Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 435

Search results for: aerodynamic drag

435 Research on Aerodynamic Brake Device for High-Speed Train

Authors: S. Yun, M. Kwak

Abstract:

This study is about an aerodynamic brake device for a high-speed train. In order to apply an aerodynamic brake device, an influence of the aerodynamic brake device on a high-speed train was studied aerodynamically, acoustically and dynamically. Wind tunnel test was conducted to predict an effect of braking distance reduction with a scale model of 1/30. Aerodynamic drag increases by 244% with a brake panel of a 90 degree angle. Braking distance for an emergency state was predicted to decrease by 13%.

Keywords: aerodynamic brake, braking distance, drag coefficient, high-speed train, wind-tunnel test

Procedia PDF Downloads 245
434 Aerodynamic Heating and Drag Reduction of Pegasus-XL Satellite Launch Vehicle

Authors: Syed Muhammad Awais Tahir, Syed Hossein Raza Hamdani

Abstract:

In the last two years, there has been a substantial increase in the rate of satellite launches. To keep up with the technology, it is imperative that the launch cost must be made affordable, especially in developing and underdeveloped countries. Launch cost is directly affected by the launch vehicle’s aerodynamic performance. Pegasus-XL SLV (Satellite Launch Vehicle) has been serving as a commercial SLV for the last 26 years, commencing its commercial flight operation from the six operational sites all around the US and Europe, and the Marshal Islands. Aerodynamic heating and drag contribute largely to Pegasus’s flight performance. The objective of this study is to reduce the aerodynamic heating and drag on Pegasus’s body significantly for supersonic and hypersonic flight regimes. Aerodynamic data for Pegasus’s first flight has been validated through CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics), and then drag and aerodynamic heating is reduced by using a combination of a forward-facing cylindrical spike and a conical aero-disk at the actual operational flight conditions. CFD analysis using ANSYS fluent will be carried out for Mach no. ranges from 0.83 to 7.8, and AoA (Angle of Attack) ranges from -4 to +24 degrees for both simple and spiked-configuration, and then the comparison will be drawn using a variety of graphs and contours. Expected drag reduction for supersonic flight is to be around 15% to 25%, and for hypersonic flight is to be around 30% to 50%, especially for AoA < 15⁰. A 5% to 10% reduction in aerodynamic heating is expected to be achieved for hypersonic regions. In conclusion, the aerodynamic performance of air-launched Pegasus-XL SLV can be further enhanced, leading to its optimal fuel usage to achieve a more economical orbital flight.

Keywords: aerodynamics, pegasus-XL, drag reduction, aerodynamic heating, satellite launch vehicle, SLV, spike, aero-disk

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433 Reduction of Aerodynamic Drag Using Vortex Generators

Authors: Siddharth Ojha, Varun Dua

Abstract:

Classified as one of the most important reasons of aerodynamic drag in the sedan automobiles is the fluid flow separation near the vehicle’s rear end. To retard the separation of flow, bump-shaped vortex generators are being tested for its implementation to the roof end of a sedan vehicle. Frequently used in the aircrafts to prevent the separation of fluid flow, vortex generators themselves produce drag, but they also substantially reduce drag by preventing flow separation at the downstream. The net effects of vortex generators can be calculated by summing the positive and negative impacts and effects. Since this effect depends on dimensions and geometry of vortex generators, those present on the vehicle roof are optimized for maximum efficiency and performance. The model was tested through ANSYS CFD analysis and modeling. The model was tested in the wind tunnel for observing it’s properties such as aerodynamic drag and flow separation and a major time lag was gained by employing vortex generators in the scaled model. Major conclusions which were recorded during the analysis were a substantial 24% reduction in the aerodynamic drag and 14% increase in the efficiency of the sedan automobile as the flow separation from the surface is delayed. This paper presents the results of optimization, the effect of vortex generators in the flow field and the mechanism by which these effects occur and are regulated.

Keywords: aerodynamics, aerodynamic devices, body, computational fluid dynamics (CFD), flow visualization

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
432 A Parametric Study on Aerodynamic Performance of Tyre Using CFD

Authors: Sowntharya L.

Abstract:

Aerodynamics is the most important factor when it comes to resistive forces such as lift, drag and side forces acting on the vehicle. In passenger vehicles, reducing the drag will not only unlock the door for higher achievable speed but will also reduce the fuel consumption of the vehicle. Generally, tyre contributes significantly to the overall aerodynamics of the vehicle. Hence, understanding the air-flow behaviour around the tyre is vital to optimize the aerodynamic performance in the early stage of design process. Nowadays, aerodynamic simulation employing Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) is gaining more importance as it reduces the number of physical wind-tunnel experiments during vehicle development process. This research develops a methodology to predict aerodynamic drag of a standalone tyre using Numerical CFD Solver and to validate the same using a wind tunnel experiment. A parametric study was carried out on different tread pattern tyres such as slick, circumferential groove & patterned tyre in stationary and rotating boundary conditions. In order to represent wheel rotation contact with the ground, moving reference frame (MRF) approach was used in this study. Aerodynamic parameters such as drag lift & air flow behaviour around the tire were simulated and compared with experimental results.

