Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4958

Search results for: transaction cost

4958 Investigation of Compliance of the Prevailing Import Murabah'a to Sharia

Authors: Aqeel Akhtar

Abstract:

One of prevailing modes of finance in emerging Islamic banking system is Murabah’a; a financial transaction in which cost and profit both must be recognized by buyer. Otherwise the transaction would become invalid. In this mainstream, import Murabah’a transaction is divergent in such a way that the cost is not recognized and identified due to execution of import transaction in foreign currency i.e. US Dollar and the next transaction of Murabaha’a with the client is executed in local currency. Since this transaction is executed in dual currency i.e. bank pays supplier in foreign currency and executes Murabah’a with its client in local currency and it is not allowed in according to Islamic Injunctions as mentioned in hadith narrated by Hazrat Ibn-e-Umar (May Allah be pleased with them) used to sell his camels with Dirhams and take dinars instead and vice versa. Upon revealing before the Prophet (SAW), he was advised that it must not be contingent in the agreement and the ready rate would be applied and possession of one of the consideration is compulsory. The solution in this regard is that the import Murabah’a transaction should be in single currency, however, other currency can be paid in payment at the time of payment in a very indispensable situation provided that ready rate would be applied. Moreover, some of other solutions have also been given in this regard.

Keywords: shariah compliance, import murabaha, islamic banking, product development

Procedia PDF Downloads 165
4957 Developers’ Gains and Losses from the Economic Incentives of Green Building: Explanations from the Transitional Gains Trap and Transaction Cost Economics

Authors: Ke Fan, Edwin H. W. Chan

Abstract:

Economic incentives of green building (GB) have been implemented to promote green building and address the market barriers. However, if developers could gain from the incentives, why not all the buildings are green? This paper aims to study this problem and provide a new perspective to look at the economic incentives. The theories of Transitional Gains Trap (TGP) and Transaction Cost Economics (TCE) are employed to explain the developers’ gains and losses from the economic incentives. This paper takes the GFA (gross floor area) concession incentive in Hong Kong, which is one of the most popular incentives, as the case to conduct in-depth case study and it did interview to validate the results. The results show that after implementing the GFA concession scheme, the benefit of the GFA concession is capitalized into land value. Therefore, developers have to bear the increased land cost, which supports the theory of the TGP. Even though, some developers are still not willing to participate in the incentive scheme because of high transaction costs (TCs).

Keywords: green building, economic incentives, transitional gains trap, transaction cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
4956 Infrastructure Investment Law Formulation to Ensure Low Transaction Cost at Policy Level: Case Study of Public Private Partnership Project at the Ministry of Public Works and Housing of the Republic of Indonesia

Authors: Yolanda Indah Permatasari, Sudarsono Hardjosoekarto

Abstract:

Public private partnership (PPP) scheme was considered as an alternative source of funding for infrastructure provision. However, the performance of PPP scheme and interest of private sector to participate in the provision of infrastructure was still practically low. This phenomenon motivates the research to reconstruct the form of collaborative governance at the policy level from the perspective of transaction cost of the PPP scheme. Soft-system methodology (SSM)-based action research was used as this research methodology. The result of this study concludes that the emergence of transaction cost sources at the policy level is caused by the absence of a law that governs infrastructure investment, especially the implementation of PPP scheme. This absence is causing the imbalance in risk allocation and risk mitigation between the public and private sector. Thus, this research recommended the formulation of infrastructure investment law that aims to minimize asymmetry information, to anticipate the principal-principal problems, and to provide legal basis that ensures risk certainty and guarantee fair risk allocation between public and private sector.

Keywords: public governance, public private partnership, soft system methodology, transaction cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 54
4955 Transaction Cost Analysis, Execution Quality, and Best Execution under MiFID II

Authors: Rodrigo Zepeda

Abstract:

Transaction cost analysis (TCA) is a way of analyzing the relative performance of different intermediaries and different trading strategies for trades undertaken in financial instruments. It is a way for an investor to determine the overall quality of execution of a particular trade, and there are many different approaches to undertaking TCA. Under the updated Markets in Financial Instruments Directive (2014/65/EU) (MiFID II), investment firms are required when executing orders, to take all sufficient steps to obtain the best possible result for their clients. This requirement for 'Best Execution' must take into account price, costs, speed, likelihood of execution and settlement, size, nature or any other consideration relevant to the execution of the order. The new regulatory compliance framework under MiFID II will now also apply across a very broad range of financial instruments. This article will provide a comprehensive technical analysis of how TCA and Best Execution will significantly change under MiFID II. It will also explain why harmonization of post-trade reporting requirements under MiFID II could potentially support the development of peer group analysis, which in turn could provide a new and highly advanced framework for TCA that could more effectively support Best Execution requirements under MiFID II. The study is significant because there are no studies that have dealt with TCA and Best Execution under MiFID II in the literature.

