gallium selenide (CIGSe) nanocrystals in real space and time using four-dimensional scanning ultrafast electron microscopy (4D S-UEM) and correlates it with the optoelectronic properties of the nanocrystals. The surface of the nanocrystals plays a key role in controlling their applicability for light emitting and light harvesting purposes. Typically for quaternary systems like CIGSe, which have many desirable attributes to be used for optoelectronic applications, relative abundance of surface trap states acting as non-radiative recombination centre for charge carriers remains as a major bottleneck preventing further advancements and commercial exploitation of these nanocrystals devices. Though ultrafast spectroscopic techniques allow determining the presence of picosecond carrier trapping channels, because of relative larger penetration depth of the laser beam, only information mainly from the bulk of the nanocrystals is obtained. Selective mapping of such ultrafast dynamical processes on the surfaces of nanocrystals remains as a key challenge, so far out of reach of purely optical probing time-resolved laser techniques. In S-UEM, the optical pulse generated from a femtosecond (fs) laser system is used to generate electron packets from the tip of the scanning electron microscope, instead of the continuous electron beam used in the conventional setup. This pulse is synchronized with another optical excitation pulse that initiates carrier dynamics in the sample. The principle of S-UEM is to detect the secondary electrons (SEs) generated in the sample, which is emitted from the first few nanometers of the top surface. Constructed at different time delays between the optical and electron pulses, these SE images give direct and precise information about the carrier dynamics on the surface of the material of interest. In this work, we report selective mapping of surface dynamics in real space and time of CIGSe nanocrystals applying 4D S-UEM. We show that the trap states can be considerably passivated by ZnS shelling of the nanocrystals, and the carrier dynamics can be significantly slowed down. We also compared and discussed the S-UEM kinetics with the carrier dynamics obtained from conventional ultrafast time-resolved techniques. Additionally, a direct effect of the state trap removal can be observed in the enhanced photoresponse of the nanocrystals after shelling. Direct observation of surface dynamics will not only provide a profound understanding of the photo-physical mechanisms on nanocrystals’ surfaces but also enable to unlock their full potential for light emitting and harvesting applications.

Keywords: 4D scanning ultrafast microscopy, charge carrier dynamics, nanocrystals, optoelectronics, surface passivation, trap states

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432 Intertidal Fixed Stake Net Trap (Hadrah) Fishery in Kuwait, Distribution, Catch Rate, and Species Composition

Authors: Ali F. Al-Baz, Mohsen M. Al-Husaini, James M. Bishop

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Intertidal fixed stake net trap (hadrah) is one of the oldest fishing gears used throughout the Arabian Gulf countries since 1800s and also one of most efficient methods of capturing fish from the intertidal area. This study described the hadrah fishery in Kuwait. From October 2001 to December 2002, more than 37,372 specimens representing 95 species (89 fish, 2 mollusks, 4 crustaceans) were measured from hadrah located in three different areas along Kuwait's coast. In Kuwait Bay, catch rates averaged 62 kg/sir day (range 14 kg/sir-day in February to 160 kg/sir-day in October 2002). Commercial species accounted for 41% of the catches. Catches from Failakah Island averaged 96 kg/sir-day from June through September, with 61% of the catch being commercial species. In the southern area, catches averaged only 32 kg/sir-day, and only 34% were commercially important. Forty percent of the hadrah catches were juveniles which shows that the shallow intertidal waters are prime nursery habitat, particularly in Kuwait Bay. To maintain ecosystem biodiversity and recruitment success of the fishes, we recommended that all hadrah should be removed from Kuwait Bay. In the future, removal of hadrah in other locations should be considered.