Keywords: aerodynamics, CFD, drag, MRF, wind-tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
431 Improvement of the Aerodynamic Behaviour of a Land Rover Discovery 4 in Turbulent Flow Using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD)

Authors: Ahmed Al-Saadi, Ali Hassanpour, Tariq Mahmud

Abstract:

The main objective of this study is to investigate ways to reduce the aerodynamic drag coefficient and to increase the stability of the full-size Sport Utility Vehicle using three-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The baseline model in the simulation was the Land Rover Discovery 4. Many aerodynamic devices and external design modifications were used in this study. These reduction aerodynamic techniques were tested individually or in combination to get the best design. All new models have the same capacity and comfort of the baseline model. Uniform freestream velocity of the air at inlet ranging from 28 m/s to 40 m/s was used. ANSYS Fluent software (version 16.0) was used to simulate all models. The drag coefficient obtained from the ANSYS Fluent for the baseline model was validated with experimental data. It is found that the use of modern aerodynamic add-on devices and modifications has a significant effect in reducing the aerodynamic drag coefficient.

Keywords: aerodynamics, RANS, sport utility vehicle, turbulent flow

Procedia PDF Downloads 228
430 Impact of Wheel-Housing on Aerodynamic Drag and Effect on Energy Consumption on an Bus

Authors: Amitabh Das, Yash Jain, Mohammad Rafiq B. Agrewale, K. C. Vora

Abstract:

Role of wheel and underbody aerodynamics of vehicle in the formation of drag forces is detrimental to the fuel (energy) consumption during the course of operation at high velocities. This paper deals with the CFD simulation of the flow around the wheels of a bus with different wheel housing geometry and pattern. Based on benchmarking a model of a bus is selected and analysis is performed. The aerodynamic drag coefficient is obtained and turbulence around wheels is observed using ANSYS Fluent CFD simulation for different combinations of wheel-housing at the front wheels, at the rear wheels and both in the front and rear wheels. The drag force is recorded and corresponding influence on energy consumption on an electric bus is evaluated mathematically. A comparison is drawn between energy consumption of bus body without wheel housing and bus body with wheel housing. The result shows a significant reduction in drag coefficient and fuel consumption.

Keywords: wheel-housing, CFD simulation, drag coefficient, energy consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 92
429 Aerodynamic Interaction between Two Speed Skaters Measured in a Closed Wind Tunnel

Authors: Ola Elfmark, Lars M. Bardal, Luca Oggiano, H˚avard Myklebust

Abstract:

Team pursuit is a relatively new event in international long track speed skating. For a single speed skater the aerodynamic drag will account for up to 80% of the braking force, thus reducing the drag can greatly improve the performance. In a team pursuit the interactions between athletes in near proximity will also be essential, but is not well studied. In this study, systematic measurements of the aerodynamic drag, body posture and relative positioning of speed skaters have been performed in the low speed wind tunnel at the Norwegian University of Science and Technology, in order to investigate the aerodynamic interaction between two speed skaters. Drag measurements of static speed skaters drafting, leading, side-by-side, and dynamic drag measurements in a synchronized and unsynchronized movement at different distances, were performed. The projected frontal area was measured for all postures and movements and a blockage correction was performed, as the blockage ratio ranged from 5-15% in the different setups. The static drag measurements where performed on two test subjects in two different postures, a low posture and a high posture, and two different distances between the test subjects 1.5T and 3T where T being the length of the torso (T=0.63m). A drag reduction was observed for all distances and configurations, from 39% to 11.4%, for the drafting test subject. The drag of the leading test subject was only influenced at -1.5T, with the biggest drag reduction of 5.6%. An increase in drag was seen for all side-by-side measurements, the biggest increase was observed to be 25.7%, at the closest distance between the test subjects, and the lowest at 2.7% with ∼ 0.7 m between the test subjects. A clear aerodynamic interaction between the test subjects and their postures was observed for most measurements during static measurements, with results corresponding well to recent studies. For the dynamic measurements, the leading test subject had a drag reduction of 3% even at -3T. The drafting showed a drag reduction of 15% when being in a synchronized (sync) motion with the leading test subject at 4.5T. The maximal drag reduction for both the leading and the drafting test subject were observed when being as close as possible in sync, with a drag reduction of 8.5% and 25.7% respectively. This study emphasize the importance of keeping a synchronized movement by showing that the maximal gain for the leading and drafting dropped to 3.2% and 3.3% respectively when the skaters are in opposite phase. Individual differences in technique also appear to influence the drag of the other test subject.