Keywords: transaction cost analysis, execution quality, best execution, MiFID II, financial instruments

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
4954 Partners Sharing Resources, Costs, and Risks

Authors: Lee Li

Abstract:

The strategic management literature posits that the major motive of strategic alliances is to share resources, costs and risks. However, the literature also indicates that such sharing leads to transaction costs which are positively correlated with environmental dynamism. As such, it is not clear why firms are willing to cover high transaction costs for sharing resources, costs and risks. This study categorizes resources into firm-specific and general resource; costs into accounting and non-accounting cost; and risks into visible and invisible risks. Using data from 167 Canadian firms in technology industries, we find that sharing firm-specific resources and non-accounting costs are negatively correlated with environmental dynamism but sharing general resources, accounting costs and visible risks are positively correlated with environmental dynamism. Findings suggest that sharing certain resources, costs and risks do not necessarily incur high transaction costs.

Keywords: environmental dynamism, strategic alliances, resource/cost/risk sharing

Procedia PDF Downloads 276
4953 A Linear Autoregressive and Non-Linear Regime Switching Approach in Identifying the Structural Breaks Caused by Anti-Speculation Measures: The Case of Hong Kong

Authors: Mengna Hu

Abstract:

This paper examines the impact of an anti-speculation tax policy on the trading activities and home price movements in the housing market in Hong Kong. The study focuses on the secondary residential property market where transactions dominate. The policy intervention substantially raised the transaction cost to speculators as well as genuine homeowners who dispose their homes within a certain period. Through the demonstration of structural breaks, our empirical results show that the rise in transaction cost effectively reduced speculative trading activities. However, it accelerated price increase in the small-sized segment by vastly demotivating existing homeowners from trading up to better homes, causing congestion in the lower-end market where the demand from first-time buyers is still strong. Apart from that, by employing regime switching approach, we further show that the unintended consequences are likely to be persistent due to this policy together with other strengthened cooling measures.

Keywords: transaction costs, housing market, structural breaks, regime switching

Procedia PDF Downloads 181
4952 Time, Uncertainty, and Technological Innovation

Authors: Xavier Everaert

Abstract:

Ever since the publication of “The Problem of Social” cost, Coasean insights on externalities, transaction costs, and the reciprocal nature of harms, have been widely debated. What has been largely neglected however, is the role of technological innovation in the mitigation of negative externalities or transaction costs. Incorporating future uncertainty about negligence standards or expected restitution costs and the profit opportunities these uncertainties reveal to entrepreneurs, allow us to frame problems regarding social costs within the reality of rapid technological evolution.

Keywords: environmental law and economics, entrepreneurship, commons, pollution, wildlife

Procedia PDF Downloads 350
4951 The Moderation Effect of Critical Item on the Strategic Purchasing: Quality Performance Relationship

Authors: Kwong Yeung

Abstract:

Theories about strategic purchasing and quality performance are underdeveloped. Understanding the evolving role of purchasing from reactive to proactive is a pressing strategic issue. Using survey responses from 176 manufacturing and electronics industry professionals, we study the relationships between strategic purchasing and supply chain partners’ quality performance to answer the following questions: Can transaction cost economics be used to elucidate the strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship? Is this strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship moderated by critical item analysis? The findings indicate that critical item analysis positively and significantly moderates the strategic purchasing-quality performance relationship.

Keywords: critical item analysis, moderation, quality performance, strategic purchasing, transaction cost economics

Procedia PDF Downloads 439
4950 Supplier Relationship Management Model for Sme’s E-Commerce Transaction Broker Case Study: Hotel Rooms Provider

Authors: Veronica S. Moertini, Niko Ibrahim, Verliyantina

Abstract:

As market intermediary firms, e-commerce transaction broker firms need to strongly collaborate with suppliers in order to develop brands seek by customers. Developing suitable electronic Supplier Relationship Management (e-SRM) system is the solution to the need. In this paper, we propose our concept of e-SRM for transaction brokers owned by small medium enterprises (SMEs), which includes the integrated e-SRM and e-CRM architecture, the e-SRM applications with their functions. We then discuss the customization and implementation of the proposed e-SRM model in a specific transaction broker selling hotel rooms, which owned by an SME, KlikHotel.com. The implementation of the e-SRM in KlikHotel.com has been successfully boosting the number of suppliers (hotel members) and hotel room sales.