Keywords: catch and effort, hadrah, intertidal fixed stake net, Kuwait, species composition

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431 Institutional Preferences of Elites and Society: Paradoxes of Economic Development in Georgia

Authors: Inga Balarjishvili, Ia Natsvlishvili

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Article aims to discuss the controversial character of the institutional preferences of elites and society in modern Georgia. Desktop research method is used to formulate the findings and analyze the outcomes. It is accepted that transformation process in Post-Soviet Georgia went with the prevalence of elites’ institutional preferences over the needs of the society that induced voluntarism in the process of formation of institutions. Hypothesis of 'quasi-inclusion trap' is put forward in the article as an effect of authoritarian modernization that is proved by instable paces of wealth and economic growth in the post-authoritarian period. On the one hand, monopolization of institutional choice by the elites, blocking formation of inclusive political and economic institutions for fear of losing status-quo worsen perspectives for achieving free availability regime. On the other hand, consciousness of the society is dominated by informal institutions, judicial nihilism and orientation on 'self-survival values.' This hinders its consolidation as a 'collective principal' against 'institutional utilitarianism,' result of which is hindered economic development.

Keywords: elites, hypothesis of 'quasi-inclusion trap', institutional preferences, post-Soviet Georgia

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430 A Study on Diversity of the Family Encyrtidae (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea) in Forest Habitat of Doon Valley, Uttarakhand, India

Authors: Rashmi Nautiyal, Sudhir Singh

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Encyrtidae is the largest family of superfamily Chalcidoidea of parasitic Hymenoptera group. They are endoparasitoids or hyperparasitoids of other arthropods and have the greatest impact on maintaining diversity. It not only forms a major component of diversity itself but also is very important in sustaining diversity in other groups. They are used as efficient biological control agents against key insect pests world over. The present study is based on the collection of Encyrtidae (Chalcidoidea: Hymenoptera) made during a survey in Doon Valley from 2008 to 2011 in all the five seasons (Spring, Summer cum Pre-monsoon, Monsoon, Post-monsoon, Winter) for each year. The collections were made from forest habitat in different localities of the Valley using sweep net and yellow pan trap methods. A total of 1346 specimens of encyrtids were collected and identified from the forest habitat (745 with a sweep net and 601with yellow pan trap).Of these, season-wise (post monsoon, spring, summer, monsoon, and winter) represented Encyrtids were 30.46%, 19.31%, 17.16%, 16.64% and 16.41%, respectively. A total of 161 species of Encyrtids belonging to 43 genera under 2 subfamilies were recorded.

Keywords: diversity, Encyrtidae, sweep net, yellow pan

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429 Species Profiling of White Grub Beetles and Evaluation of Pre and Post Sown Application of Insecticides against White Grub Infesting Soybean

Authors: Ajay Kumar Pandey, Mayank Kumar

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White grub (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) is a major destructive pest in western Himalayan region of Uttarakhand. Beetles feed on apple, apricot, plum, walnut etc. during night while, second and third instar grubs feed on live roots of cultivated as well as non-cultivated crops. Collection and identification of scarab beetles through light trap was carried out at Crop Research Centre, Govind Ballab Pant University Pantnagar, Udham Singh Nagar (Uttarakhand) during 2018. Field trials were also conducted in 2018 to evaluate pre and post sown application of different insecticides against the white grub infesting soybean. The insecticides like Carbofuran 3 Granule (G) (750 g a.i./ha), Clothianidin 50 Water Dispersal Granule (WG) (120 g a.i./ha), Fipronil 0.3 G (50 g a.i./ha), Thiamethoxam 25 WG (80 g a.i./ha), Imidacloprid 70 WG (300 g a.i./ha), Chlorantraniliprole 0.4% G(100 g a.i./ha) and mixture of Fipronil 40% and Imidacloprid 40% WG (300 g a.i./ha) were applied at the time of sowing in pre sown experiment while same dosage of insecticides were applied in standing soybean crop during (first fortnight of July). Commutative plant mortality data were recorded after 20, 40, 60 days intervals and compared with untreated control. Total 23 species of white grub beetles recorded on the light trap and Holotrichia serrata Fabricious (Coleoptera: Melolonthinae) was found to be predominant species by recording 20.6% relative abundance out of the total light trap catch (i.e. 1316 beetles) followed by Phyllognathus sp. (14.6% relative abundance). H. rosettae and Heteronychus lioderus occupied third and fourth rank with 11.85% and 9.65% relative abundance, respectively. The emergence of beetles of predominant species started from 15th March, 2018. In April, average light trap catch was 382 white grub beetles, however, peak emergence of most of the white grub species was observed from June to July, 2018 i.e. 336 beetles in June followed by 303 beetles in the July. On the basis of the emergence pattern of white grub beetles, it may be concluded that the Peak Emergence Period (PEP) for the beetles of H. serrata was second fortnight of April for the total period of 15 days. In May, June and July relatively low population of H. serrata was observed. A decreasing trend in light trap catch was observed and went on till September during the study. No single beetle of H. serrata was observed on light trap from September onwards. The cumulative plant mortality data in both the experiments revealed that all the insecticidal treatments were significantly superior in protection-wise (6.49-16.82% cumulative plant mortality) over untreated control where highest plant mortality was 17.28 to 39.65% during study. The mixture of Fipronil 40% and Imidacloprid 40% WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha proved to be most effective having lowest plant mortality i.e. 9.29 and 10.94% in pre and post sown crop, followed by Clothianidin 50 WG (120 g a.i. per ha) where the plant mortality was 10.57 and 11.93% in pre and post sown treatments, respectively. Both treatments were found significantly at par among each other. Production-wise, all the insecticidal treatments were found statistically superior (15.00-24.66 q per ha grain yields) over untreated control where the grain yield was 8.25 & 9.13 q per ha. Treatment Fipronil 40% + Imidacloprid 40% WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha proved to be most effective and significantly superior over Imidacloprid 70WG applied at the rate of 300 g a.i. per ha.