Keywords: aerodynamic interaction, drag force, frontal area, speed skating

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
428 Investigating the Influence of Roof Fairing on Aerodynamic Drag of a Bluff Body

Authors: Kushal Kumar Chode

Abstract:

Increase in demand for fuel saving and demand for faster vehicles with decent fuel economy, researchers around the world started investigating in various passive flow control devices to improve the fuel efficiency of vehicles. In this paper, A roof fairing was investigated for reducing the aerodynamic drag of a bluff body. The bluff body considered for this work is Ahmed model with a rake angle of 25deg was and subjected to flow with a velocity of 40m/s having Reynolds number of 2.68million was analysed using a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) code Star CCM+. It was evident that pressure drag is the main source of drag on an Ahmed body from the initial study. Adding a roof fairing has delayed the flow separation and resulted in delaying wake formation, thus improving the pressure in near weak and reducing the wake region. Adding a roof fairing of height and length equal to 1/7H and 1/3L respectively has shown a drag reduction by 9%. However, an optimised fairing, which was obtained by changing height, length and width by 5% increase, recorded a drag reduction close 12%.

Keywords: Ahmed model, aerodynamic drag, passive flow control, roof fairing, wake formation

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
427 Aerodynamic Analysis of a Frontal Deflector for Vehicles

Authors: C. Malça, N. Alves, A. Mateus

Abstract:

This work was one of the tasks of the Manufacturing2Client project, whose objective was to develop a frontal deflector to be commercialized in the automotive industry, using new project and manufacturing methods. In this task, in particular, it was proposed to develop the ability to predict computationally the aerodynamic influence of flow in vehicles, in an effort to reduce fuel consumption in vehicles from class 3 to 8. With this aim, two deflector models were developed and their aerodynamic performance analyzed. The aerodynamic study was done using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software Ansys CFX and allowed the calculation of the drag coefficient caused by the vehicle motion for the different configurations considered. Moreover, the reduction of diesel consumption and carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions associated with the optimized deflector geometry could be assessed.

Keywords: erodynamic analysis, CFD, CO2 emissions, drag coefficient, frontal deflector, fuel consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
426 Design and Validation of an Aerodynamic Model of the Cessna Citation X Horizontal Stabilizer Using both OpenVSP and Digital Datcom

Authors: Marine Segui, Matthieu Mantilla, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez

Abstract:

This research is the part of a major project at the Research Laboratory in Active Controls, Avionics and Aeroservoelasticity (LARCASE) aiming to improve a Cessna Citation X aircraft cruise performance with an application of the morphing wing technology on its horizontal tail. However, the horizontal stabilizer of the Cessna Citation X turns around its span axis with an angle between -8 and 2 degrees. Within this range, the horizontal stabilizer generates certainly some unwanted drag. To cancel this drag, the LARCASE proposes to trim the aircraft with a horizontal stabilizer equipped by a morphing wing technology. This technology aims to optimize aerodynamic performances by changing the conventional horizontal tail shape during the flight. As a consequence, this technology will be able to generate enough lift on the horizontal tail to balance the aircraft without an unwanted drag generation. To conduct this project, an accurate aerodynamic model of the horizontal tail is firstly required. This aerodynamic model will finally allow precise comparison between a conventional horizontal tail and a morphed horizontal tail results. This paper presents how this aerodynamic model was designed. In this way, it shows how the 2D geometry of the horizontal tail was collected and how the unknown airfoil’s shape of the horizontal tail has been recovered. Finally, the complete horizontal tail airfoil shape was found and a comparison between aerodynamic polar of the real horizontal tail and the horizontal tail found in this paper shows a maximum difference of 0.04 on the lift or the drag coefficient which is very good. Aerodynamic polar data of the aircraft horizontal tail are obtained from the CAE Inc. level D research aircraft flight simulator of the Cessna Citation X.

Keywords: aerodynamic, Cessna, citation, coefficient, Datcom, drag, lift, longitudinal, model, OpenVSP

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425 Theoretical Calculation of Wingtip Devices for Agricultural Aircraft

Authors: Hashim Bashir

Abstract:

The Vortex generated at the edges of the wing of an Aircraft are called the Wing Tip Vortex. The Wing Tip Vortices are associated with induced drag. The induced drag is responsible for nearly 50% of aircraft total drag and can be reduced through modifications to the wing tip. Some models displace wingtips vortices outwards diminishing the induced drag. Concerning agricultural aircrafts, wing tip vortex position is really important, while spreading products over a plantation. In this work, theoretical calculations were made in order to study the influence in aerodynamic characteristics and vortex position, over Sudanese agricultural aircraft, by the following types of wing tips: delta tip, winglet and down curved. The down curved tip was better for total drag reduction, but not good referring to vortex position. The delta tip gave moderate improvement on aerodynamic characteristic and on vortex position. The winglet had a better vortex position and lift increment, but caused an undesirable result referring to the wing root bending moment. However, winglet showed better development potential for agricultural aircraft.