Keywords: e-CRM, e-SRM, SME, transaction broker

Procedia PDF Downloads 411
4949 Bank ATM Monitoring System Using IR Sensor

Authors: P. Saravanakumar, N. Raja, M. Rameshkumar, D. Mohankumar, R. Sateeshkumar, B. Maheshwari

Abstract:

This research work is designed using Microsoft VB. Net as front end and MySQL as back end. The project deals with secure the user transaction in the ATM system. This application contains the option for sending the failed transaction details to the particular customer by using the SMS. When the customer withdraws the amount from the Bank ATM system, sometimes the amount will not be dispatched but the amount will be debited to the particular account. This application is used to avoid this type of problems in the ATM system. In this proposed system using IR technique to detect the dispatched amount. IR Transmitter and IR Receiver are placed in the path of cash dispatch. It is connected each other through the IR signal. When the customers withdraw the amount in the ATM system then the amount will be dispatched or not is monitored by IR Receiver. If the amount will be dispatched then the signal will be interrupted between the IR Receiver and the IR Transmitter. At that time, the monitoring system will be reduced their particular withdraw amount on their account. If the cash will not be dispatched, the signal will not be interrupted, at that time the particular withdraw amount will not be reduced their account. If the transaction completed successfully, the transaction details such as withdraw amount and current balance can be sent to the customer via the SMS. If the transaction fails, the transaction failed message can be send to the customer.

Keywords: ATM system, monitoring system, IR Transmitter, IR Receiver

Procedia PDF Downloads 220
4948 A Study on Al-Riba Al-Hukmi and Its Instances from View of Islam

Authors: Abolfazl Alishahi Ghalehjoughi, Bi Bi Zeinab Hoseni

Abstract:

Islam is a comprehensive religion, and has rules for any thing. Islam attaches respect and importance to properties as well, and outlaws some types of transaction. A type of transaction that is strictly forbidden by the Islam is riba (usury), for which special punishments is considered in the Qur’an and hadiths. Usury is divided into (riba qarzi) loan usury and riba muamili (transaction usury); sometimes, in transaction and interest free loan contracts, ziyadah aini (interest in kind and of the same kind as that of the object of transaction) is not stipulated, but performance of work, provision of an advantage or a service, or a respite is stipulated, in which case although no ziyadah aini is in place, the transaction still constitutes usury and is outlaw. For instance, if a bank stipulates in an interest free loan contract that it pays a person the interest free loan only if he/she deposits a sum in the bank, this is an instance of riba hukmi. Or, for muamilah sarfi (transaction is which object of transaction and consideration is gold or silver) to be legitimate, it necessary that both the object of transaction and the consideration be handed over between the parties, because if a party takes delivery of the considered or object of transaction while the other party does not, the party who has taken delivery will accrue a benefit, as he/she wins time until he/she makes delivery to the other party, and this tantamount to usury in muamilah sarfi. Or, if a person lends a sum to another person, while the lender is indebted to the borrower, if the lender stipulates that he/she lends such amount only if the borrower postpones the maturity date of the lender’s debt to borrower, which is in one month, for a particular period of time, such loan will constitute usury. This research first provides views on riba hukmi, and then proceeds to analysis of views, trying to study fundamentals and proof regarding prohibition of riba hukmi, and to analyze instances of riba hukmi according to religious and hadith books.

Keywords: Islam, riba, prohibition, riba hukmi

Procedia PDF Downloads 294
4947 Modeling and Analyzing the WAP Class 2 Wireless Transaction Protocol Using Event-B

Authors: Rajaa Filali, Mohamed Bouhdadi

Abstract:

This paper presents an incremental formal development of the Wireless Transaction Protocol (WTP) in Event-B. WTP is part of the Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) architectures and provides a reliable request-response service. To model and verify the protocol, we use the formal technique Event-B which provides an accessible and rigorous development method. This interaction between modelling and proving reduces the complexity and helps to eliminate misunderstandings, inconsistencies, and specification gaps. As result, verification of WTP allows us to find some deficiencies in the current specification.