Keywords: bio efficacy, insecticide, soybean, white grub

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428 Control Effect of Flowering Chrysanthemum, the Trap Plant to the Western Flower Thrips, Frankliniella occidentalis (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) in Greenhouse

Authors: YongSeok Choi, HwaYoung Seo, InSu Whang, GeogKee Park

Abstract:

Frankliniella. occidentalis is major pest in chrysanthemum in worldwide. The density of F. occidentalis increased continuously in spite of the periodical chemical control after planting in this study. F. occidentalis began to increase mid-May. The numbers of F. occidentalis collected on a tray with wet paper by heating the flowers of pink, white, and yellow Chrysanthemum standard mums were 18.4, 56.6, and 52.6 in the flowering season. Also, the numbers were 15.2, 45.8, and 41.6 in bud season, but in the case of the leaves, the numbers were 2, 8.8 and 3.4. In the Y-tube olfactometer test, the frequency of F. occidentalis’ visits to one side arm of the Y-tube olfactometer was higher in the odor cue of the white flower than of the yellow, red, and violet flowers, but the frequency was higher in the odor cue of the violet and red flowers than of the yellow without white. In the case of the four-choice olfactometer test, in the same visual cues as the odor cues of the pot mum flowers, the frequency of F. occidentalis was higher in the yellow flower than in the other flowers (white, red, and violet) in all the observation times (10, 15, and 20 minutes).

Keywords: Frankliniella occidentalis, Chrysanthemum, trap plant, control effect

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427 Sympathetic Cooling of Antiprotons with Molecular Anions

Authors: Sebastian Gerber, Julian Fesel, Christian Zimmer, Pauline Yzombard, Daniel Comparat, Michael Doser

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Molecular anions play a central role in a wide range of fields: from atmospheric and interstellar science, anionic superhalogens to the chemistry of highly correlated systems. However, up to now the synthesis of negative ions in a controlled manner at ultracold temperatures, relevant for the processes in which they are involved, is currently limited to a few Kelvin by supersonic beam expansion followed by resistive, buffer gas or electron cooling in cryogenic environments. We present a realistic scheme for laser cooling of C2- molecules to sub-Kelvin temperatures, which has so far only been achieved for a few neutral diatomic molecules. The generation of a pulsed source of C2- and subsequent laser cooling techniques of C2- molecules confined in a Penning trap are reviewed. Further, laser cooling of one anionic species would allow to sympathetically cool other molecular anions, electrons and antiprotons that are confined in the same trapping potential. In this presentation the status of the experiment and the feasibility of C2- sympathetic Doppler laser cooling, photo-detachment cooling and AC-Stark Sisyphus cooling will be reviewed.

Keywords: antiprotons, anions, cooling of ions and molecules, Doppler cooling, photo-detachment, penning trap, Sisyphus cooling, sympathetic cooling

Procedia PDF Downloads 220