Keywords: wing tip device, wing tip vortice, agricultural aircaft, winglet

Procedia PDF Downloads 233
424 Aerodynamic Brake Study of Reducing Braking Distance for High-Speed Trains

Authors: Phatthara Surachon, Tosaphol Ratniyomchai, Thanatchai Kulworawanichpong

Abstract:

This paper presents an aerodynamic brake study of reducing braking distance for high-speed trains (HST) using aerodynamic brakes as inspiration from the applications on the commercial aircraft wings. In case of emergency, both braking distance and stopping time are longer than the usual situation. Therefore, the passenger safety and the HST driving control management are definitely obtained by reducing the time and distance of train braking during emergency situation. Due to the limited study and implementation of the aerodynamic brake in HST, the possibility in use and the effectiveness of the aerodynamic brake to the train dynamic movement during braking are analyzed and considered. Regarding the aircraft’s flaps that applied in the HST, the areas of the aerodynamic brake acted as an additional drag force during train braking are able to vary depending on the operating angle and the required dynamic braking force. The HST with a varying speed of 200 km/h to 350 km/h is taken as a case study of this paper. The results show that the stopping time and the brake distance are effectively reduced by the aerodynamic brakes. The mechanical brake and its maintenance are effectively getting this benefit by extending its lifetime for longer use.

Keywords: high-speed train, aerodynamic brake, brake distance, drag force

Procedia PDF Downloads 63
423 Computational Fluid Dynamics Design and Analysis of Aerodynamic Drag Reduction Devices for a Mazda T3500 Truck

Authors: Basil Nkosilathi Dube, Wilson R. Nyemba, Panashe Mandevu

Abstract:

In highway driving, over 50 percent of the power produced by the engine is used to overcome aerodynamic drag, which is a force that opposes a body’s motion through the air. Aerodynamic drag and thus fuel consumption increase rapidly at speeds above 90kph. It is desirable to minimize fuel consumption. Aerodynamic drag reduction in highway driving is the best approach to minimize fuel consumption and to reduce the negative impacts of greenhouse gas emissions on the natural environment. Fuel economy is the ultimate concern of automotive development. This study aims to design and analyze drag-reducing devices for a Mazda T3500 truck, namely, the cab roof and rear (trailer tail) fairings. The aerodynamic effects of adding these append devices were subsequently investigated. To accomplish this, two 3D CAD models of the Mazda truck were designed using the Design Modeler. One, with these, append devices and the other without. The models were exported to ANSYS Fluent for computational fluid dynamics analysis, no wind tunnel tests were performed. A fine mesh with more than 10 million cells was applied in the discretization of the models. The realizable k-ε turbulence model with enhanced wall treatment was used to solve the Reynold’s Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation. In order to simulate the highway driving conditions, the tests were simulated with a speed of 100 km/h. The effects of these devices were also investigated for low-speed driving. The drag coefficients for both models were obtained from the numerical calculations. By adding the cab roof and rear (trailer tail) fairings, the simulations show a significant reduction in aerodynamic drag at a higher speed. The results show that the greatest drag reduction is obtained when both devices are used. Visuals from post-processing show that the rear fairing minimized the low-pressure region at the rear of the trailer when moving at highway speed. The rear fairing achieved this by streamlining the turbulent airflow, thereby delaying airflow separation. For lower speeds, there were no significant differences in drag coefficients for both models (original and modified). The results show that these devices can be adopted for improving the aerodynamic efficiency of the Mazda T3500 truck at highway speeds.

Keywords: aerodynamic drag, computation fluid dynamics, fluent, fuel consumption

Procedia PDF Downloads 64
422 Development of a Self-Retractable Front Spoilers Suitable for Indian Road Conditions to Reduce Aerodynamic Drag

Authors: G. Sivaraj, K. M. Parammasivam, R. Veeramanikandan, S. Nithish

Abstract:

Reduction of ground clearance or (ride height) is a vital factor in minimizing aerodynamic drag force and improving vehicle performance. But in India, minimization of ground clearance is limited because of the road conditions. Due to this problem, reduction of aerodynamic drag and performance are not fully improved. In this view, this paper deals with the development of self-retractable front spoilers which are most suitable for Indian road conditions. These retractable spoilers are fitted in the front portion of the car and in speed below 60 km/hr these spoilers are in retracted positions. But, when the car crosses a speed above 60 km/hr, using electronic circuit the spoilers are activated. Thus, using this technique aerodynamic performance can be improved at a speed above 60 km/hr. Also, when the car speed is reduced below the 60 km/hr mark, the front spoiler are retracted which makes it as a normal car. This is because, in Indian roads, speed breakers are installed to cut off speed at particular places. Thus, in these circumstances there are chances of damaging front spoilers. Since, when the driver sees the speed breaker, he will automatically apply break to prevent damage, at this time using electronic circuit the front spoiler is retracted. However, accidentally when the driver fails to apply brakes there are chances for the front spoilers to get a hit. But as the front spoilers are made of Kevlar composite, it can withstand high impact loads and using a spring mechanism the spoilers are retracted immediately. By using CFD analysis and low-speed wind tunnel testing drag coefficient of the 1:10 scaled car model with and without self-retractable spoilers are calculated and validated. Also, using wind tunnel, proper working of self-retractable at car speed below and above 60 km/hr are validated.