Keywords: event-B, wireless transaction protocol, proof obligation, refinement, Rodin, ProB

Procedia PDF Downloads 231
4946 The Impact of Transaction Costs on Rebalancing an Investment Portfolio in Portfolio Optimization

Authors: B. Marasović, S. Pivac, S. V. Vukasović

Abstract:

Constructing a portfolio of investments is one of the most significant financial decisions facing individuals and institutions. In accordance with the modern portfolio theory maximization of return at minimal risk should be the investment goal of any successful investor. In addition, the costs incurred when setting up a new portfolio or rebalancing an existing portfolio must be included in any realistic analysis. In this paper rebalancing an investment portfolio in the presence of transaction costs on the Croatian capital market is analyzed. The model applied in the paper is an extension of the standard portfolio mean-variance optimization model in which transaction costs are incurred to rebalance an investment portfolio. This model allows different costs for different securities, and different costs for buying and selling. In order to find efficient portfolio, using this model, first, the solution of quadratic programming problem of similar size to the Markowitz model, and then the solution of a linear programming problem have to be found. Furthermore, in the paper the impact of transaction costs on the efficient frontier is investigated. Moreover, it is shown that global minimum variance portfolio on the efficient frontier always has the same level of the risk regardless of the amount of transaction costs. Although efficient frontier position depends of both transaction costs amount and initial portfolio it can be concluded that extreme right portfolio on the efficient frontier always contains only one stock with the highest expected return and the highest risk.

Keywords: Croatian capital market, Markowitz model, fractional quadratic programming, portfolio optimization, transaction costs

Procedia PDF Downloads 303
4945 Implicit Transaction Costs and the Fundamental Theorems of Asset Pricing

Authors: Erindi Allaj

Abstract:

This paper studies arbitrage pricing theory in financial markets with transaction costs. We extend the existing theory to include the more realistic possibility that the price at which the investors trade is dependent on the traded volume. The investors in the market always buy at the ask and sell at the bid price. Transaction costs are composed of two terms, one is able to capture the implicit transaction costs and the other the price impact. Moreover, a new definition of a self-financing portfolio is obtained. The self-financing condition suggests that continuous trading is possible, but is restricted to predictable trading strategies which have left and right limit and finite quadratic variation. That is, predictable trading strategies of infinite variation and of finite quadratic variation are allowed in our setting. Within this framework, the existence of an equivalent probability measure is equivalent to the absence of arbitrage opportunities, so that the first fundamental theorem of asset pricing (FFTAP) holds. It is also proved that, when this probability measure is unique, any contingent claim in the market is hedgeable in an L2-sense. The price of any contingent claim is equal to the risk-neutral price. To better understand how to apply the theory proposed we provide an example with linear transaction costs.

Keywords: arbitrage pricing theory, transaction costs, fundamental theorems of arbitrage, financial markets

Procedia PDF Downloads 263
4944 Optimal Hedging of a Portfolio of European Options in an Extended Binomial Model under Proportional Transaction Costs

Authors: Norm Josephy, Lucy Kimball, Victoria Steblovskaya

Abstract:

Hedging of a portfolio of European options under proportional transaction costs is considered. Our discrete time financial market model extends the binomial market model with transaction costs to the case where the underlying stock price ratios are distributed over a bounded interval rather than over a two-point set. An optimal hedging strategy is chosen from a set of admissible non-self-financing hedging strategies. Our approach to optimal hedging of a portfolio of options is based on theoretical foundation that includes determination of a no-arbitrage option price interval as well as on properties of the non-self-financing strategies and their residuals. A computational algorithm for optimizing an investor relevant criterion over the set of admissible non-self-financing hedging strategies is developed. Applicability of our approach is demonstrated using both simulated data and real market data.

Keywords: extended binomial model, non-self-financing hedging, optimization, proportional transaction costs

Procedia PDF Downloads 141
4943 A Study on the Relationship between Transaction Fairness, Social Capital, Supply Chain Integration and Sustainability: Focusing on Manufacturing Companies of South Korea

Authors: Sung-Min Park, Chan Kwon Park, Chae-Bogk Kim

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is to analyze the relationship between transaction fairness, social capital, supply chain integration and sustainability. Based on the previous studies, measurement items were determined by using SPSS 22 and exploratory factor analysis was performed, and again, using AMOS 21 for confirmatory factor analysis and path analysis was performed by using study items that satisfy reliability, validity, and appropriateness of measurement model. It has shown that transaction fairness has a (+) significant effect on social capital, social capital on supply chain integration, supply chain integration on economic sustainability and social sustainability, and has a (+), but not significant effect on environmental sustainability. It has shown that supply chain integration has been proven to play a role as a parameter between social capital and economic and social sustainability, but not as a parameter between environmental sustainability. Through this study, it is suggested that clearly examining the relationship between fairness of trade, social capital, supply chain integration and sustainability, maintaining fairness of the transaction make formation of social capital, and further integration of supply chain, and achieve sustainability of entire supply chain.

Keywords: transaction fairness, social capital, supply chain integration, sustainability

Procedia PDF Downloads 299
4942 Autonomic Threat Avoidance and Self-Healing in Database Management System

Authors: Wajahat Munir, Muhammad Haseeb, Adeel Anjum, Basit Raza, Ahmad Kamran Malik

Abstract:

Databases are the key components of the software systems. Due to the exponential growth of data, it is the concern that the data should be accurate and available. The data in databases is vulnerable to internal and external threats, especially when it contains sensitive data like medical or military applications. Whenever the data is changed by malicious intent, data analysis result may lead to disastrous decisions. Autonomic self-healing is molded toward computer system after inspiring from the autonomic system of human body. In order to guarantee the accuracy and availability of data, we propose a technique which on a priority basis, tries to avoid any malicious transaction from execution and in case a malicious transaction affects the system, it heals the system in an isolated mode in such a way that the availability of system would not be compromised. Using this autonomic system, the management cost and time of DBAs can be minimized. In the end, we test our model and present the findings.

Keywords: autonomic computing, self-healing, threat avoidance, security

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
4941 Reliability-Based Life-Cycle Cost Model for Engineering Systems

Authors: Reza Lotfalian, Sudarshan Martins, Peter Radziszewski

Abstract:

The effect of reliability on life-cycle cost, including initial and maintenance cost of a system is studied. The failure probability of a component is used to calculate the average maintenance cost during the operation cycle of the component. The standard deviation of the life-cycle cost is also calculated as an error measure for the average life-cycle cost. As a numerical example, the model is used to study the average life cycle cost of an electric motor.

Keywords: initial cost, life-cycle cost, maintenance cost, reliability

Procedia PDF Downloads 424
4940 The Stage and Cause of Regional Industrial Specialization Evolution in China

Authors: Cheng Wen, Zhang Jianhua

Abstract:

This paper aims to probe into the general rules of industry specialization or diversification in a region during its process of economic growth and the specific reasons for the difference of industry specialization development in the eastern, central and western regions of China. It is found in this paper that the changes of regional industry specialization in China, like most of countries in the world, also present the U-shaped curve. Regional industrial structure is diversified in the first place. And when the per capita income exceeds a certain level, distribution of economic resources in this region will be concentrated again. From the perspective of rising total factor productivity and falling of transaction cost in the process of economic development, this paper comes up with a theoretical model to explain the U-shaped curve. Through the empirical test of China's provincial panel data, this paper explains the factors that cause the inequality of the industry specialization development in the eastern, central and western regions of China.

Keywords: u-shaped curve, regional industrial specialization, technological progress, transaction costs

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
4939 Enabling Cloud Adoption Based Secured Mobile Banking through Backend as a Service

Authors: P. S. Jagadeesh Kumar, S. Meenakshi Sundaram

Abstract:

With the increase of prevailing non-traditional rivalry, mobile banking experiences an ever changing commercial backdrop. Substantial customer demands have established to be more intricate as customers request more expediency and superintend over their banking services. To enterprise advance and modernization in mobile banking applications, it is gradually obligatory to deeply leapfrog the scuffle using business model transformation. The dramaturgical vicissitudes taking place in mobile banking entail advanced traditions to exploit security. By reforming and transforming older back office into integrated mobile banking applications, banks can engender a supple and nimble banking environment that can rapidly respond to new business requirements over cloud computing. Cloud computing is transfiguring ecosystems in numerous industries, and mobile banking is no exemption providing services innovation, greater flexibility to respond to improved security and enhanced business intelligence with less cost. Cloud technology offer secure deployment possibilities that can provision banks in developing new customer experiences, empower operative relationship and advance speed to efficient banking transaction. Cloud adoption is escalating quickly since it can be made secured for commercial mobile banking transaction through backend as a service in scrutinizing the security strategies of the cloud service provider along with the antiquity of transaction details and their security related practices.