Keywords: aerodynamic drag, CFD analysis, kevlar composite, self-retractable spoilers, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 279
421 Aerodynamic Analysis of Dimple Effect on Aircraft Wing

Authors: E. Livya, G. Anitha, P. Valli

Abstract:

The main objective of aircraft aerodynamics is to enhance the aerodynamic characteristics and maneuverability of the aircraft. This enhancement includes the reduction in drag and stall phenomenon. The airfoil which contains dimples will have comparatively less drag than the plain airfoil. Introducing dimples on the aircraft wing will create turbulence by creating vortices which delays the boundary layer separation resulting in decrease of pressure drag and also increase in the angle of stall. In addition, wake reduction leads to reduction in acoustic emission. The overall objective of this paper is to improve the aircraft maneuverability by delaying the flow separation point at stall and thereby reducing the drag by applying the dimple effect over the aircraft wing. This project includes both computational and experimental analysis of dimple effect on aircraft wing, using NACA 0018 airfoil. Dimple shapes of Semi-sphere, hexagon, cylinder, square are selected for the analysis; airfoil is tested under the inlet velocity of 30m/s at different angle of attack (5˚, 10˚, 15˚, 20˚, and 25˚). This analysis favours the dimple effect by increasing L/D ratio and thereby providing the maximum aerodynamic efficiency, which provides the enhanced performance for the aircraft.

Keywords: airfoil, dimple effect, turbulence, boundary layer separation

Procedia PDF Downloads 447
420 Aerodynamic Optimum Nose Shape Change of High-Speed Train by Design Variable Variation

Authors: Minho Kwak, Suhwan Yun, Choonsoo Park

Abstract:

Nose shape optimizations of high-speed train are performed for the improvement of aerodynamic characteristics. Based on the commercial train, KTX-Sancheon, multi-objective optimizations are conducted for the improvement of the side wind stability and the micro-pressure wave following the optimization for the reduction of aerodynamic drag. 3D nose shapes are modelled by the Vehicle Modeling Function. Aerodynamic drag and side wind stability are calculated by three-dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes solver, and micro pressure wave is done by axi-symmetric compressible Navier-Stokes solver. The Maxi-min Latin Hypercube Sampling method is used to extract sampling points to construct the approximation model. The kriging model is constructed for the approximation model and the NSGA-II algorithm was used as the multi-objective optimization algorithm. Nose length, nose tip height, and lower surface curvature are design variables. Because nose length is a dominant variable for aerodynamic characteristics of train nose, two optimization processes are progressed respectively with and without the design variable, nose length. Each pareto set was obtained and each optimized nose shape is selected respectively considering Honam high-speed rail line infrastructure in South Korea. Through the optimization process with the nose length, when compared to KTX Sancheon, aerodynamic drag was reduced by 9.0%, side wind stability was improved by 4.5%, micro-pressure wave was reduced by 5.4% whereas aerodynamic drag by 7.3%, side wind stability by 3.9%, micro-pressure wave by 3.9%, without the nose length. As a result of comparison between two optimized shapes, similar shapes are extracted other than the effect of nose length.

Keywords: aerodynamic characteristics, design variable, multi-objective optimization, train nose shape

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419 Aerodynamic Performance of a Pitching Bio-Inspired Corrugated Airfoil

Authors: Hadi Zarafshani, Shidvash Vakilipour, Shahin Teimori, Sara Barati

Abstract:

In the present study, the aerodynamic performance of a rigid two-dimensional pitching bio-inspired corrugate airfoil was numerically investigated at Reynolds number of 14000. The Open Field Operations And Manipulations (OpenFOAM) computational fluid dynamic tool is used to solve flow governing equations numerically. The k-ω SST turbulence model with low Reynolds correction (k-ω SST LRC) and the pimpleDyMFOAM solver are utilized to simulate the flow field around pitching bio-airfoil. The lift and drag coefficients of the airfoil are calculated at reduced frequencies k=1.24-4.96 and the angular amplitude of A=5°-20°. Results show that in a fixed reduced frequency, the absolute value of the sectional lift and drag coefficients increase with increasing pitching amplitude. In a fixed angular amplitude, the absolute value of the lift and drag coefficients increase as the pitching reduced frequency increases.

Keywords: bio-inspired pitching airfoils, OpenFOAM, low Reynolds k-ω SST model, lift and drag coefficients

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418 Numerical Investigation of Aerodynamic Analysis on Passenger Vehicle

Authors: Görkem Pınar, İlker Coşar, Serkan Uzun, Atahan Çelebi̇, Mehmet Ali Ersoy, Ali Pınarbaşı

Abstract:

In this study, it was numerically investigated that a 1:1 scale model of the Renault Clio MK4 SW brand vehicle aerodynamic analysis was performed in commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) package program of ANSYS CFX 2021 R1 under steady, subsonic and 3-D conditions. The model of vehicle which used to the analysis made independent of the number of mesh elements and k-epsilon turbulence model was applied during the analysis. Results was interpreted as streamlines, pressure gradient and turbulent kinetic energy contours around the vehicle at 50 km / h and 100 km / h speeds. In addition, the validity of the analysis was decided by comparing the drag coefficient of the vehicle with the values in the literature. As a result; the pressure gradient contours of the taillight of the Renault Clio MK4 SW vehicle were examined and the behavior of the total force at speeds of 50 km / h and 100 km / h was interpreted.