Keywords: cloud adoption, backend as a service, business intelligence, secured mobile banking

Procedia PDF Downloads 180
4938 A Study on the Interest of Muslims towards Syariah Bank in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Authors: Muhammad Hikmah

Abstract:

Based on the population census in 2015, Indonesia consists of 254.9 millions of people, and 80% of them are Muslims (Data of Central Bureau of Statistic). Indonesia becomes the highest number of Muslims civilization in the world. The question would be, is the number of population proportional to the growth of Syariah transaction in Indonesia? It is going to be discussed in this research. The problem limitation of this research is in Syariah Banking. Therefore, Syariah transaction in this study is described as transaction only in Syariah Banking. The researcher focused on the study in Yogyakarta, a city in Indonesia. The development of Syariah Bank assets until January 2016, based on statistic data launched by Financial Services Authority (FSA), has increased Rp 287.44 trillion, however, a total amount of bank achieves Rp 6.198,15 trillions. It means that the assets of Syariah Bank are only 4.64% from the total amount of banking assets in Indonesia, though, Syariah Banking was first established in 1991, known as Bank Muamalat. As we can see that in these 25 years, Syariah Banking could only reach that number. Based on the press conference of FSA and Syariah Banking Exhibition iB Vaganza in 2015, the number of Syariah Bank’s customers are under 10 millions. With 80% of Muslims, Syariah Bank is not able to be a market leader in Indonesia. This will be answered in this research, how much the interest if Muslims in Yogyakarta towards Syariah Bank compared to conventional bank. This study will be conducted in Yogyakarta. The sampling will represent to the muslims having good knowledge of Islam, such as dawn prayer worshipers in some mosques in Yogyakarta. There are some reasons why Indonesian muslims are not interested in Syariah Bank, such as the people do not put trust in Syariah Bank; there are some obligation where they work to have conventional bank; business matters services which is not covered by Syariah Bank where most of them are limited to the laws authorities; and there is no sufficient knowledge about the importance of syariah transaction from religion point of view. Each of them is going to be discussed in this research. The suggestions of this study are we should share our knowledge about Islamic transaction anywhere and we need to support Syariah Bank to have Syariah principles. For those who have the authority should be active as well to announce the rules of the constitution supporting the development of syariah transaction in order to be apply perfectly. We hope that trust from the people will increase, and we should provide Syariah Banking products which fulfill business needs. Finally, syariah transaction will be the solution for all people in the world in bussiness transaction.

Keywords: shariah, Islamic, banking, Indonesia

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4937 A Case Study of Assessing the Impact of Electronic Payment System on the Service Delivery of Banks in Nigeria

Authors: Idris Lawal

Abstract:

Electronic payment system is simply a payment or monetary transaction made over the internet or a network of computers. This study was carried out in order to assess how electronic payment system has impacted on banks service delivery, to examine the efficiency of electronic payment system in Nigeria and to determine the level of customer's satisfaction as a direct result of the deployment of electronic payment systems. It is an empirical study conducted using structured questionnaire distributed to officials and customers of Access Bank plc. Chi-square(x2) was adopted for the purpose of data analysis. The result of the study showed that the development of electronic payment system offer great benefit to bank customers including improved services, reduced turn-around time, ease of banking transaction, significant cost saving etc. The study recommends that customer protection laws should be properly put in place to safeguard the interest of end users of e-payment instruments.

Keywords: bank, electronic payment systems, service delivery, customer's satisfaction

Procedia PDF Downloads 297
4936 Alignment between Governance Structures and Food Safety Standards on the Shrimp Supply Chain in Indonesia

Authors: Maharani Yulisti, Amin Mugera, James Fogarty

Abstract:

Food safety standards have received significant attention in the fisheries global market due to health issues, free trade agreements, and increasing aquaculture production. Vertical coordination throughout the supply chain of fish producing and exporting countries is needed to meet food safety demands imposed by importing countries. However, the complexities of the supply chain governance structures and difficulties in standard implementation can generate safety uncertainty and high transaction costs. Using a Transaction Cost Economics framework, this paper examines the alignment between food safety standards and the governance structures in the shrimp supply chain in Indonesia. We find the supply chain is organized closer to the hierarchy-like governance structure where private standard (organic standard) are implemented and more towards a market-like governance structure where public standard (IndoGAP certification) are more prevalent. To verify the statements, two cases are examined from Sidoarjo district as a centre of shrimp production in Indonesia. The results show that public baseline FSS (Food Safety Standards) need additional mechanism to achieve a coordinated chain-wide response because uncertainty, asset specificity, and performance measurement problems are high in this chain. Organic standard as private chain-wide FSS is more efficient because it has been achieved by hierarchical-like type of governance structure.