Keywords: aerodynamics, k-epsilon, taillight, turbulence aerodynamic analysis, CFD, drag coefficient

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417 Aerodynamic Coefficients Prediction from Minimum Computation Combinations Using OpenVSP Software

Authors: Marine Segui, Ruxandra Mihaela Botez

Abstract:

OpenVSP is an aerodynamic solver developed by National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) that allows building a reliable model of an aircraft. This software performs an aerodynamic simulation according to the angle of attack of the aircraft makes between the incoming airstream, and its speed. A reliable aerodynamic model of the Cessna Citation X was designed but it required a lot of computation time. As a consequence, a prediction method was established that allowed predicting lift and drag coefficients for all Mach numbers and for all angles of attack, exclusively for stall conditions, from a computation of three angles of attack and only one Mach number. Aerodynamic coefficients given by the prediction method for a Cessna Citation X model were finally compared with aerodynamics coefficients obtained using a complete OpenVSP study.

Keywords: aerodynamic, coefficient, cruise, improving, longitudinal, openVSP, solver, time

Procedia PDF Downloads 151
416 Yaw Angle Effect on the Aerodynamic Performance of Rear-Roof Spoiler of Hatchback Vehicle

Authors: See-Yuan Cheng, Kwang-Yhee Chin, Shuhaimi Mansor

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Rear-roof spoiler is commonly used for improving the aerodynamic performance of road vehicles. This study aims to investigate the effect of yaw angle on the effectiveness of strip-type rear-roof spoiler in providing lower drag and lift coefficients of a hatchback model. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method was used. The numerically obtained results were compared to the experimental data for validation of the CFD method. At increasing yaw angle, both the drag and lift coefficients of the model were to increase. In addition, the effectiveness of spoiler was deteriorated. These unfavorable effects were due to the formation of longitudinal vortices around the side edges of the model that had caused the surface pressure of the model to drop. Furthermore, there were significant crossflow structures developed behind the model at larger yaw angle, which were associated with the drop in the surface pressure of the rear section of the model and cause the drag coefficient to rise.

Keywords: Ahmed model, aerodynamics, spoiler, yaw angle

Procedia PDF Downloads 280
415 Simulations of NACA 65-415 and NACA 64-206 Airfoils Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

Authors: David Nagy

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This paper exemplifies the influence of the purpose of an aircraft on the aerodynamic properties of its airfoil. In particular, the research takes into consideration two types of aircraft, namely cargo aircraft and military high-speed aircraft and compares their airfoil characteristics using their NACA airfoils as well as computational fluid dynamics. The results show that airfoils of aircraft designed for cargo have a heavier focus on maintaining a large lift force whereas speed-oriented airplanes focus on minimizing the drag force.

Keywords: aerodynamic simulation, aircraft, airfoil, computational fluid dynamics, lift to drag ratio, NACA 64-206, NACA 65-415

Procedia PDF Downloads 170
414 Numerical Simulation of the Flow around Wing-In-Ground Effect (WIG) Craft

Authors: A. Elbatran, Y. Ahmed, A. Radwan, M. Ishak

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The use of WIG craft is representing an ambitious technology that will support in reducing time, effort, and money of the conventional marine transportation in the future. This paper investigates the aerodynamic characteristic of compound wing-in-ground effect (WIG) craft model. Drag coefficient, lift coefficient and Lift and drag ratio were studied numerically with respect to the ground clearance and the wing angle of attack. The modifications of the wing has been done in order to investigate the most suitable wing configuration that can increase the wing lift-to-drag ratio at low ground clearance. A numerical investigation was carried out in this research work using finite volume Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations (RANSE) code ANSYS CFX, Validation was carried out by using experiments. The experimental and the numerical results concluded that the lift to drag ratio decreased with the increasing of the ground clearance.

Keywords: drag Coefficient, ground clearance, navier-stokes, WIG

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
413 Aerodynamic Analysis of Multiple Winglets for Aircrafts

Authors: S. Pooja Pragati, B. Sudarsan, S. Raj Kumar

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This paper provides a practical design of a new concept of massive Induced Drag reductions of stream vise staggered multiple winglets. It is designed to provide an optimum performance of a winglet from conventional designs. In preparing for a mechanical design, aspects such as shape, dimensions are analyzed to yield a huge amount of reduction in fuel consumption and increased performance. Owing to its simplicity of application and effectiveness we believe that it will enable us to consider its enhanced version for the grid effect of the staggered multiple winglets on the deflected mass flow of the wing system. The objective of the analysis were to compare the aerodynamic characteristics of two winglet configuration and to investigate the performance of two winglets shape simulated at selected cant angle of 0,45,60 degree.