Keywords: governance structure, shrimp value chain, food safety standards, transaction costs economics

Procedia PDF Downloads 292
4935 Contrasting Infrastructure Sharing and Resource Substitution Synergies Business Models

Authors: Robin Molinier

Abstract:

Industrial symbiosis (I.S) rely on two modes of cooperation that are infrastructure sharing and resource substitution to obtain economic and environmental benefits. The former consists in the intensification of use of an asset while the latter is based on the use of waste, fatal energy (and utilities) as alternatives to standard inputs. Both modes, in fact, rely on the shift from a business-as-usual functioning towards an alternative production system structure so that in a business point of view the distinction is not clear. In order to investigate the way those cooperation modes can be distinguished, we consider the stakeholders' interplay in the business model structure regarding their resources and requirements. For infrastructure sharing (following economic engineering literature) the cost function of capacity induces economies of scale so that demand pooling reduces global expanses. Grassroot investment sizing decision and the ex-post pricing strongly depends on the design optimization phase for capacity sizing whereas ex-post operational cost sharing minimizing budgets are less dependent upon production rates. Value is then mainly design driven. For resource substitution, synergies value stems from availability and is at risk regarding both supplier and user load profiles and market prices of the standard input. Baseline input purchasing cost reduction is thus more driven by the operational phase of the symbiosis and must be analyzed within the whole sourcing policy (including diversification strategies and expensive back-up replacement). Moreover, while resource substitution involves a chain of intermediate processors to match quality requirements, the infrastructure model relies on a single operator whose competencies allow to produce non-rival goods. Transaction costs appear higher in resource substitution synergies due to the high level of customization which induces asset specificity, and non-homogeneity following transaction costs economics arguments.

Keywords: business model, capacity, sourcing, synergies

Procedia PDF Downloads 111
4934 Effect of Cost Control and Cost Reduction Techniques in Organizational Performance

Authors: Babatunde Akeem Lawal

Abstract:

In any organization, the primary aim is to maximize profit, but the major challenges facing them is the increase in cost of operation because of this there is increase in cost of production that could lead to inevitable cost control and cost reduction scheme which make it difficult for most organizations to operate at the cost efficient frontier. The study aims to critically examine and evaluate the application of cost control and cost reduction in organization performance and also to review budget as an effective tool of cost control and cost reduction. A descriptive survey research was adopted. A total number of 40 respondent retrieved were used for the study. The analysis of data collected was undertaken by applying appropriate statistical tools. Regression analysis was used to test the hypothesis with the use of SPSS. Based on the findings; it was evident that cost control has a positive impact on organizational performance and also the style of management has a positive impact on organizational performance.

Keywords: organization, cost reduction, cost control, performance, budget, profit

Procedia PDF Downloads 410
4933 Scheduled Maintenance and Downtime Cost in Aircraft Maintenance Management

Authors: Remzi Saltoglu, Nazmia Humaira, Gokhan Inalhan

Abstract:

During aircraft maintenance scheduling, operator calculates the budget of the maintenance. Usually, this calculation includes only the costs that are directly related to the maintenance process such as cost of labor, material, and equipment. In some cases, overhead cost is also included. However, in some of those, downtime cost is neglected claiming that grounding is a natural fact of maintenance; therefore, it is not considered as part of the analytical decision-making process. Based on the normalized data, we introduce downtime cost with its monetary value and add its seasonal character. We envision that the rest of the model, which works together with the downtime cost, could be checked with the real life cases, through the review of MRO cost and airline spending in the particular and scheduled maintenance events.

Keywords: aircraft maintenance, downtime, downtime cost, maintenance cost

Procedia PDF Downloads 260
4932 A Review of the Factors Causing Cost Overrun in Construction Projects in Malaysia

Authors: Kaleem Ullah, Abd Halid Bin Abdullah

Abstract:

This study examines previous literature on cost overrun in construction projects with the specific aim of determining the frequently observed causes of cost overruns in Malaysian construction projects. Cost overrun is one of the major problems in construction projects. Cost overrun is frequently observed in almost every construction projects. This cost overrun in construction projects occurs due to various reasons and many researchers have carried out various studies to identify the cause factors of this issue. The causes of construction cost overrun could vary from country to country because of the difference in political, economic, social and environmental conditions. Likewise, other countries construction projects in Malaysia have also the issue of cost overrun. The concept of cost overrun in construction projects has attracted much attention in recent years and researches are trying to understand the causes of these overruns and their effects to the construction industry as whole. This paper review various research studies carried out in Malaysia which surveyed the cost performance and cause factors of cost overruns in construction projects in Malaysia.

Keywords: cause of cost overrun, cost overrun, construction industry in Malaysia, effects of cost overrun

Procedia PDF Downloads 193
4931 Assessing the Impact of Electronic Payment Systems on the Service Delivery of Banks: Case of Nigeria

Authors: Idris lawal

Abstract:

The most recent development in the Nigerian payment system is the venture into “electronic payment system”. Electronic payment system is simply a payment or monetary transaction made over the internet or a network of computers. This study was carried out in order to assess how electronic payment system has impacted on banks service delivery, to examine the efficiency of electronic payment system in Nigeria and to determine the level of customer’s satisfaction as a direct result of the deployment of electronic payment systems. The study was conducted using structured questionnaire distributed to 50 bank officials and customers of Access Bank plc. Chi-square(x2) was adopted for the purpose of data analysis. The result of the study showed that the development of electronic payment system offer great benefit to bank customers including; improved services, reduced turn-around time, ease of banking transaction, significant cost saving etc. The study recommend that customer protection laws should be properly put in place to safeguard the interest of end users of e-payment instruments, the banking industry and government should show strong commitment and effort to educate the populace on the benefit of patronizing e-payment system to facilitate economic development.

Keywords: electronic payment system, service delivery, bank, Nigeria

Procedia PDF Downloads 207
4930 Influence of Power Flow Controller on Energy Transaction Charges in Restructured Power System

Authors: Manisha Dubey, Gaurav Gupta, Anoop Arya

Abstract:

The demand for power supply increases day by day in developing countries like India henceforth demand of reactive power support in the form of ancillary services provider also has been increased. The multi-line and multi-type Flexible alternating current transmission system (FACTS) controllers are playing a vital role to regulate power flow through the transmission line. Unified power flow controller and interline power flow controller can be utilized to control reactive power flow through the transmission line. In a restructured power system, the demand of such controller is being popular due to their inherent capability. The transmission pricing by using reactive power cost allocation through modified matrix methodology has been proposed. The FACTS technologies have quite costly assembly, so it is very useful to apportion the expenses throughout the restructured electricity industry. Therefore, in this work, after embedding the FACTS devices into load flow, the impact on the costs allocated to users in fraction to the transmission framework utilization has been analyzed. From the obtained results, it is clear that the total cost recovery is enhanced towards the Reactive Power flow through the different transmission line for 5 bus test system. The fair pricing policy towards reactive power can be achieved by the proposed method incorporating FACTS controller towards cost recovery of the transmission network.

Keywords: interline power flow controller, transmission pricing, unified power flow controller, cost allocation

Procedia PDF Downloads 62
4929 Construction Time - Cost Trade-Off Analysis Using Fuzzy Set Theory

Authors: V. S. S. Kumar, B. Vikram, G. C. S. Reddy

Abstract:

Time and cost are the two critical objectives of construction project management and are not independent but intricately related. Trade-off between project duration and cost are extensively discussed during project scheduling because of practical relevance. Generally when the project duration is compressed, the project calls for an increase in labor and more productive equipments, which increases the cost. Thus, the construction time-cost optimization is defined as a process to identify suitable construction activities for speeding up to attain the best possible savings in both time and cost. As there is hidden tradeoff relationship between project time and cost, it might be difficult to predict whether the total cost would increase or decrease as a result of compressing the schedule. Different combinations of duration and cost for the activities associated with the project determine the best set in the time-cost optimization. Therefore, the contractors need to select the best combination of time and cost to perform each activity, all of which will ultimately determine the project duration and cost. In this paper, the fuzzy set theory is used to model the uncertainties in the project environment for time-cost trade off analysis.

Keywords: fuzzy sets, uncertainty, qualitative factors, decision making

Procedia PDF Downloads 454