Keywords: multiple winglets, induced drag, aerodynamics analysis, low speed aircrafts

Procedia PDF Downloads 409
412 Aerodynamic Prediction and Performance Analysis for Mars Science Laboratory Entry Vehicle

Authors: Tang Wei, Yang Xiaofeng, Gui Yewei, Du Yanxia

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Complex lifting entry was selected for precise landing performance during the Mars Science Laboratory entry. This study aims to develop the three-dimensional numerical method for precise computation and the surface panel method for rapid engineering prediction. Detailed flow field analysis for Mars exploration mission was performed by carrying on a series of fully three-dimensional Navier-Stokes computations. The static aerodynamic performance was then discussed, including the surface pressure, lift and drag coefficient, lift-to-drag ratio with the numerical and engineering method. Computation results shown that the shock layer is thin because of lower effective specific heat ratio, and that calculated results from both methods agree well with each other, and is consistent with the reference data. Aerodynamic performance analysis shows that CG location determines trim characteristics and pitch stability, and certain radially and axially shift of the CG location can alter the capsule lifting entry performance, which is of vital significance for the aerodynamic configuration des0ign and inner instrument layout of the Mars entry capsule.

Keywords: Mars entry capsule, static aerodynamics, computational fluid dynamics, hypersonic

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411 Aerodynamic Design Optimization Technique for a Tube Capsule That Uses an Axial Flow Air Compressor and an Aerostatic Bearing

Authors: Ahmed E. Hodaib, Muhammed A. Hashem

Abstract:

High-speed transportation has become a growing concern. To increase high-speed efficiencies and minimize power consumption of a vehicle, we need to eliminate the friction with the ground and minimize the aerodynamic drag acting on the vehicle. Due to the complexity and high power requirements of electromagnetic levitation, we make use of the air in front of the capsule, that produces the majority of the drag, to compress it in two phases and inject a proportion of it through small nozzles to make a high-pressure air cushion to levitate the capsule. The tube is partially-evacuated so that the air pressure is optimized for maximum compressor effectiveness, optimum tube size, and minimum vacuum pump power consumption. The total relative mass flow rate of the tube air is divided into two fractions. One is by-passed to flow over the capsule body, ensuring that no chocked flow takes place. The other fraction is sucked by the compressor where it is diffused to decrease the Mach number (around 0.8) to be suitable for the compressor inlet. The air is then compressed and intercooled, then split. One fraction is expanded through a tail nozzle to contribute to generating thrust. The other is compressed again. Bleed from the two compressors is used to maintain a constant air pressure in an air tank. The air tank is used to supply air for levitation. Dividing the total mass flow rate increases the achievable speed (Kantrowitz limit), and compressing it decreases the blockage of the capsule. As a result, the aerodynamic drag on the capsule decreases. As the tube pressure decreases, the drag decreases and the capsule power requirements decrease, however, the vacuum pump consumes more power. That’s why Design optimization techniques are to be used to get the optimum values for all the design variables given specific design inputs. Aerodynamic shape optimization, Capsule and tube sizing, compressor design, diffuser and nozzle expander design and the effect of the air bearing on the aerodynamics of the capsule are to be considered. The variations of the variables are to be studied for the change of the capsule velocity and air pressure.

Keywords: tube-capsule, hyperloop, aerodynamic design optimization, air compressor, air bearing

Procedia PDF Downloads 254
410 Optimization of the Aerodynamic Performances of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle

Authors: Fares Senouci, Bachir Imine

Abstract:

This document provides numerical and experimental optimization of the aerodynamic performance of a drone equipped with three types of horizontal stabilizer. To build this optimal configuration, an experimental and numerical study was conducted on three parameters: the geometry of the stabilizer (horizontal form or reverse V form), the position of the horizontal stabilizer (up or down), and the landing gear position (closed or open). The results show that up-stabilizer position with respect to the horizontal plane of the fuselage provides better aerodynamic performance, and that the landing gear increases the lift in the zone of stability, that is to say where the flow is not separated.

Keywords: aerodynamics, drag, lift, turbulence model, wind tunnel

Procedia PDF Downloads 161
409 Experimental Studies of Dragonfly Flight Aerodynamics

Authors: Mohd Izmir Bin Yamin, Thomas Arthur Ward

Abstract:

Past aerodynamic studies of flapping wing flight have shown that it has increased aerodynamic performances compared to fixed wing steady flight. One of the dominant mechanisms that is responsible for causing this phenomenon is a leading edge vortex, generated by the flapping motion of a flexible wing. Wind tunnel experiments were conducted to observe the aerodynamic profile of a flapping wing, by measuring the lift, drag and thrust. Analysis was done to explain how unsteady aerodynamics leads towards better power performances than a fixed wing flight. The information from this study can be used as a base line for designing future Bio-mimetic Micro Air Vehicles that are based on flying insect aerodynamic mechanisms.

Keywords: flapping wing flight, leading edge vortex, aerodynamics performances, wind tunnel test

Procedia PDF Downloads 277
408 Numerical Analysis of Flow in the Gap between a Simplified Tractor-Trailer Model and Cross Vortex Trap Device

Authors: Terrance Charles, Zhiyin Yang, Yiling Lu

Abstract:

Heavy trucks are aerodynamically inefficient due to their un-streamlined body shapes, leading to more than of 60% engine power being required to overcome the aerodynamics drag at 60 m/hr. There are many aerodynamics drag reduction devices developed and this paper presents a study on a drag reduction device called Cross Vortex Trap Device (CVTD) deployed in the gap between the tractor and the trailer of a simplified tractor-trailer model. Numerical simulations have been carried out at Reynolds number 0.51×106 based on inlet flow velocity and height of the trailer using the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) approach. Three different configurations of CVTD have been studied, ranging from single to three slabs, equally spaced on the front face of the trailer. Flow field around three different configurations of trap device have been analysed and presented. The results show that a maximum of 12.25% drag reduction can be achieved when a triple vortex trap device is used. Detailed flow field analysis along with pressure contours are presented to elucidate the drag reduction mechanisms of CVTD and why the triple vortex trap configuration produces the maximum drag reduction among the three configurations tested.

Keywords: aerodynamic drag, cross vortex trap device, truck, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes, RANS

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407 Formula Student Car: Design, Analysis and Lap Time Simulation

Authors: Rachit Ahuja, Ayush Chugh

Abstract:

Aerodynamic forces and moments, as well as tire-road forces largely affects the maneuverability of the vehicle. Car manufacturers are largely fascinated and influenced by various aerodynamic improvements made in formula cars. There is constant effort of applying these aerodynamic improvements in road vehicles. In motor racing, the key differentiating factor in a high performance car is its ability to maintain highest possible acceleration in appropriate direction. One of the main areas of concern in motor racing is balance of aerodynamic forces and stream line the flow of air across the body of the vehicle. At present, formula racing cars are regulated by stringent FIA norms, there are constrains for dimensions of the vehicle, engine capacity etc. So one of the fields in which there is a large scope of improvement is aerodynamics of the vehicle. In this project work, an attempt has been made to design a formula- student (FS) car, improve its aerodynamic characteristics through steady state CFD simulations and simultaneously calculate its lap time. Initially, a CAD model of a formula student car is made using SOLIDWORKS as per the given dimensions and a steady-state external air-flow simulation is performed on the baseline model of the formula student car without any add on device to evaluate and analyze the air-flow pattern around the car and aerodynamic forces using FLUENT Solver. A detailed survey on different add-on devices used in racing application like: - front wing, diffuser, shark pin, T- wing etc. is made and geometric model of these add-on devices are created. These add-on devices are assembled with the baseline model. Steady state CFD simulations are done on the modified car to evaluate the aerodynamic effects of these add-on devices on the car. Later comparison of lap time simulation of the formula student car with and without the add-on devices is done with the help of MATLAB. Aerodynamic performances like: - lift, drag and their coefficients are evaluated for different configuration and design of the add-on devices at different speed of the vehicle. From parametric CFD simulations on formula student car attached with add-on devices, there is a considerable amount of drag and lift force reduction besides streamlining the airflow across the car. The best possible configuration of these add-on devices is obtained from these CFD simulations and also use of these add-on devices have shown an improvement in performance of the car which can be compared by various lap time simulations of the car.

Keywords: aerodynamic performance, front wing, laptime simulation, t-wing

Procedia PDF Downloads 131
406 Numerical Study on Parallel Rear-Spoiler on Super Cars

Authors: Anshul Ashu

Abstract:

Computers are applied to the vehicle aerodynamics in two ways. One of two is Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and other is Computer Aided Flow Visualization (CAFV). Out of two CFD is chosen because it shows the result with computer graphics. The simulation of flow field around the vehicle is one of the important CFD applications. The flow field can be solved numerically using panel methods, k-ε method, and direct simulation methods. The spoiler is the tool in vehicle aerodynamics used to minimize unfavorable aerodynamic effects around the vehicle and the parallel spoiler is set of two spoilers which are designed in such a manner that it could effectively reduce the drag. In this study, the standard k-ε model of the simplified version of Bugatti Veyron, Audi R8 and Porsche 911 are used to simulate the external flow field. Flow simulation is done for variable Reynolds number. The flow simulation consists of three different levels, first over the model without a rear spoiler, second for over model with single rear spoiler, and third over the model with parallel rear-spoiler. The second and third level has following parameter: the shape of the spoiler, the angle of attack and attachment position. A thorough analysis of simulations results has been found. And a new parallel spoiler is designed. It shows a little improvement in vehicle aerodynamics with a decrease in vehicle aerodynamic drag and lift. Hence, it leads to good fuel economy and traction force of the model.

Keywords: drag, lift, flow simulation, spoiler

Procedia PDF Downloads 405